Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6D - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6C - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6B - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 6A - Nov 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5D - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5C - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5B - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 5A - Sep 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4D - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4C - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4B - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 4A - Jul 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3D - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3C - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3B - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 3A - May 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2C - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2A - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2D - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 2B - Mar 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1D - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1C - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1B - Jan 2007
Volume 27, Issue 1A - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
simulation of Transport of BOD at the Han River Using 2-D Advection Dispersion Model
Seo, Il-Won ; Song, Chang-Geun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 573~581
In Korean rivers, pollution sources coexist with water intake facilities at the same reach. Therefore it is essential to develop a model that can predict the two-dimensional behavior of pollutant mixing. In this study, finite element model with Galerkin method was adopted to the 2-D depth-averaged advection-dispersion equation of reactive pollutants to analyze the transport of BOD. Comparison between analytic and numerical solution which was performed in rectangular channel to verify the developed model showed that the shapes of pollutant cloud are well matched. The model was applied to the field region ranging from downstream of Pal-dang dam to Cham-sil submerged weir, which is 15.8 km in length and water quality was examined at Am-sa and Gu-ui water intake facilities. When treated water in Gu-ri sewage treatment plant flows from Wang-suk stream into Han River, the numerical results of BOD concentration in Am-sa and Gu-ui water intake facility was very close to the measured values conducted by Ministry of Environment during that period. To investigate the influence of location of pollutant injection on the water quality at water intake facilities, instantaneous injections were made at left, center and right side of Kang-dong bridge. The result showed that in case of left injection, Am-sa and Gu-ui water intake facilities were influenced significantly by the injection. However, center and right injection did not affect much Am-sa water intake facility located in left side of the river.
A Study on the Mitigation of Inundation Damage Using Flood Inundation Analysis Model FLUMEN -For the Part of Jinwicheon Reach-
Kang, Su-Man ; Park, Min-Ji ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Seong-Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 583~590
Recently, flood damages have increased tremendously by the unexpected record-breaking rainfall amounts of Jangma and Typhoon. Non-structural counterplan using flood inundation simulation model such as FLUMEN can play a certain role for the mitigation of flood damage by suggesting some scenarios and actions for flood. This paper is to test the applicability of flood inundation simulation model, FLUMEN for flood mitigation. The model that solves the shallow-water equations with a finite volume method in case of flood propagation from stream to surface was constructed and applied to the part of Jinwicheon stream reach (4.9 km). The model was tested for the spatial record of past flood inundation occurred on 7 to 9 August of 1998. The computed inundation extend agreed well with the observed one. As a model application, two mitigation methods of elevating levee of the stream reach and constructing riverside storage area in upstream area were tested and suggested by identifying the decrease of flood inundation extent for 200 years frequency rainfall.
Numerical Analysis on Salinity Intrusion in Estuary with Two-Dimensional Vertical Model in
Lee, Seung-Oh ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 591~598
A two-dimensional vertical numerical model has been developed to simulate the salinity intrusion in estuaries. By comparing the numerical results in both z- and s-coordinates with analytical solutions, the influence of the coordinate transformation on the accuracy of the numerical simulation is investigated. In a flat bed, the both numerical calculations in the z- and s-coordinates show reasonable results in comparison with the analytical solutions. In a sloped topography, however, the numerical results in the z-coordinates present relatively unstable consequences compared to the numerical results in the s-coordinates due to the complicated and irregular boundaries at free surface and bottom of the topography. Based on the consequence and concern of the application at the real estuaries, the s-coordinate system is employed for this study because the s-coordinate transformation can provide the relatively simple boundary conditions and the stable solutions in an irregular topography. In addition, the numerical errors, generated during the coordinate transformation of the diffusion term, are considered, which is recently issued. The accuracy of the numerical model is examined based on the comparison with a previous model when applying for a sloped topography. Finally, the numerical model is applied to the Keum River estuary. The computed results represent reasonable agreement with the observed field data. Henceforth, the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical model for simulating the salinity intrusion will be improved by applications at various topologies.
Flood Forecasting in Geum River Estuary Lake Influenced by Tidal Effects
Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Yoon, Kwang-Seok ; Kim, Joo-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 599~611
In this study, we investigate the flood forecasting system for the Geum River reach influenced by the estuary barrage. The main reason that current system does not consider the backwater effects is that current system is constructed from the storage function model. In order to overcome this limitation, the hydraulic flood routing model is required. However, since the Geum River Estuary blocks the end of the river, it is very difficult to find the downstream boundary conditions that are changed from the tidal elevations and the opening-height of the tide locks. To solve this problem, this study evaluated the discharges from the tide locks and the inside water level was calculated. The results show that the calculated values agree well with the observed data at the estuary barrage stage station. Also, these results are used for the downstream boundary condition of the hydraulic flood routing model which is the FLDWAV model, good agreement between the observed and computed at the upstream stage stations was obtained. This research can be applied to the current system and can improve the accuracy of forecasting.
Development of Tide Lock Operation Program of Estuary Barrage for Flood Routing
Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Yoon, Kwang-Seok ; Kim, Joo-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 613~619
In this study, a program that can determine the opening-closing time, period and height of Geum River Estuary Barrage is developed. We gave the conditions to be interlocked with outside tide and management water level in order to predict the inside water level. The predicted inside water levels were used for the downstream boundary conditions of hydraulic flood routing model and the water levels at the major points of the upstream are calculated. As a results, this study shows that the calculated flood elevations are good agreement with observation data. Especially, the backwater effects at the major points of the upstream due to the control of the tide lock are simulated very well.
Simulations of Flow and Sediment Transport in the Open Channel with Submerged Vegetation Using Depth-Averaged Model
Choi, Sung-Uk ; Kang, Hyeong-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 621~629
This paper presents a depth-averaged model for the numerical simulation for open-channel flows over submerged vegetation. Since the flow structure and the sediment concentration profile in the open-channel with submerged vegetation are different from those in the plain open-channel, the conventional methods of estimating the friction coefficient and net entrainment flux should be modified. The vertical structure model with k-e turbulence closure is used to adjust the relevant parameters in the depth-averaged model. Application examples are provided for validation. The results indicate that the proposed model predicts properly water level rise due to vegetation and the suspended load may be underestimated seriously without modification of parameters.
Potential Risk of Flood Damage and Estimation of Design Frequency in Small River Basins
Lim, Woo-Saeng ; Lee, Keon-Haeng ; Kyung, Min-Soo ; Kim, Hung-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 631~640
The previous study determined the design frequency by using the Potential Risk of Flood Damage(PRFD) and the recorded maximum rainfall. But, we had problems that the estimated design frequency did not catch up with it which is safely designed because a rainfall that the recorded maximum rainfall had already occurred, and it had a narrow range according to the values of PRFD. So, in this study we estimated the weighting coefficients in connecting PRFD to a design frequency by the recorded maximum rainfall in An-Yang stream basin. The coefficients are public land price and flood discharge and anyone who wants to estimate the design frequency by a recorded maximum rainfall can compute the frequency more easily than existing estimation method by using Kriging technique for 6-rainfall gage station of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in the metropolitan area. As the results, the design frequency corresponding to the recorded maximum rainfall was calculated as 112 years. Also we estimated the design frequencies for small river basins in An-Yang stream and the estimated frequncies were in the range from 45 to 200 years. The region holding the frequency of 200 years is an estuary area of An-Yang stream, and this is in Yeongdeungpogu, Seoul. This area has the highest design frequency since it has high public land price and flood discharge per unit basin area as a national river area. So, we can determined the design frequency corresponding to a recorded maximum rainfall which has a PRFD value of 100 if we have the .shp file for study basins. At present, the design frequency is determined according to the class of a river such as the national river, regional rivers of the first or the second classes. However, if we use the suggested methodology in this study we can determine the design frequency more reasonably.
Transverse Flow Characteristics of Open-channel Flows over Submerged Flexible Vegetation
Yang, Won-Jun ; Choi, Sung-Uk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 641~650
In this study, laboratory experiments are conducted to investigate the cross sectional characteristics of open-channel flows with flexible vegetation. LDA is used to measure the instantaneous velocity of open-channel flows with model submerged vegetation. Experimental data shows that mean velocity maximum occurs in the vicinity of the sidewall. This is made possible by the effect of the secondary currents prevalent over the cross section due to model vegetation. Also, it is found that the points of maximum Reynolds stress and turbulent intensity are uplifted by the secondary current. Data for streamwise mean velocity are converted to a hyperbolic tangent function, and the results show an excellent collapse. This indicates that the open-channel flow over submerged flexible model vegetation can be regarded as a mixing layer without regard to the secondary current effect. The characteristic values of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex are investigated. It is found that the center height of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex is affected by the secondary currents. It is also revealed that the vortex in a flow at a higher mean velocity is generated at a higher frequency and is advecting at a higher velocity in the downstream direction.
Determining Flood Protection Elevation of Urban Structure Using Cost-Benefit Analysis
Shin, Sang-Young ; Lee, Yang-Jae ; Yeo, Chang-Geon ; Lee, Chang-Hee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 651~659
To mitigate the flood damage of urban structure, flood protection measures need to determine the flood protection elevation by predicting flood areas and depth. This study presents a method of determining optimal flood protection elevation by using cost-benefit analysis when regulating residential and commercial uses below the flood elevation of urban structure with the case of the Sadang-Cheon area, Seoul. The SWMM analyzes urban runoff and GIS analysis measures flood areas and depth, and then estimates costs and benefits of the flood protection measure. The local architecture registration database makes more detailed estimation of costs and benefits possible than existing cost-benefit analysis conventions. The study result may contribute to urban flood protection measures in which inland flood risk increases due to increasing local heavy rainfall.
Methodology for Estimating Ranges of SWAT Model Parameters: Application to Imha Lake Inflow and Suspended Sediments
Kim, Bo-Kyung ; Kim, Sang-Dan ; Lee, Eun-Tae ; Kim, Hung-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 661~668
This study simulates the runoff and sediments of Imha dam basin by the SWAT(Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Firstly, the ranges of runoff and sediment related parameters in SWAT model are selected based on the references for suggesting the proper ranges of the parameters. We simulate the runoff and suspended sediments by Monte Carlo method based on the suggested parameter ranges and compare the observations. For the simulation we use the interval-spaced sensitivity analysis for selecting the sensitive parameters and perform the range reduction of the parameters. And the Monte Carlo simulation is repeated for suggesting the proper range of parameters in Imha dam basin. The parameters in SWAT model are associated with the parameter characteristics and model structure and we found that the parameter uncertainty in the sediment simulation is more greater than that in the runoff simulation.
Period Distribution in Nonlinear Random Waves of Finite Bandwidth
Cho, Yong-Jun ; Song, Tae-Kwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 669~678
Even though wave period is a crucial design element to have humongous influence on a wave force on the coastal structure, wave climate near coastal region, sediment suspension, it has been maltreated. These tendencies can be explained by the complicated form of nonlinear random waves by Longuet-Higgines (1963). Hence theoretical treatment of statistical properties like a period relevant to nonlinear random wave field of moderate bandwidth heavily relies on semi empirical approach. Based on the observation that wave energy transfer to lower harmonic component due to nonlinear difference interaction is not significant, Tung et al. (1989) proposed simplified version of Longuet-Higgins' wave model, which triggered a huge progress in our understanding of nonlinear random waves of finite bandwidth. In this study, we analytically derived joint distribution of wave height and its period and conditional probability density function of wave period using aforementioned wave model. Based on these results, we numerically simulate nonlinear random waves using Wallops spectrum, and it turns out that the symmetry and distribution pattern with respect to modal period agrees well with measured data by Goda (1978). It is also shown that as the nonlinearity is getting profound, the region over sample space where joint distribution of wave height and its period have meaningful value shrinks, and a center of probability mass shifts toward relatively large values of wave height and smaller values of period. In addition, we note that conditional probability density function of wave period more clusters around the modal value with an intensified nonlinearity.
A Laboratory Study on Depositional Properties of Kaolinite Sediments
Hwang, Kyu-Nam ; Yang, Su-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 679~687
A series of deposition tests for kaolinite sediments has been conducted using an annular flume, in order to develop the estimating tools (or equations) for depositional properties of fine cohesive sediments and to verify their validities. Each deposition tests has been carried out in different bed shear stresses respectively but with the same initial concentration, from which minimum shear stress (or critical shear stress for deposition), equilibrium concentration, the deposition rates and relevant deposition parameters for kaolinite sediments have been quantified. In addition, depositional parameters and properties estimated in this study are compared with the results from previous studies, in order to evaluate the validity of the present experimental results. It is confirmed indirectly that the performance of the annular flume is good enough to measure the depositional properties of fine cohesive sediments and the experimental method and results are valid.
Three-Dimensional Flow Characteristics and Wave Height Distribution around Permeable Submerged Breakwaters; PART I- without Beach
Hur, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Woo-Dong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 689~701
This study investigates numerically 3-D flow characteristics and wave height distribution around permeable submerged breakwaters. At first, the 3-D numerical model, which is able to consider the flow through a porous medium with inertial, laminar and turbulent resistance terms and determine the eddy viscosity with the sub-grid scale turbulence model, is newly proposed. The numerical model is validated in 3-D wave field by comparing with existing experimental data for wave transformation around permeable submerged breakwaters. And then, using the numerical results the 3-D flow characteristics around submerged breakwaters are examined in relation to wave period and crown depth. Moreover, the wave height distribution and wave set-up around them are also discussed as well the distribution of wave breaking points over the crest.
A Weak Correlation of Field-determined Soil Microbial Diversity with Quantitative Ecological Map Information and its Methodological Implication in Estimation Soil Ecological Quality
Ki, Dong-Won ; Lee, Jae-Jin ; Rho, Paik-Ho ; Park, Joon-Hong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 703~710
For improving sustainability of mega-construction projects, their impact on ecological consequences has to be predicted in a planning stage. For more reliable ecological impact evaluation, ecological quality has to be quantitatively classified first, and then an integrated information system with multiple-layered ecological and other environmental information databases is needed for efficiently handling and utilizing a huge amount of complex ecological and environmental information. Soil ecology is well known to have significant roles in maintaining the whole ecological systems in the Earth. However, its quality classification and assessment methodology has been poorly established in comparison to those for animal and plant ecosystems. In this study, a method for quantitatively classifying the quality of soil ecology using soil microbial diversity measurement was developed for mountain areas. When examining whether the soil ecology quality data have any correlation with the current ecological information including overall ecology quality index, animal/plant biodiversity, and forest health index, the current ecological information that are typically used in environmental impact assessment in our country was found to have a low power to reflect soil ecology quality. It may due to the fact that the current ecological information system does not include soil ecology quality information. This clearly suggests that an inclusion of soil ecology quality information is needed for more reliable environmental impact assessment. Based upon the findings from this work, an algorithm of estimating soil ecological quality using the existing nation-scale environmental and ecological geo-spatial information and its mapping method were proposed.
Development of a Cultivation Method for Detecting Antibiotic Resistant Microorganisms from Various Water Samples
Oh, Hyang-Kyun ; Lee, Jae-Jin ; Lee, Jai-Young ; Park, Joon-Hong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 711~717
Microorganisms often develop the way to survive against antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs as people overuse them. Antibiotic resistant microorganisms could threaten human health with deadly disease. In nature, microorganisms need few nutrients to stay alive. In laboratory conditions, however, microbes from environmental samples are normally grown in nutrient-rich culture media. Because of this, the currently-used and typical cultivation methods are not suitable for microbial risk assessment of environment water samples. The purpose of this research is to develop new cultivation method to detect oligotrophic antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this, one of general high nutrient media, LB, was diluted in series, and then amended with tetracycline at 100 mg/mL. For quantification of antibiotic resistant bacteria, a standard spread plate method was modified using the antibiotic-amended diluted LB plates. The ability of the new method to detect oligotrophics and antibiotic resistant microorganisms was confirmed when analyzing drinking water and swine manure wastewater, respectively, followed by 16S rDNA analysis of cultivated isolates from the plates. When this method was applied in evaluating antibiotic resistant microbial risk in river water, microbial risk seemed to be low. However, in the case of Asian dust rain, the relative abundance of antibiotic resistant microorganisms in total culturable bacteria was higher than that for swine manure. This suggests that microbial risk due to antibiotic resistant microbes could be high in the Asian dust containing rain water.
BAM(Bidirectional Associative Memory) Algorithm for Water Pollution Warning System
Yeon, In-Sung ; Lee, Jai-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 27, issue 6B, 2007, Pages 719~725
The automatic water quality monitoring networks are operated in Korea. It needs to construct the real-time warning system for water quality monitoring. To do this, a variety of method must be estimated. In this paper, three standard axes were applied to train stability, notice, and warning situation using multi-perceptron and BAM (Bidirectional Associative Memory). The application capability of BAM was estimated by the scenario of pollution accident. As a results, it was verified that BAM can reasonably judge the noized water pollution data. The estimation results of BAM showed better than those of multi-perceptron. The developed 9?9 standard axis was most useful for the judgement of water pollution and training BAM.