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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6D - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 6C - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 6B - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 6A - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5D - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5C - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5B - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5A - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4D - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4C - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4B - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4A - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3D - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3C - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3B - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3A - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2D - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2C - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2B - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2A - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1A - Jan 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1D - Jan 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1C - Jan 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1B - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Discharge Coefficients for Sharp Crested Side Weir in Wide Channel
Lee, Dong Sop ; Kim, Chang Wan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 449~458
This study is investigating experimentally the effect of upstream Froude number, weir height, weir length, and main channel width on the discharge coefficient of rectangular sharp crested side-weirs under subcritical flow conditions in a relatively wide rectangular open channel based on the De Marchi discharge coefficient
. The effects of four main influential parameters found by dimensional analysis,
, L/B, and
are examined by the flume tests. New estimated equations for the discharge coefficients of sharp-crested side-weir are suggested based on the experimental results. The effect of
for the discharge coefficient of sharp crested side weir is decreased in wide open channel and the relative importance of other influential parameters like
, L/B, and
are increased. Also, the experimental results are compared with the results of other studies to extend the applicability of pre-suggested formulas for sharp-crested side-weir discharge coefficient.
Special Quality Analysis of Extreme Rainfall by Typhoon
Oh, Tae Suk ; Moon, Young-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 459~473
This study investigated typhoon characteristics that provoke precipitation which is much attacking periodically in our country, and calculated probability precipitation of extreme rainfalls using Empirical Simulation Technique. The typhoon influenced in Korea was happened 3.18 times per, and year exposed to affect Korea during 107 hours. The depth of precipitation with the typhoon was different according to observation points. The extreme precipitation of typhoon events has analyzed by change and trend analyses. In the results, mean and standard deviation of extreme rainfall has been increasing than the past events in some areas. Also, About 143 typhoons influenced Korea was applied in EST techniques using center position, central pressure, time precipitation data using rainfall observatory in Korea. Therefore, we applied EST techniques and calculated probability precipitation. In the results, Jeonla-do, Gyeongsang-do and Gangwon-do will have heavy rain with typhoon events in high probability.
Estimation of Mass Error in the Simulation of Mixing of Instantaneously Released Pollutants
Lee, Myung Eun ; Seo, Il Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 475~483
2D finite element model for analysis of transport of accidentally released pollutants in the flow was developed by SUPG method, and the mass balance of this model was checked though two example problems: line source and point source problem in the straight channel and unidirectional 2D flow field, respectively. All the test cases were simulated with both SUPG and conventional Galerkin method to compare the accuraccy of the numerical mass balance. Test results show that the model with SUPG can adequately conserve the released mass though simulation than the model using Galerkin method, so the developed model verified to be appropriate to solve this accidental mass release problem.
Predicting Probability of Precipitation Using Artificial Neural Network and Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction
Kang, Boosik ; Lee, Bongki ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 485~493
The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was suggested for predicting probability of precipitation (PoP) using RDAPS NWP model, observation at AWS and upper-air sounding station. The prediction work was implemented for flood season and the data period is the July, August of 2001 and June of 2002. Neural network input variables (predictors) were composed of geopotential height 500/750/1000 hPa, atmospheric thickness 500-1000 hPa, X & Y-component of wind at 500 hPa, X & Y-component of wind at 750 hPa, wind speed at surface, temperature at 500/750 hPa/surface, mean sea level pressure, 3-hr accumulated precipitation, occurrence of observed precipitation, precipitation accumulated in 6 & 12 hrs previous to RDAPS run, precipitation occurrence in 6 & 12 hrs previous to RDAPS run, relative humidity measured 0 & 12 hrs before RDAPS run, precipitable water measured 0 & 12 hrs before RDAPS run, precipitable water difference in 12 hrs previous to RDAPS run. The suggested ANN has a 3-layer perceptron (multi layer perceptron; MLP) and back-propagation learning algorithm. The result shows that there were 6.8% increase in Hit rate (H), especially 99.2% and 148.1% increase in Threat Score (TS) and Probability of Detection (POD). It illustrates that the suggested ANN model can be a useful tool for predicting rainfall event prediction. The Kuipers Skill Score (KSS) was increased 92.8%, which the ANN model improves the rainfall occurrence prediction over RDAPS.
Assessment of MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI) Influence on the Penman-Monteith Evapotranspiration of SLURP Model
HA, Rim ; SHIN, Hyung-Jin ; Park, Geun-Ae ; KIM, Seong-Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 495~504
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important state variable while simulating daily streamflow in hydrological models. In the estimation of ET, for example, when using FAO Penman Monteith equation, the LAI (Leaf Area Index) value reflecting the conditions of vegetation generally affects considerably. Recently in evaluating the vegetation condition as a fixed quantity, the remotely sensed LAI from MODIS satellite data is available, and the time series values of spatial LAI coupled with land use classes are utilized for ET evaluation. Four years (2001-2004) of MODIS LAI was prepared for the evaluation of Penman Monteith ET in the continuous hydrological model, SLURP (Semi-distributed Land Use-based Runoff Processes). The model was applied for simulating the dam inflow of Chungju watershed (
) located in the upstream of Han river basin. For four years (2001-2004) dam inflow data and meteorological data, the model was calibrated and verified using MODIS LAI data. The average Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency was 0.66. The 4 years watershed average Penman Monteith ETs of deciduous, coniferous, and mixed forest were 639.1, 422.4, and 631.6 mm for average MODIS LAI values of 3.64, 3.50, and 3.63 respectively.
Cooperative Framework for Conflict Mitigation and Shared Use of South-North Korean Transboundary Rivers
Lee, Gwang Man ; Kang, Boosik ; Hong, Il-Pyo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 505~514
The Imjin and North Han River are sharing watershed between South and North Korea. In Imjin river basin, the April 5th dam and Hwanggang dam which are already constructed or on constrution, causes problems in water supply in the downstrean area. At the same time, in the North Han River basin, the Imnam dam is being operated for diversion to Anbyeon Youngman Hydropower Plant and it gives rise to conflict between South and North by reducing streamflow in the North Han River of South Korean side. Therefore, a cooperative framework needs to be built for settling the pending issues. In this study, based on the theory of conflict resolution in the international shared river basin, the practical alternatives are suggested. These approaches are expected to help in preparing reasonable resolution ahead of seeking political decision. Also, in order to preparing consistent and reasonable river management measures, the South-North shared river management commission was suggested.
Conversion Factor Calculation of Annual Maximum Precipitation in Korea Between Fixed and Sliding Durations
Oh, Tae Suk ; Moon, Young-Il ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 515~524
An estimation of reliable probability precipitation is one of the most important processes for reasonable hydrologic structure design. A probability precipitation has been calculated by frequency analysis using annual maximum rainfall series on the each duration among the observed rainfall data. Annual maximum rainfall series have abstracted on hourly rainfall data or daily rainfall data. So, there is necessary to proper conversion factor between the fixed and sliding durations. Therefore, in this study, conversion factors on the each duration between fixed and sliding durations have calculated using minutely data compared to hourly and daily data of 37 stations observed by Meteorological Administration in Korea. Also, regression equations were computed by regression analysis of conversion factors on the each duration. Consequently, conversion factors were used basis data for calculations of stable probability precipitation.
Analysis of Precipitation Characteristics of Regional Climate Model for Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources
Kwon, Hyun-Han ; Kim, Byung-Sik ; Kim, Bo-Kyung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 525~533
Global circulation models (GCMs) have been used to study impact of climate change on water resources for hydrologic models as inputs. Recently, regional circulation models (RCMs) have been used widely for climate change study, but the RCMs have been rarely used in the climate change impacts on water resources in Korea. Therefore, this study is intended to use a set of climate scenarios derived by RegCM3 RCM (
), which is operated by Korea Meteorological Administration. To begin with, the RCM precipitation data surrounding major rainfall stations are extracted to assess validation of the scenarios in terms of reproducing low frequency behavior. A comprehensive comparison between observation and precipitation scenario is performed through statistical analysis, wavelet transform analysis and EOF analysis. Overall analysis confirmed that the precipitation data driven by RegCM3 shows capabilities in simulating hydrological low frequency behavior and reproducing spatio-temporal patterns. However, it is found that spatio-temporal patterns are slightly biased and amplitudes (variances) from the RCMs precipitation tend to be lower than the observations. Therefore, a bias correction scheme to correct the systematic bias needs to be considered in case the RCMs are applied to water resources assessment under climate change.
Analysis of Rainfall Runoff Reduction Effect Depending upon the Location of Detention Pond in Urban Area
Lee, Jae Joon ; Kim, Ho Nyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 535~546
Urbanization results in increased runoff volume and flowrate and shortening in time of concentration, which may cause frequent flooding downstream. The retardation structures are used to eliminate adverse downstream effects of urban stormwater runoff. There are various types of flow retardation measures include detention basin, retention basin, and infiltration basin. In this study, to present a rough standard about location of detention pond for attenuating peak flow of urban area, the runoff reduction effect is analyzed at outlet point when detention pond is located to upstream drainage than outlet. The runoff reduction effects are analyzed under the three assumed basins. These basins have longitudinal shape (SF = 0. 204), concentration shape (SF = 0. 782), and middle shape (SF = 0.567). Numerous variables in connection with the storage effect of detention pond and the runoff reduction effects are analyzed by changing the location of detention pond. To analyze runoff reduction effect by location of single detention pond, Dimensionless Upstream Area Ratio (DUAR) is changed to 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% according to the basin shape. In case of multiple detention pond, DUAR is changed to 60%, 80%, 100%, 120%, and 140% only under the middle shape basin (SF = 0.567). Related figures and regression equations to determine the location of detention pond are obtained from above analysis of two cases in this study. These results can be used to determine the location of appropriate detention pond corresponding to the any runoff reduction such as storage ratio and peak flow ratio in urban watershed.
On the Hydraulic Characteristics of Efficient Long Wave Energy Absorber-Eco-breaker 2
Cho, Yong Jun ; Kim, Ho Min ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 547~558
With the advent of super cargo ship due to the explosive increase in the amount of cargo shipped via seas, some mega ports are under construction in South Korea, to accommodate the super cargo ship, and some of them already enter their final phase. To sustain the harbor tranquility, mega ports usually comprise huge vertical type breakwaters which are intrinsically vulnerable to the attack of long waves. In this rationale, we present the chamber type breakwater with a circular curtain wall - Eco-breaker 2, to alleviate the reflection of long waves and numerically investigate the hydraulic characteristics of Eco-breaker 2. As a wave driver, we use the Navier-Stokes eq., the most robust wave driver, using SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). For the verification of numerical results, we also carried out hydraulic model test. It is shown that Eco-breaker 2 can effectively alleviate the reflection of long waves with its inherited large organized eddies encompassing the water chamber and some region off the curtain wall of varying size. It is also shown that the scope and strength of large organized eddies strongly depends on the incident wave period, and the reflection coefficient can be lowered to 0.18 by tuning the size of water chamber such that resident time at the chamber is just short of the half period of incident waves. Based on these results, we present the specification of Eco-breaker 2 to boost its use on the development of water environment friendly harbor worldwide.
Development of 3-D Nonlinear Wave Driver Using SPH
Cho, Yong Jun ; Kim, Gweon Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 559~573
In this study, we newly proposed 3-D nonlinear wave driver utilizing the Navier-Stokes Eq. the numerical integration of which is carried out using SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics), an internal wave generation with the source function of Gaussian distribution and an energy absorbing layer. For the verification of new 3-D nonlinear wave driver, we numerically simulate the sloshing problem within a parabolic water basin triggered by a Gaussian hump and uniformly inclined water surface by Thacker (1981). It turns out that the qualitative behavior of sloshing caused by relaxing the external force which makes a free surface convex or uniformly inclined is successfully simulated even though phase error is visible and an inundation height shrinks as numerical simulation more proceeds. For the more severe test, we also simulate the nonlinear shoaling and refraction over uniform beach of wedge shape. It is shown that numerically simulated waves are less refracted than the linear counterpart by Hamiltonian ray theory due to nonlinearity, energy dissipation at the bottom and side walls, energy loss induced by breaking, and the hydraulic jump occurring when breaking waves encounter a down-rush by the preceding wave.
Characteristics of Water Level and Velocity Changes due to the Propagation of Bore
Lee, Kwang Ho ; Kim, Do Sam ; Yeh, Harry ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 575~589
In the present work, we investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of a turbulent bore, such as tsunami bore and tidal bore, generated by the removal of a gate with water impounded on one side. The bore generation system is similar to that used in a general dam-break problem. In order to the numerical simulation of the formation and propagation of a bore, we consider the incompressible flows of two immiscible fluids, liquid and gas, governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The interface tracking between two fluids is achieved by the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique and the M-type cubic interpolated propagation (MCIP) scheme is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The MCIP method is a low diffusive and stable scheme and is generally extended the original one-dimensional CIP to higher dimensions, using a fractional step technique. Further, large eddy simulation (LES) closure scheme, a cost-effective approach to turbulence simulation, is used to predict the evolution of quantities associated with turbulence. In order to verify the applicability of the developed numerical model to the bore simulation, laboratory experiments are performed in a wave tank. Comparisons are made between the numerical results by the present model and the experimental data and good agreement is achieved.
On Reasonable Boundary Condition for Inclined Seabed/Structure in Case of the Numerical Model with Quadrilateral Mesh System
Hur, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Woo-Dong ; Bae, Ki-Seong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 591~594
Present study aims at the development of a reasonable boundary condition for a structure over inclined seabed in case of the numerical model with quadrilateral mesh system. The technique for the inclined impermeable/permeable boundary in the quadrilateral mesh is newly proposed. The new technique and LES-WASS-3D model (Hur and Lee, 2007) have been used for the investigation of the dynamics of fluid field, and validated through the comparison with a typical stair-type boundary condition. 3-Dimensional numerical model with Large Eddy Simulation is called LES-WASS-3D, and is able to simulate directly interaction of WAve Structure Sea bed/Sandy beach.
End-use Analysis of Household Water by Metering
Kim, Hwa Soo ; Lee, Doo Jin ; Kim, Ju Whan ; Jung, Kwan Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 595~601
The purpose of this study is to investigate the trends and patterns of various kind of water uses in a household by metering in Korea. Water use components are classified by toilet, washbowl, bathing, laundry, kitchen, miscellaneous. Flow meters are installed in 140 household selected by sampling in all around Korea. The data are gathered by web-based data collection system from the year 2002 to 2006, considering pre-investigated data such as occupation, revenue, family members, housing types, age, floor area, water saving devices, education, miscellaneous. Reliable data are selected by upper fence method for each observed water use component and statistical characteristics are estimated for each residential type to determine liter per capita per day. Estimated domestic per capita day show an indoor water use with the range from 150 lpcd to 169 lpcd for each housing type as the order of high rise apartment, multi-house, and single house. As the order of consuming amount among water use components, it is investigated that toilet (38.5 lpcd) is the first, and the second is laundry water (30.8 lpcd), the third is kitchen (28.4 lpcd), the fourth is bathtub (24.7 lpcd), the next is washbowl (15.4 lpcd). The results are compared with water uses in U.K. and U.S. As life style has been changed into western style, pattern of water use in Korea is tend to be similar with the U.S. water use pattern. Compared with the surveying results by Bradley, on 1985. Thirty liter of total use increased with the advancement of economic level, and a little change of water use pattern can be found. Especially, toilet water take almost half part of total water use and laundry water shows lowest as 11% in surveying at the year of 1985. But, this study shows that 39 liter, 28% of toilet water, has been decreased by the spread of saving devices and campaign. It is supposed that the spread large sized laundry machine make by-hand laundry has been decreased and water use increased. Unit water amount of each end-use in household can be applied to design factor for water and wastewater facilities, and it play a role as information in establishing water demand forecasting and conservation policy.
Analysis on Statistical Characteristics of Household Water End-uses
Kim, Hwa Soo ; Lee, Doo Jin ; Park, No Suk ; Jung, Kwan Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 5B, 2008, Pages 603~614
End-uses of household water have been changed by a life style, housing type, weather, water rate and water supply facilities etc. and those variables can be considered as an internal and exogenous factors to estimate long-term demand forecasts. Analysis of influential factors on water consumption in households would give an explanation to cause on the change of trend and would help predicting the water demand of end-use in household. The purpose of this study is to analyze the demand trends and patterns of household water uses by metering and questionnaire such as occupation, revenue, numbers of family member, housing types, age, floor area and installation of water saving device, etc. The peak water uses were shown at Saturday among weekdays and July in a year based on the analysis results of water use pattern. A steep increase of total water volume can be found in the analysis of water demand trend according to temperature from
, while there are no significant variations in the phase of more than
, with an almost stable demand. Washbowl water shows the highest and toilet water shows the lowest relation with temperature in correlation analysis results. In the results of ANOVA to find the significant difference in each unit water use by exogenous factors such as housing type, occupation, number of generation, residential area and income et al., difference was shown in bathtub water by housing type and shown in kitchen, toilet and miscellaneous water by numbers of resident. Especially, definite differences in components except washbowl and bathtub water, could be found by numbers of resident. Based on the result, average residents in a house should be carefully considered and the results can be applied as reference information, in decision making process for predicting water demand and establishing water conservation policy. It is expected that these can be used as design factors in planning stage for water and wastewater facilities.