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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6D - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 6C - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 6B - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 6A - Nov 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5D - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5C - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5B - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 5A - Sep 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4D - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4C - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4B - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 4A - Jul 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3D - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3C - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3B - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 3A - May 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2D - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2C - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2B - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 2A - Mar 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1D - Jan 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1C - Jan 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1B - Jan 2006
Volume 26, Issue 1A - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Comparison the Variability of Multi-channel Soil Moisture Data Using PSR C-band and ESTAR L-band Estimates
Kim, Gwangseob ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 329~334
The spatial variability of the L- and C- band large scale remotely sensed soil moisture data, obtained during the Southern Great Plain 1999 Experiment (SGP'99), was characterized. The results demonstrate that soil moisture data using L-band show the break in statistical symmetry (multiscaling behavior) with the variation of scale of observation, which is similar to that of the soil property such as sand content. Also, soil moisture data using C-band show single scaling behavior with the variation of scale of observation, which is similar to that of the vegetation condition. The results should be considered during downscaling the Global soil moisture data using AMSR instrument.
Development of Sequential Mixing Model for Analysis of Shear Flow Dispersion
Seo, Il Won ; Son, Eun Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 335~344
In this study, sequential mixing model (SMM) was proposed based on the Taylor's theory which can be summarized as the fact that longitudinal advection and transverse diffusion occur independently and then the balance between the longitudinal shear and transverse mixing maintains. The numerical simulation of the model were performed for cases of different mixing time and transverse velocity distribution, and the results were compared with the solutions of 1-D longitudinal dispersion model (1-D LDM) and 2-D advection-dispersion model (2-D ADM). As a result it was confirmed that SMM embodies the Taylor's theory well. By the comparison between SMM and 2-D ADM, the relationship between the mixing time and the transverse diffusion coefficient was evaluated, and thus SMM can integrate 2-D ADM model as well as 1-D LDM model and be an explanatory model which can represents the shear flow dispersion in a visible way. In this study, the predicting equation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient was developed by fitting the simulation results of SMM to the solution of 1-D LDM. The verification of the proposed equation was performed by the application to the 38 sets of field data. The proposed equation can predict the longitudinal dispersion coefficient within reliable accuracy, especially for the river with small width-to-depth ratio.
The Estimation of Soil Moisture Index by SWAT Model and Drought Monitoring
Hwang, Tae Ha ; Kim, Byung Sik ; Kim, Hung Soo ; Seoh, Byung Ha ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 345~354
Drought brings on long term damage in contrast to flood, on economic loss in the region, and on ecologic and environmental disruptions. Drought is one of major natural disasters and gives a painful hardship to human beings. So we have tried to quantify the droughts for reducing drought damage and developed the drought indices for drought monitoring and management. The Palmer's drought severity index (PDSI) is widely used for the drought monitoring but it has the disadvanges and limitations in that the PDSI is estimated by considering just climate conditions as pointed out by many researchers. Thus this study uses the SWAT model which can consider soil conditions like soil type and land use in addition to climate conditions. We estimate soil water (SW) and soil moisture index (SMI) by SWAT which is a long term runoff simulation model. We apply the SWAT model to Soyang dam watershed for SMI estimation and compare SMI with PDSI for drought analysis. Say, we calibrate and validate the SWAT model by daily inflows of Soyang dam site and we estimate long term daily soil water. The estimated soil water is used for the computation of SMI based on the soil moisture deficit and we compare SMI with PDSI. As the results, we obtained the determination coefficient of 0.651 which means the SWAT model is applicable for drought monitoring and we can monitor drought in more high resolution by using GIS. So, we suggest that SMI based on the soil moisture deficit can be used for the drought monitoring and management.
Trend and Shift Analysis for Hydrologic and Climate Series
Oh, Je Seung ; Kim, Hung Soo ; Seo, Byung Ha ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 355~362
Several techniques of MK test, Spearman's Rho test, Linear Regression test, CUSUM test, Cumulative Deviation, Worsley Likelihood Ratio test, Rank Sum test, and Students' t test were applied to detect the trends of slope and shift which exist in hydrologic and climate time series. The time series of annual rainfall, inflow, tree ring index, and southern oscillation index (SOI) were used and the trends of these series were compared in the study. From the results, it can be found that the data could be classified into two categories such as linear trend and shift. 4 series data of 8 rainfall series which reveal the trend show the shift and 8 series data of 18 tree ring index and March and April series of monthly SOI data show shift. Moreover, ADF test and BDS test were used to test stationarity and non-linearity of the data. In conclusion, through the study, various trend analysis techniques were compared and 6 kinds of characteristics which can exist in hydrologic time series were identified.
Application of Multi-Dimensional Flood Damage Analysis for Urban Flood Damage
Lee, Keon Haeng ; Choi, Seung An ; Kim, Hung Soo ; Shim, Myung Pil ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 363~369
A simple and an improved methods for the economic analysis of the flood control project has been in previous studies in Korea. In 2004, the Multi-Dimensional Flood Damage Analysis (MD-FDA) was developed and now it is widely used for the economic analysis of flood control project. However, the MD-FDA was developed for general damage assessment and analysis without consideration of specific regional characteristics such as urban and rural areas. To compensate the MD-FDA for the application in urban area, a part of damage estimation components is modified and a component for the flood damage estimation is suggested. The component we suggest is for the consideration of the capability of stormwater pump stations in the study area. When flood is occurred in the urban area, the damage potential is larger than the rural area because of the concentration of human lives and properties. So, many stormwater pump stations are located in the urban area and the inundation depth is estimated by considering the capabilities of pump stations. We also compensate the damage components such as the damages of industrial area, and public facilities for the flood damage estimation of the urban area. The results by the compensated MD-FDA for the urban area application with those by original MD-FDA are compared. As a result the B/C ratio showed 6.75 and 5.51 respectively for the modified and original MD-FDA. This difference might be largely affected by the damage rate of the public facilities.
New Equation on Streamwise Variation of Secondary Flow in Meandering Channels
Baek, Kyong Oh ; Seo, Il Won ; Lee, Kyu Whan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 371~378
In this study, a theoretical equation was derived based on Odgaard (1986) and Chang (1988) to reveal the streamwise variation of the secondary flow in meandering channels. The new equation describes the transverse component of the secondary flow as a function of streamwise and vertical directions. To validate the proposed equation, hydraulic experiments were conducted in laboratory meandering channels having different sinuosity. Comparison of experimental results with the proposed equation and an existing equation revealed that the equation was in good agreement with the measured data. However, the existing equation overestimated the transverse velocity. Investigation of the variation of the secondary flow with respect to hydraulic parameters based on the new equation showed that the secondary flow tended to increase as the sinuosity, the roughness, and the aspect ratio became larger. Also, streamwise profile of the secondary flow was sensitive to variations of the roughness and the aspect ratio.
Development of Urban Inundation Analysis Model Using Dual-Drainage Concept
Lee, Chang Hee ; Han, Kun Yeun ; Noh, Joon Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 379~387
An urban inundation model coupling an one-dimensional stormwater model, SWMM(Storm Water Management Model), and a two-dimensional inundation model was developed to simulate inundation caused by the surcharge of storm sewers in urban areas. The limitation of this model which can not simulate the interaction between drainage systems and surcharged flow was resolved by developing Dual-Drainage inundation analysis model which was based upon hydraulic flow routing procedures for surface flow and pipe flow. The Dual-Drainage inundation analysis model can simulate the effect of complex storm drainage system. The developed model was applied to Dorim, catchment. The computed inundated depth and area have good agreement with the observed data during the flood events. The developed model can help the decision support system of flood control authority for redesigning and constructing flood prevention structures and making the potential inundation zone, and establishing flood-mitigation measures.
Application of Self-Organizing Map Theory for the Development of Rainfall-Runoff Prediction Model
Park, Sung Chun ; Jin, Young Hoon ; Kim, Yong Gu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 389~398
The present study compositely applied the self-organizing map (SOM), which is a kind of artificial neural networks (ANNs), and the back propagation algorithm (BPA) for the rainfall-runoff prediction model taking account of the irregular variation of the spatiotemporal distribution of rainfall. To solve the problems from the previous studies on ANNs, such as the overestimation of low flow during the dry season, the underestimation of runoff during the flood season and the persistence phenomenon, in which the predicted values continuously represent the preceding runoffs, we introduced SOM theory for the preprocessing in the prediction model. The theory is known that it has the pattern classification ability. The method proposed in the present research initially includes the classification of the rainfall-runoff relationship using SOM and the construction of the respective models according to the classification by SOM. The individually constructed models used the data corresponding to the respectively classified patterns for the runoff prediction. Consequently, the method proposed in the present study resulted in the better prediction ability of runoff than that of the past research using the usual application of ANNs and, in addition, there were no such problems of the under/over-estimation of runoff and the persistence.
Comparisons of the Expected Overtopping Probability along Korean Coast Utilizing by Reliability Analysis
Kweon, Hyuck Min ; Park, Hyun Suck ; Ahn, Kyungmo ; Cheon, Se Hyeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 399~404
Kweon et al. (2004) proposed the calculation method of Expected Overtopping Probability (EOP) that considers the occurrence frequency distribution of real sea tide. The method was applied for the comparison of the EOP of Mukho and Busan sea. They showed that the tide occurrence frequency had a great effect on the EOP and the value becomes smaller as the standard deviation of the frequency comes bigger. The present study following Kweon et al.'s method estimates the EOP characteristic of the crest elevation located on East, South, and West sea. The study shows that the EOP becomes smaller following East, South, West sea in order.
Hydraulic and Numerical Experiments of Stem Waves along a Vertical Wall
Lee, Jong In ; Yoon, Sung Bum ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 405~412
This study investigates the characteristics of stem waves along a vertical wall generated by obliquely incident monochromatic waves through laboratory experiments conducted in a wave basin and numerical simulations using parabolic approximation equations. The investigation is focused on the nonlinear effect of incident waves on the propagation characteristics of stem waves. Numerical results are compared with laboratory measurements and good agreements are obtained. The main results of this study show that the normalized stem wave height along the wall decreases and the stem width increases as the angle of incident waves decreases or the nonlinearity of the incident waves increases.
Experimental Study on Irregular Wave Forces Acting on a Marker Rock Installed on a Submerged Breakwater
Hur, Dong Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 413~420
The construction of a submerged breakwater has become increasing due to their multiple effects on the coastal zone. Recently, marker rocks have been installed on the submerged breakwater to indicate its position to the vessels instead of buoy systems, since a buoy is not only improper for the ocean view, but also its mooring system may be damaged by the impulsive wave force caused by wave breaking on the breakwater. The accurate estimation of wave forces on such rocks is deemed necessary for their stability design. In this study, the characteristics of irregular wave forces acting on a marker rock, which was installed on a submerged breakwater, was investigated on the basis of laboratory experiments. It was revealed that the dimensionless highest one-third wave force tends to decrease with increasing the installation distance of a marker rock from the leading crown edge of a submerged breakwater. Also, the drag and inertia coefficients for irregular wave forces, which were obtained using the Morison equation, were investigated in relation to K.C. number.
Effects of Initial Concentration of Ammonium Ion and Active Nitrifiers on Nitrification
Kim, Jung Hoon ; Kim, Young Ju ; Park, Hung Suck ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 421~426
The effect of initial concentration of ammonium ion (
) and active nitrifiers (
) on nitrification was examined by continuous monitoring of the ammonium removal rate. The concentration of the active nitrifiers in the culture sludge, measured by the oxygen uptake rate (OUR), was found to be 42.8% of the culture sludge. Experiments were carried out under different ratios of
, viz., 0.025 to 0.493. The results from this study show that the oxidation rate was similar under the same
ratio despite different initial concentration of ammonium ion (
) and active nitrifiers (
). Moreover, the Contois kinetic expression which includes biomass concentration, was found to describe the mechanism behind nitrification process. The ammonium oxidation rate (
) and half saturation constant per unit activated nitrifiers (
) were theoretically determined using the Contois expression. These values were found to be 4.32 gN/gVSS/day and 0.013 gN/gVSS respectively.
Effect of Temperature and FA Concentration on the Conversion of Ammonium to Nitrite
Kim, Jung Hoon ; Song, Young Chae ; Park, Hung Suck ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 427~432
The effects of free ammonia (FA) concentration and temperature on nitrite accumulation were studied. To estimate the most effective ammonium oxidation and nitrite build-up condition, nitrification tests were conducted in batch conditions at various FA concentrations, and at different ammonium concentration and temperature. The activation energies of ammonium oxidizer were 81.7 KJ/mol below
, and 32.5 KJ/mol over
, while that of nitrite oxidizer was 35.5 KJ/mol irrespective of temperature variations. The results of nitrification tests conducted at different FA concentrations and temperatures showed that temperature strongly affects nitrite accumulation, while effects due to FA concentrations were found negligible.
Development of the Substrate Utilization and Respiration Model by the Step Growth Concept
Kim, Youn Kwon ; Seo, In Seok ; Kim, Hong Suck ; Kim, Ji Yeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 26, issue 4B, 2006, Pages 433~437
Recently, mathematical modeling for the activated sludge process is important to design and control of wastewater treatment plant. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information regarding the pathway of substrate utilization between external and internal substrates in biological nutrient removal (BNR). In this research, a new activated sludge model (step growth model) is proposed and compare with ASM No.3. This model structure is consist of five processes; aerobic storage, growth on external substrate and stored intercellular storage compounds (ISCs), endogenous respiration and aerobic respiration of ISCs. The predicted results by the step growth model were more good accordance with the results of oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and TCOD experiment than that of the ASM No.3.