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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6D - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6C - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6B - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6A - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5D - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5C - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5B - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5A - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4D - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4C - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4B - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4A - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3D - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3C - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3B - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3A - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2C - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2A - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2D - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2B - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1D - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1C - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1B - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1A - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
On the Finite Element Analysis of Shell Structures
Lee, Phill-Seung ; Noh, Hyuk-Chun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 277~289
Based on recent research works, important concepts on the finite element analysis of shell structures and the relations among them are presented in this paper. We review the basic shell mathematical model, which is the underlying mathematical model of the continuum mechanics based shell finite elements. The asymptotic theory of shell structures then is reviewed and we present how to evaluate the asymptotic behavior in finite element solutions. S-norm is introduced as an error measure of finite element solutions and we show "locking" in the convergence curves of shell finite element solutions. We discuss the concept of "uniform optimal convergence" in finite element analysis of shells. We finally summarize requirements on ideal shell finite elements and propose how to perform benchmark tests of shell finite elements.
Static Behavior of CIP PSC Deck Slabs for Composite Two-Girder Bridges
Hwang, Hoon-Hee ; Kim, Byung-Suk ; Lee, Yong-Woo ; Joh, Chang-Bin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 291~302
In this paper, the static behavior of long-span prestressed concrete (PSC) deck slabs under wheel load, including the effects of transverse prestressing and long span length between girders, is studied experimentally. The long-span PSC deck slabs are designed to have the minimum level of slab thickness based on the recent study and long span length between girders for a two-girder composite bridge. The test specimens are scaled to be one third of the actual size to secure enough longitudinal length in the laboratory, which guarantees realistic behavior of the long-span deck slab. Test results show transverse prestressing makes the failure mode of the long-span PSC deck slab changed from flexure-punching mixed to punching shear, but the ultimate strength of the long-span PSC deck slab is more sensitive to concrete strength rather than the amount of prestressing. Test results also indicate the long-span PSC deck slab has enough safety against punching failure in spite of its thickness thinner than the minimum required for RC deck slabs.
Minimum Thickness of Long Span Bridge Deck Slabs for Two-Girder Bridges
Lee, Han-Joo ; Chung, Chul-Hun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 301~311
Steel-concrete composite bridges with two-girders, with long span bridge deck slabs, have been regarded as one of the economical as well as durable bridge types. KHBDC updated in 2005 included new requirements for the thickness of long span bridge deck slabs. However, specifications in KHBDC do not provide detailed information for the minimum thickness of long span bridge deck slabs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a definite specification for the minimum thickness of long span bridge deck slabs. In this study, 3-D finite element analyses considering orthotropy were performed to derive the minimum thickness formula for long span bridge deck slabs. The formula is proposed as a function of cantilever slabs length and deck slabs span length. From the analytical studies, it was shown that the deck slabs with proposed thickness satisfies serviceability in terms of deflection, crack width and fatigue requirements. Besides, the deflection limit governs the minimum thickness of long span bridge deck slabs and design method for distribution reinforcement in the current specification can underestimate the amount of distribution reinforcement in the long span bridge deck slabs.
Thermal Prestressing of a Continuous Composite Girder Bridge
Kim, Jun-Hwan ; Jung, Chi-Young ; Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Ahn, Jin-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 313~320
The purpose of thermal prestressing of continuous composite girder bridges lies in mitigation of transverse cracks in the concrete deck. Instead of using tendons for prestressing, the thermal prestressing method utilizes the deflection of steel girders induced by a temporary heating process and no prestressing member is required. While the transverse cracks can be effectively mitigated, decrease in the amount of rebar and the steel girder's section area is also possible. This paper describes an experimental investigation conducted to verify and substantiate the preceding analytical study. The experimental results from this research, especially the initial stress measurement from a prototype bridge, prove that the method can be successfully used for prestressing continuous composite girder structures. Also, the experimental and analytical results exhibit good agreement, which implies that thermal prestressing effect can be predicted with reasonable accuracy with the previous proposed methodology.
Estimation of Strength Reduction Factor for Nonlinear Structural System subjected to Near Field and Far Field Earthquakes
Song, Jong-Keol ; Kim, He-Shou ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 321~337
Strength reduction factor is used to estimate inelastic strength demands from elastic strength demands. The strength reduction factor represents a reduction degree of design strength by permitting inelastic behaviors within the limited ductility capacity. Most of existing formulas for strength reduction factor were mainly constructed for the elasto-plastic model and limited numbers of earthquake records. In order to improve application and usefulness of simple formula for the strength reduction factor, two hysteretic models and 80 earthquake records are used in the inelastic response spectrum analysis. Two hysteretic models used are the bilinear and stiffness degrading models. In order to reflect characteristics of earthquakes, the 80 earthquake records are classified into two groups of 40 far-field and 40 near-field earthquake records. The effects of several parameters such as displacement ductility, strain hardening ratio, period, characteristics of earthquakes and hysteretic models for the strength reduction factor are evaluated. Accuracy of the proposed formula is evaluated by comparing the strength reduction factors estimated by existing and proposed formulas with those calculated from inelastic response spectrum analysis.
Shear Buckling Coefficients for Horizontally Curved Compression Flange with Longitudinal Stiffeners
Lee, Doo-Sung ; Lee, Sung-Chul ; Park, Chan-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 339~345
Unlike straight girders, horizontally curved steel box girders are necessarily subjected to torsion and as a consequence, the Saint Venant torsional shear flow will develop in the flange and web plates. Therefore, the local buckling behavior of steel box girder flanges becomes complicated due to the combined action of compression and shear. In the present study, the elastic buckling behavior of longitudinally stiffened compression flanges of horizontally curved steel box girders is investigated through a 3D finite element analysis. The results are compared with the provisions in AASHTO Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Steel Girder Highway Bridges (2003). It was found that the finite element analysis results indicate that the equation for the determination of the shear buckling coefficient of longitudinally stiffened flanges is invalid or can be conservatively used for practical designs. From results of finite element analysis, it is proposed a simplified equation calculated by aspect ratio and the number of stiffener for shear buckling coefficient of compression flange with longitudinally rigid stiffeners that is designed by proposal equation of Yoo et al. (2001).
Structural Systems and Behavioral Characteristics of an Innovative FRP-Concrete Composite Deck
Cho, Keun-Hee ; Park, Sung-Yong ; Cho, Jeong-Rae ; Kim, Byung-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 347~357
An innovative type of FRP-concrete composite deck is proposed, and its design concept and structural type are presented. The performances of the proposed system as a bridge deck are examined so as to verify its actual applicability. The proposed FRP-concrete composite deck is innovative regard to its bottom constituted by a hollowed GFRP panel fabricated by pultrusion, which plays the role of permanent form and main tensile member, and on which concrete is cast. The composition of FRP and concrete is realized by coarse sand coating and shear connecting plate, which has been verified to develop sufficient composite effect by means of push-out tests. Moreover, the composite effect between the deck and girder is examined and pure shear tests were carried out on the shear stud connection. The studs were seen to develop similar ultimate strength than precast deck, which satisfied the actually required performances. In addition, a full-scale deck was built and subjected to static and wheel load fatigue tests so as to investigate its behavioral characteristics. Test results verified that the proposed deck satisfies the relevant design codes. Consequently, this innovative FRP-concrete composite deck proposed in this study is seen to offer improved constructability and durability compared to former decks, and to present sufficient practicability as a bridge deck.
Behavior of Cold-Formed Steel Wall Panels Subjected to Combined Axial Force and Bending
Kang, Pan-Jun ; Lee, Young-Ki ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 359~365
The object of this study is a cold-formed steel wall panel sheathed by gypsum board. It was tried to evaluate the load carrying capacities of the panels subjected to combined axial load and bending moment (P-M loading). The focus of this study is how to consider the effect of strength decrease by not only typical beam failure modes and column failure modes but also local buckling derived from P-M loadings. All calculation processes are programmed for the convenience of analysis. The strengths, deflections, and limiting heights subjected to P-M loadings were theoretically compared with those subjected to uniform lateral loading only. The comparisons showed reasonable results. Therefore, the results of this study can be a valuable guide to structural engineers for the analysis and design of cold-formed steel members in the range of this study.
Evaluation of Displacement Response of Multi-Span Bridges using Displacement Coefficient Method
Nam, Wang-Hyun ; Song, Jong-Keol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 367~384
The maximum (target) displacement by Displacement Coefficient Method can be easily estimated from the elastic spectral displacement and several modification factors. The effective period, evaluated by bilinear approximation of the pushover curve (or equivalent force-displacement relationship) for structural system, is used in the determination of the elastic spectral displacement and the modification factors. The pushover curve may be affected by the equivalent SDOF method for representative response of structural system and lateral load distribution used in the pushover analysis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity of inelastic displacement calculation for multi-span bridges by using the Displacement Coefficient Method. And the effects of equivalent SDOF methods and distribution for calculation of the pushover curve and the modification factors are evaluated. In order to evaluate an accuracy of Displacement Coefficient Method, the maximum displacements estimated by the modification factors described in the FEMA-356 and FEMA-440 reports are compared to those by the inelastic time-history analysis for ten artificial earthquakes corresponding to a design spectrum.
A Experimental Study On the Development of Ultra-High Strength Powder Concrete
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Choi, Kyung-Eon ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 385~391
The Ultra-High Strength Powder Concretes of DSP (Densified system containing homogeneously arranged ultra-fine particle) concepts, which use the ultra-fine paticles, have developed. The amorphous or glassy meta-kaolin, which is the component of a pozzolan, reacts with calcium hydroxide formed from the hydration of the calcium silicates. The rate of pozzolanic reaction will be proportional to the amount of surface available for reaction. Therefore, it is feasible to add nano-SiO2 particles to make the high performance concrete. The SEM observation on the micro-structure of the cement mortar mixed with nano-SiO2 revealed that the nano-SiO2 filled up the pores. The experimental variables were water-cement ratio, replacement of meta-kaolin, size and proportion of sand, and type of filling powder in concrete. In this study, ultra-high strength concrete of compressive strength 300 MPa was developed.
Influence of the Types and Grading of Aggregate on the Properties of Porous Concrete
Choi, Jae-Jin ; Choi, Doo-Sun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 393~400
Porous concrete is a special type of lightweight concrete obtained when fine aggregate is omitted. In recent years, high void concrete such as porous concrete has been recognized again for reasons of environment friendly material. On the other hand, non-porous concrete have a various defect such as collection of rainwater, decreasing of sliding resistance, and etc. Therefore, the research on permeable pavements have been going on to solve these problems in recent years. In this study, as a preliminary step, the influence of the various types and grades of coarse aggregate on the properties of porous concrete was observed. The compressive strength, the coefficient of permeability and the consecutive void ratio of each porous concrete were measured. The experimental results were then used for the regression analysis. From the results of this study, it was found that the permeability of porous concrete is influenced by the grade and the maximum size of aggregate more than the unit content of cement. It was also observed that the blast-furnace slag and the steel slag can be used as the partial replacement up to 50% of coarse aggregate for the porous concrete.
Nonlinear Analysis of RC Structures Considering Bond-Slip Effect
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Na, Chae-Kuk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 401~412
This study introduces a numerical model that can simulate the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) structures subject to monotonic loading. Based on the force equilibrium and strain compatibility conditions, a criterion to consider the tension-stiffening effect is proposed using the concept of average stresses and strains. To avoid defining the relation between shear stress and shear strain, a distributed steel model based on the rotating crack model is used to describe the crack angle according to crack propagation. In particular, the bond-slip behavior of embedded reinforcing bars, dominantly developed with the occurrence of cracking at the end face in a beam or column, is taken into account by defining the relation between the steel stress and bond-slip. The consideration of the bond-slip effect makes it possible to precisely simulate the cracking behavior of shear dominant and/or axial loaded RC structures, as these structures accompany a large amount of slip behavior with an increase in nonlinear deformation. Finally, correlation studies between analytical results and experimental studies are conducted to establish the validity of the proposed boundary spring element model.
Effect of Hydrophilic Treatments of Recycled PET Fiber on the Control of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Composites
Won, Jong-Pil ; Park, Chan-Gi ; Kim, Hawang-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 413~419
This research presented the effect of hydrophilic treatments of recycled PET fiber made from waste PET bottle on the control of plastic shrinkage cracking of cement based composites. Recycled PET fibers are usually known that plastic fibers have low bond performance and poor dispersion in cement based composites. The reason is the fibers have the characteristics of hydrophobic materials. In this study, the surface of recycled PET fiber was hydrophilized with chemical process. General chemical method which ensures effectiveness is a hydrophilization as inducing anhydro group like OH-, COOH- through vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, maleic anhydride. Especially, maleic anhydride has been used in hydrophilization of synthetic fiber for cement based composites. In this research, the effect of hydrophilic treatments of recycled PET fiber using maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene(mPP) was examined through plastic shrinkage cracking tests. Test results shows that hydrophilic treatments of fiber surface, the resistance of plastic shrinkage cracking could be highly enhanced due to increased dispersion and bond strength within cement based composites. Also, the results of this study suggests the most effective performance on plastic shrinkage cracking control under condition of embossed type fiber with hydrophilic treatments and 1.00% fiber volume fraction.
An Experimental Research on the Quality Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Using Surface Treatment Method
Park, Rae-Sun ; Bae, Ju-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 421~426
Recently, much researches have been made to use recycled aggregates that are produced from waste concretes; the recycled aggregates may be used instead of the natural aggregates. As the amount of construction waste, most of which is waste concrete, increases steeply every year, large-scale recycling of recycled aggregates will solve the aggregate shortage as well as cutting the cost and environmental damages incurred in the process of burying the wastes. However, the recycled aggregates have the disadvantages of inferior properties which must be solved in order to reuse recycled aggregates. Hence this research aims to contribute to the alternative use of recycled aggregate by improving the physical characteristics through surface treatment: the type of surface treatment solution, its concentration, impregnation time, drying method and drying time will be varied and the physical characteristics of recycled aggregates will be compared accordingly in order to deduce the most efficient method of surface treatment.
Effect of the Compressive Strength of Ultra-High Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites on Curing Method
Koh, Kyung-Taek ; Park, Jung-Jun ; Ryu, Gum-Sung ; Kang, Su-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 427~432
In this paper, we estimated the effects of curing methods for ultra-high strength steel fiber reinforced cementitous composites (UHSCC) over 180 MPa. The curing methods are classified by curing condition and duration before and during high temperature curing. In the process of manufacturing UHSCC, the high temperature curing at 90oC for a specified period is required to activate hydration and pozzolanic reaction of the hydrates. From the experiments, we found out that it was possible for us to make UHSCC of 200 MPa at the age of 7days by applying high temperature curing and it was desirable to have initial moisture curing at 20oC for 1day before high temperature curing to supply sufficient water and then high temperature curing at 90oC for 2 or 3days. The results of XRD and NMR showed the remarkable enhancement of compressive strengths at high temperature curing. It seemed that it was because of the acceleration of pozzolanic reaction, which made the hydrates more densified.
HFPB Analysis of Concrete Wall Structure Subjected to Blast Loads
Nam, Jin-Won ; Kim, Ho-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Bae ; Byun, Keun-Joo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 433~442
As blast load is impulsive load of extremely short duration with very high pressure, the strain rate and local damage effect of concrete structures subjected to blast loads should be considered in the dynamic analysis. However, the approximate and simplified analysis techniques, which have been generally used in the design and analysis of structures subjected to blast load, cannot accurately consider effect of boundary conditions and dynamic material properties. Problems on the accuracy and reliability of approximate analysis results have also been pointed out. In addition, as the response of concrete and reinforcement on dynamic load is different from that on static load, it is not appropriate to the use material model defined in the static or quasi-static conditions in calculating the response on the blast load. Therefore, this study suggest the dynamic analysis method using high fidelity physics based (HFPB) analysis to predict damage and failure of a concrete structure under the blast loading condition. The explicit finite element code LS-DYNA is adopted for HFPB analysis and single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is used for comparison of results. From the analysis results, it is found that HFPB analysis could represent reasonable results compared to those of SDOF analysis and SDOF analysis might overestimate or underestimate the resistance of structure under blast load. In case of detailed analysis, HFPB analysis with proper material model is needed to evaluate the resistance of structure correctly.
Interfacial Bond Behavior for CFRP Plates-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Member
Yang, Dong-Suk ; Park, Sun-Kyu ; Hong, Sung-Nam ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 443~452
For more than a decade, fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has been used in the construction industry with various forms of laminated or pultruded plates for the strengthening of existing concrete bridges and other structures. Due to their excellent properties characterized by high tensile strength, long-term durability, corrosion/fire resistance and low weight, FRPs have almost completely replaced steel plates as externally epoxy-bonded reinforcement for concrete. The interfacial bond behaviour between concrete and carbon plates has been investigated by the shear test of CFRP plates bonded to concrete. Two concrete compressive strengths are considered. For each concrete, the effective bond length is estimated using a linear regression analysis; the maximum bond stresses and slips at different load levels are calculated from measured strains in the CFRP Plates. Also, a simple bond-slip model for the CFRP/concrete interface, developed from the shear tests, is proposed and used in a nonlinear finite element analysis of beams strengthened in flexure externally bonded CFRPs. The proposed bond-slip model for CFRP-strengthened beams show very good agreement with the experimental results in terms of debonding strength, yielding load and ductility index.
Pullout behavior of Polyolefin Synthetic Fibers with Hydrophilic Surface Treatment in Cement Matrix
Won, Jong-Pil ; Park, Chan-Gi ; Kim, Yun-Jeong ; Lee, Si-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 3A, 2007, Pages 453~460
This study peformed the test for increasing the bond performance of polyolefin based synthetic fiber in order to apply to cement based composite including shotcrete and concrete. In the first process, in order to solve the problem of bond performance of polyolefin based synthetic fiber, this study was changed the shape of fiber into crimped type from smooth cylinder type. Secondly, this study evaluated hydrophilic surface treatment effect of polyolefin based synthetic fiber through pullout test. Test results were showed that the change of fiber shape could increase the bond performance of cement matrix and the polyolefin based synthetic fiber. Especially, more effect was obtained in pullout energy rather than in bond strength. The improvement of bond performance with hydrophilic treatment rate showed its best performance when the concentration of mPP was 15%. This is related with the coating rate on the surface of polyolefin based synthetic fiber, which was proven in the result that when the concentration of mPP is 15%, it showed almost 100% of hydrophilic surface treatment rate. This result could be confirmed through the observation of fiber surface after pullout test.