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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6D - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6C - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6B - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6A - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5D - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5C - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5B - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5A - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4D - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4C - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4B - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4A - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3D - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3C - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3B - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3A - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2C - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2A - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2D - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2B - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1D - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1C - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1B - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1A - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Suggestion of Impact Factor for Fatigue Design of steel Girder Bridge
Lee, Hee-Hyun ; Jeon, Jun-Chang ; Kyung, Kab-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 777~788
The fatigue phenomenon, which is caused from accumulation of live load stress, is one of the main factors controlling the life of the steel bridge. In recent, increasing of the serviced year of the steel bridge and that of vehicle weight make the phenomenon as a primary concern to them. Korean code on the highway bridge design does not specify the detailed items such as design load, loading method and impact factor for fatigue. Therefore, fatigue design of the steel bridge is done as the same manner as the ordinary static design. By the way, if we think about design impact factor, the factor had been decided under extreme traffic condition, not by general condition. However, fatigue is induced under general traffic condition. Therefore, if we use the same impact factor for fatigue design, it can lead to over-design in terms of fatigue. In this paper, appropriate impact factor for fatigue design is presented from the parametric study on the dynamic behavior of the steel girder bridge. The parameters considered in this paper are bridge stiffness, vehicle model, traffic flow, and roughness of bridge surface etc. In addition, the feasibility of the proposed impact factor for fatigue design is substantiated through the comparison with measured impact factor.
A Moving Mass Test Using wheel Tracking Machine
Kim, Jong-Heun ; Sung, Ik-Hyun ; Kim, Sang-Chul ; Kim, Seung-Eock ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 789~795
In this paper, an analytical and experimental study is performed in order to determine the effects of interaction between vehicle and structure. For this purpose an improved wheel tracking machine and an adequate single span bridge are designed. Results presented in the paper show that wheel tracking machine including moving mass effects can demonstrate more accurate dynamic interaction between vehicle and structure.
Prediction for Long-Term Behavior of Cable-Stayed Bridges with PSC Girders Using High-Performance Concrete for High-strength and Enhancing Elastic Modulus
Nam, Yoo-Seok ; Park, Moon-Ho ; Jang, Il-Young ; Cho, Chang-Geun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 797~804
The current study presents an algorithm of the long-term behavior analysis of cable stayed bridge with PSC girders using high-performance concrete (HPC), which concrete was cast for high-strength and enhancing elastic modulus. The prediction of time-dependent behavior of HPC members is modeled by improving the AASHTO-LRFD (2004) method for normal concrete in the prediction of creep, shrinkage, and relaxation of tendon. The long term analysis was performed to determine the effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete, additionally, with the effect of construction stages varying with time. The developed model for prediction of HPC material has been applied in the long-term analysis of cable-stayed bridges to compare with the several types of concrete. By using HPC to compare with normal concrete, it gives some advantages in the design of PSC cable-stayed bridges that axial and transverse deflections of girders can reduce and the result may minimize the size of HPC girders, overall weight of the bridge, and increase the span length of girders.
simplified Method for Analysis of Thermal Prestressing Effect in Continuous Composite Girder Bridges
Kim, Jun-Hwan ; Choi, Kyu-Tae ; Kim, Sang-Hyo ; Ahn, Jin-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 805~810
The purpose of thermally-prestressed continuous composite girder bridges lies in mitigation of transverse cracks in the concrete deck. Instead of using tendons for prestressing, the thermal prestressing method utilizes the deflection of steel girders induced by a temporary heating process without mechanical prestressing. While the transverse cracks can be effectively controlled, decrease in the amount of rebar and the steel girder's section area is also possible. Although the computation method of thermal prestressing effect proposed in previous studies can give accurate results, the computation cost is high and may be difficult for inexperienced engineers. In this study, a simplified method is proposed for computing the thermal prestressing effect, which neglects the heat transfer analysis procedure and utilizes simple 2-D beam element FE models. Comparison of the computation results using existing and simplified methods was performed where the error between the two methods was less then 5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the simplified method can be used with acceptable accuracy for computation of the thermal prestressing effect.
Time-Domain Buffeting Analysis of a Cable-Stayed Bridge Considering Frequency-Dependency of Unsteady Aerodynamic Forces
Chang, Suk ; Kwon, Soon-Duck ; Chang, Sung-Pil ; Kim, Ho-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 811~820
A time-domain nonlinear buffeting analysis procedure is presented to estimate geometrical nonlinear effects of a cable-stayed bridge on buffeting responses. Since the self-excited forces are formulated in terms of motional frequency of a girder, a linear frequency-domain approach is straightforward to consider the frequency-dependency of the unsteady aerodynamic force. A time-domain approach, however, requires much complicated techniques and procedures. The current nonlinear buffeting analysis procedure approximated flutter derivatives as rational functions and then the unsteady forces are calculated through a convolution integral. An actual cable-stayed bridge was numerically modeled and a series of buffeting analysis were performed to estimate the effects of the frequency-dependency of unsteady aerodynamic forces and the geometrical nonlinearity of cable-stayed bridge structure on buffeting responses of girders. The consideration of these two properties in buffeting analysis was found to change the overall magnitude of buffeting responses of the examined bridge to a certain extent as mean wind velocity increased.
Evaluation of Shear Strength of Partially Filled Composite Deck with Inverted T-Shaped Steel
Choi, Jun-Hyeok ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Park, Seung-Ryul ; Lee, Seung-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 821~828
This paper presented the results of push-out test for evaluation of shear strength of partially filled composite deck. The deck consists of reinforced concrete in the upper part and inverted T-shaped steel in the lower part. A total of 16 push-out test specimens were tested. The test parameters were the spacing and the size of holes and the bar strength. From the results, the effect of the test parameters and the shear force between steel and concrete were investigated. An empirical expression consisted of the sum of the contact shear force, the dowel action of concrete and the reinforcing bars effect was proposed for predicting of shear strength in composite deck.
Development of Field-Measured Data-based Analysis Model of a Suspension Bridge
Kim, Ho-Kyung ; Lee, Ho ; Jang, Jeong-Hwan ; Ro, Sang-Kon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 829~836
The tension of the main cables in a suspension bridge is influencing critically the stiffness of the whole structural system and can be indirectly measured through the survey of its configuration. Since previously published shape-finding analysis methods or results are mostly based on the idealized structural system adopted during design, need is to pay particular attention on the exploitation of field-measured data when establishing or updating the analysis model for maintenance purpose of the bridge in service. This study intends to propose an analytic model for an actual 3-span suspension bridge with main span of 500m using the measurement resulting from its configuration survey. Based on the shape-finding analysis results relative to the dead loads, a linearized finite displacement FE model is proposed and, an attempt to extend the measurement-based shape-finding analysis method from conventional methods by reflecting progressively the measured configuration and temperature is presented. Analysis results reveal that the current configuration of the bridge in service corresponds fairly with the target configuration. This study proposes a model updating method which could provide theoretical basis for the establishment of analysis model for suspension bridges based on various maintenance data.
Performance Assessment of RC Slab Bridges Strengthened by FRP using the System Identification Method
Lee, Gyu-Chul ; Lee, Sang-Youl ; Park, Tae-Hyo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 837~845
This purpose deals with the system identification(SI) method for performance assessment of reinforced concrete slab bridges repaired by FRP. The novelty of this study is the application of concrete slab with arbitrary cracks and their dynamic response due to the anomalies in a structure subjected to moving load. To demonstrate the feasibility of the Micro-genetic algorithm (m-GA) as a SI method, the algorithm is applied to a three-dimensional finite element model with defects. The technique described in this paper may allow us not only to detect the stiffness distribution of the damaged elements but also to find locations and the extent of damage. In addition, the results demonstrate the excellencies of the method from the standpoints of computation efficiency as well as its ability to investigate the stiffness improvements of strengthened bridges.
Structural Behavior of PSC Reactor Containment Structure under Temperature and Pressure Loading
Moon, Il-Hwan ; Noh, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Kyung-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 847~858
This paper is focused on the behavior of the 1/4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel(PCCV) under pressure and temperature loading beyond the design basis. In the nonlinear finite element analyses, the 1/4 scale PCCV including the axi-symmetric cylindrical vessel, the spherical dome and the concrete base slab are idealized as an axi-symmetric global model with axi-symmetric solid elements and shell elements. The temperature-dependent degradation properties of concrete and steel are considered. Both geometric and material nonlinearities including thermal effects are also addressed in the analyses. Menetrey-Willam concrete constitutive model with non-associated flow potential is adopted for this study. This study includes the results of the predicted thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to high temperature loading and internal pressure simultaneously. In order to find the effect of accident high temperature on the ultimate pressure capacity of each component, two kinds of analyses are performed; one for pressure only and the other for pressure with temperature. The results are compared with each other for the liner plate, reinforcement, prestressing tendon and concrete. The analysis results show that the temperature directly affects the behavior of the liner plate, but have a little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV.
Simulation Parameters for Surface Wave Propagation on Concrete : (1) Analytical Approach to Simulation and Feature Extraction
Kim, Jae-Hong ; Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 859~867
Among a lot of ultrasonic nondestructive test, a nondestructive test based on elastic surface wave can be effectively used in determining material properties of concrete structures because of its relatively large energy, while it is also true that inhomogeneous concrete mixed up with some aggregates makes surface wave attenuated and dispersed. With dynamic finite element method, accordingly, the effect of inhomogeneity was analyzed into some simulating parameters. In advance, continuous wavelet transform for signal processing and principal wavelet-component analysis for feature extraction was applied into the result of analysis. Then, the database composed with 6 simulating parameters and 9 extracted features were constructed and could have all information related to the whole surface wave which can be developed on concrete.
Simulation Parameters for Surface Wave Propagation on Concrete: (2) Artificial Intelligence Engine and Estimation of Concrete Material Properties
Kim, Jae-Hong ; Shin, Sung-Woo ; Lee, Bang-Yeon ; Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 869~879
Artificial intelligence algorithm using database makes the estimation system without complication of mathematically based formulation. Therefore artificial intelligence algorithm such as soft computing methods can substitute the finite element analysis for time-consuming forward analysis and also build an inverse analysis engine to estimate the model parameters for measured surface wave. This paper shows the application of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm, which estimate the simulating parameters for surface wave. Furthermore, the smart system for estimating concrete properties such as modulus of elasticity and compressive strength was constructed and validated.
Service Life Prediction based on Stochastic Approach for Cracked Concrete Structures exposed to Chloride attack
Kwon, Seung-Jun ; Na, Ung-Jin ; Park, Sang-Soon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 881~890
Cracks in early-age due to hydration heat and drying shrinkage may occur unavoidably. These can be the main routes for deteriorating agents and also can be one of the major reasons of steel corrosion in concrete structures exposed to chloride attack. Generally, deterministic method using Fick's 2nd Law is utilized for durability design, however, stochastic method is recently attempted for consideration of variable characteristics in material and construction. In this study, apparent diffusion coefficients in sound and cracked concrete structures, exposed to chloride attack with 8 and 11 years used, are derived through field investigation and service life is predicted by utilizing Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and Fick's 2nd law, respectively. For the purpose, random variables such as critical chloride amount, cover depth, and time-dependent diffusion coefficient are established and probability of durability failure is calculated using the derived diffusion in cracked concrete. Utilizing MCS in cracked concrete, the probability of durability failure is evaluated to be rapidly increased with growing crack width and accordingly, service life is also decreased. In Domestic Specification, allowable crack width is considered in crack effect on diffusion. However, if a concrete member is designed with increased allowable crack width, relatively more reduced diffusion coefficient may be obtained than that from the field investigation. The chloride behavior also may be underestimated due to the reduced diffusion coefficient so that derivation of relationship between crack width and chloride diffusion through extensive field investigation is necessary for durability design of concrete structures permitting allowable crack width under chloride attack.
Static Test of Precast Concrete Barrier I. Ultimate Behavior and Test Level
Jeon, Se-Jin ; Choi, Myoung-Sung ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Hyun, Byung-Hak ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 891~899
Concrete barrier has been constructed mostly by casting in-situ in Korea, while various types of precast concrete barriers have been successfully applied in foreign countries. A new type of precast concrete barrier system was developed in this study and static test was performed to verify the load-carrying capacity and failure mode. An efficient method to combine the barrier and deck was devised using protruded reinforcements and mortar filling. Five sets of specimens were manufactured that simulate a cantilever part of the deck and a series of precast barriers referring to a shape of domestic standard concrete barriers. Variables of the experiment are joint type between the barriers, effect of an embedded pipe and deck, loading pattern and comparison with the conventional in-situ barrier. The joint of the barrier and deck maintained a sufficient integrity up to the ultimate state that can be induced from a car crash. The shear-key-type joint between the barriers showed a better performance when the epoxy was applied. As a result, the proposed system of precast barrier produced the ultimate capacity equivalent to that for the in-situ barrier of similar shape. Cracking pattern and failure mode were compared with the yield line theory presented in AASHTO LRFD. Finally, the corresponding test level(SB) of the specimen was discussed comparing with AASHTO LRFD.
Static Test of Precast Concrete Barrier II. Analysis of the Measured Data
Jeon, Se-Jin ; Choi, Myoung-Sung ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6A, 2007, Pages 901~908
A new type of precast concrete barrier system was developed and static tests were performed with five sets of specimens with different test variables to verify the structural performance against the car crash. In the preceding companion paper, failure mode and load-carrying capacity were mainly investigated. In this paper, structural responses represented by displacements and strains were measured and analyzed to further assess the structural behavior. When the shear key system was used with an epoxy applied between barriers, integrity of the barriers was maintained up to the ultimate state. The proposed joint system of the barrier and deck can efficiently transfer the load applied in the barrier into the deck. A crucial factor that affects the failure mode and ultimate load of the barrier is a horizontal crack and yielding of the vertical reinforcements that occur by the flexure with respect to longitudinal direction at a vulnerable section with a decreased thickness. The specimens were designed so that stiffnesses of the barrier and deck are balanced and, as a result, responses of the deck were not dominant when compared with those of the barrier. Comparison with the results of finite element analyses shows that the proposed system has an integrity that can resist the car crash in an effective manner.