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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6D - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 6C - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 6B - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 6A - Nov 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5D - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5C - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5B - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 5A - Sep 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4D - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4C - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4B - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4A - Jul 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3D - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3C - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3B - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3A - May 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2D - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2C - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2B - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2A - Mar 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1A - Jan 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1D - Jan 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1C - Jan 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1B - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Classification of Streams and Application of Channel Evolution Model in Korea
Rim, Chang-Soo ; Lee, Joon Ho ; Jung, Jae Wook ; Yoon, Sei Eui ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 615~625
In this study, classification of streams was conducted for Ji Stream, a tributary to the Geum River and Yo Stream, a tributary to the Seomjin River, and in addition, channel evolution model to the same streams was applied. The classification approaches suggested by Rosgen and Korea Institute of Construction Technology (KICT) were conducted. The channel evolution model suggested by Schumm et al. (1984) was applied. Based on the application results of Rosgen approach, Ji Stream and Yo stream show the characteristics of mountainous stream with pebbles. The application results of channel evolution model indicated that the current condition of Ji Stream and Yo Stream is a state of equilibrium, balancing the sediment supply and sediment transport capacity. The results of this study can be used as a fundamental data for water control project, river restoration and appropriate channel planning.
Evaluation of Effective Wall Roughness for 3D Computational Analysis of Open Channel Flow
Choi, Junwoo ; Baek, Un Il ; Lee, Sang Mok ; Yoon, Sung Bum ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 627~634
In a numerical simulation of open channel turbulent flows using RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes) equations model equipped with VOF (Volume of Fluid) scheme, the determination of wall roughness for wall function was studied. The roughness constant, based on the law-of-the-wall for flow on rough walls, obtained by experimental works for pipe flows is employed in general wall functions. However, this constant of wall function is the function of Froude number in open channel flows. Thus, the wall roughness should be determined by taking into account the effect of Froude number. In addition, the wall roughness should be corresponding to Manning's roughness coefficient widely used for open channels. In this study, the relation between wall roughness height as an input condition and Manning's roughness coefficient was investigated, and an equation for effective wall roughness height considering the characteristics of numerical models was proposed as a function of Manning's roughness coefficient.
Measurement of the Equivalent Resistance Coefficient for Multi-piers in Open Channel
Kwon, Kab Keun ; Choi, Junwoo ; Yoon, Sung Bum ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 635~642
The influence of unsubmerged resistance bodies in a channel turbulence flow on energy loss was investigated by hydraulic experiments. Square-shaped multi-piers were used for unsubmerged structure or rigid vegetation in an open channel. In experimental channel flows multi-piers were arranged in double or single row along the channel direction, and mean-concept uniform elevations were attained and measured with a set of discharges and channel slopes. Applying the experimental results to the Manning equation, the equivalent resistance coefficient n, which implicates flow resistance and energy loss due to bottom friction as well as drag, was evaluated with varying the interval of piers and the uniform water depth. And the experimentally evaluated n values were compared with the semi-theoretical formula of the equivalent resistance coefficient derived from momentum analysis including a drag interaction coefficient. From the comparisons it was found that the interaction effect of piers on flow resistance was significant for the overall energy losses in a channel flow. The n values decrease when the interval of piers in flow-direction is less than about 2.2 times of the pier width. And it was also found that the n values increase with the 2/3 power of water depth in the theoretical formula, since the drag interaction coefficient was found to be mostly dependent on the interval of piers.
Numerical Simulations of Cellular Secondary Currents in Open-Channel Flows using Non-linear k-ε Model
Kang, Hyeongsik ; Choi, Sung-Uk ; Park, Moonhyeong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 643~651
In the present paper, turbulent open-channel flows over longitudinal bedforms are numerically simulated. The Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates are solved with the non-linear
model by Speziale( 1987). First, the developed model is applied to rectangular open channel flows for purposes of model validation and parameter sensitivity studies. It is found that the parameters
are important to the intensity of secondary currents and the level of turbulent anisotropy, respectively. It is found that the non-linear
model can hardly reproduce the turbulence anisotropy near the free surface. However, the overall pattern of the secondary currents by the present model is seen to coincide with measured data. Then, numerical simulations of turbulent flows over longitudinal bedforms are performed, and the simulated results are compared with the experimental data in the literature. The simulated secondary currents clearly show upflows and downflows over the ridges and troughs, respectively. The numerical results of secondary currents, streamwise mean velocity, and turbulence structures compare favorably with the measured data. However, it is observed that the secondary currents towards the troughs were significantly weak compared with the measured data.
Assessment of Future Climate and Land Use Change Impact on Hydrology and Stream Water Quality of Anseongcheon Watershed Using SWAT Model (I)
Lee, Yong Jun ; Park, Jong Yoon ; Park, Min Ji ; Kim, Seong Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 653~663
The purpose of this study is to establish a database of weather, hydrology, point source pollution management, reservoir release and tillage management for SWAT model evaluation of Anseongcheon watershed (
, the upstream of Gongdo water level gauging station), and to use them for the following research of future climate and land use change impact on streamflow and stream water quality. It is expected that the database can achieve the practical analysis of current watershed hydrologic and environmental condition. The model calibration and validation were conducted using the constructed database. The model results showed that the tillage management affected the temporal shift of pollutant loads, and changed the flow pattern of pollutant transport through cultivation area. It was identified that the April and May irrigation water supply from the agricultural reservoir also affected the streamflow of downstream. The data application of pollutants treatment facilities and tillage management of cultivation area showed about 10% difference in the simulation results of stream water quality. The data establishment of agricultural reservoir operation, the tillage management of cultivated area within the watershed and the attributes inclusion of pollutants treatment facilities were proved to be important in SWAT model evaluation. The results of model setup in this study are expected for more reliable model application in the following research of future climate and land use change impact on hydrology and stream water quality of the study watershed.
Assessment of Future Climate and Land Use Change on Hydrology and Stream Water Quality of Anseongcheon Watershed Using SWAT Model (II)
Lee, Yong Jun ; An, So Ra ; Kang, Boosik ; Kim, Seong Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 665~673
This study is to assess the future potential climate and land use change impact on streamflow and stream water quality of the study watershed using the established model parameters (I). The CCCma (Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis) CGCM2 (Canadian Global Coupled Model) based on IPCC SRES (Special Report Emission Scenarios) A2 and B2 scenarios were adopted for future climate condition, and the data were downscaled by Stochastic Spatio-Temporal Random Cascade Model technique. The future land use condition was predicted by using modified CA-Markov (Cellular Automata-Markov chain) technique with the past time series of Landsat satellite images. The model was applied for the future extreme precipitation cases of around 2030, 2060 and 2090. The predicted results showed that the runoff ratio increased 8% based on the 2005 precipitation (1160.1 mm) and runoff ratio (65%). Accordingly the Sediment, T-N and T-P also increased 120%, 16% and 10% respectively for the case of 50% precipitation increase. This research has the meaning in providing the methodological procedures for the evaluation of future potential climate and land use changes on watershed hydrology and stream water quality. This model result are expected to plan in advance for healthy and sustainable watershed management and countermeasures of climate change.
Calibration of the Hargreaves Equation for the Reference Evapotranspiration Estimation on a Nation-Wide Scale
Lee, Khil-Ha ; Park, Jae-Hyeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 675~681
In this study, the daily-based reference evapotranspiration was evaluated with Hargreaves equation at the 23 meteorological stations for the time period of 1997-2006. The Hargreaves coefficient was self-calibrated to give the best fit with Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration, being regarded as a reference. On the basis of the estimated parameter set, a generalized regression was conducted to estimate the Hargreaves evapotranspiration by just using temperature data. This study will contribute to water resources planning, irrigation schedule, and environmental management.
Development of Flood Prediction Model using Hydrologic Observations in Cheonggye Stream
Bae, Deg-Hyo ; Jeong, Chang Sam ; Yoon, Seong Sim ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 683~690
The objectives of this study are to provide an observation-based urban flood prediction model and to evaluate their performance on a restored Cheonggye stream. The study area, which has its own unique hydrologic and flooding conditions that can be characterized the standard of flood occurrence by watergate opening and walk lane inundation, measured stream discharges at the 5 sites and watergate opening and walk lane inundation through the main stream since 2006. This study derived the relationship between precipitation intensity and watergate opening and walk lane inundation time by using the observations of 2006 and verified their performance on 2007 flood events. The result showed that the coefficients of determination are ranged on 0.57-0.75, which would be acceptable if considering the complexity of the area and the proposed model simplicity. It also suggested the continuous observation of these properties is required for further improvement of the models.
A Non-Hydrostatic Pressure Model and its Implementation of the Dynamic Boundary Condition
Lee, Jong Wook ; Lee, Jin Woo ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 691~696
In this paper, a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic pressure model for free surface flows using a normalized vertical coordinate system is presented. To strongly couple the free surface and non-hydrostatic pressure in the momentum equations, a double predictor-corrector method is employed. This research is especially focused on implementing the dynamic boundary condition (a zero pressure condition) at the free surface. This boundary condition can be specified accurately with a small modification to existing models. Numerical results with and without this modification clearly show that a precise implementation of the dynamic boundary condition is paramountly important.
A Modified grid-based KIneMatic wave STOrm Runoff Model (ModKIMSTORM) (I) - Theory and Model -
Jung, In Kyun ; Lee, Mi Seon ; Park, Jong Yoon ; Kim, Seong Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 697~707
The grid-based KIneMatic wave STOrm Runoff Model (KIMSTORM) by Kim (1998) predicts the temporal variation and spatial distribution of overland flow, subsurface flow and stream flow in a watershed. The model programmed with C++ language on Unix operating system adopts single flowpath algorithm for water balance simulation of flow at each grid element. In this study, we attempted to improve the model by converting the code into FORTRAN 90 on MS Windows operating system and named as ModKIMSTORM. The improved functions are the addition of GAML (Green-Ampt & Mein-Larson) infiltration model, control of paddy runoff rate by flow depth and Manning's roughness coefficient, addition of baseflow layer, treatment of both spatial and point rainfall data, development of the pre- and post-processor, and development of automatic model evaluation function using five evaluation criteria (Pearson's coefficient of determination, Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency, the deviation of runoff volume, relative error of the peak runoff rate, and absolute error of the time to peak runoff). The modified model adopts Shell Sort algorithm to enhance the computational performance. Input data formats are accepted as raster and MS Excel, and model outputs viz. soil moisture, discharge, flow depth and velocity are generated as BSQ, ASCII grid, binary grid and raster formats.
A Modified grid-based KIneMatic wave STOrm Runoff Model (ModKIMSTORM) (II) - Application and Analysis -
Jung, In Kyun ; Shin, Hyung Jin ; Park, Jin Hyeog ; Kim, Seong Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 709~721
This paper is to test the applicability of ModKIMSTORM (Modified KIneMatic Wave STOrm Runoff Model) by applying it to Namgangdam watershed of
. Model inputs (DEM, land use, soil related information) were prepared in 500 m spatial resolution. Using five typhoon events (Saomi in 2000, Rusa in 2002, Maemi in 2003, Megi in 2004 and Ewiniar in 2006) and two storm events (May of 2003 and July of 2004), the model was calibrated and verified by comparing the simulated streamflow with the observed one at the outlet of the watershed. The Pearson's coefficient of determination
, Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency E, the deviation of runoff volumes
, relative error of the peak runoff rate
, and absolute error of the time to peak runoff
showed the average value of 0.984, 0.981, 3.63%, 0.003, and 0.48 hr for 4 storms calibration and 0.937, 0.895, 8.08%, 0.138, and 0.73 hr for 3 storms verification respectively. Among the model parameters, the stream Manning's roughness coefficient was the most sensitive for peak runoff and the initial soil moisture content was highly sensitive for runoff volume fitting. We could look into the behavior of hyrologic components from the spatial results during the storm periods and get some clue for the watershed management by storms.
Uncertainty Assessment of Regional Frequency Analysis for Generalized Logistic Distribution
Shin, Hongjoon ; Nam, Woosung ; Jung, Younghun ; Heo, Jun-Haeng ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 723~729
Confidence intervals of growth curves are calculated to assess the uncertainty of index flood method as a regional frequency analysis. The asymptotic variance of quantile estimator for the generalized logistic distribution is introduced to evaluate confidence intervals. In addition, the variances of at-site frequency estimator and regional frequency estimator are used to evaluate an efficiency index. The efficiency indexes for 14 homogeneous regions based on 378 stations show that index flood method estimators are more efficient than at-site frequency estimators. It is shown that the number of sites in a region needs to be limited for regional gain.
Flow and Mixing Behavior at the Tidal Reach of Han River
Seo, Il Won ; Song, Chang Geun ; Lee, Myung Eun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 731~741
Previous studies on the numerical simulation at the tidal reach of Han River tend to restrict downstream boundary as Jeon-ryu station due to difficulties in gaining cross section data and tidal elevation values at Yu-do. But, in this study, geometries beyond the confluence of Gok-reung stream and Im-jin River are constructed based on the numerical sea map; tidal elevation at the downstream boundary, Yu-do is estimated by harmonic analysis of In-cheon tide gage station so that hydrodynamic and diffusion behavior have been analyzed. The domain ranging from Shin-gok submerged weir to Yu-do is selected (which is 36.8 km in length). RMA-2 and RAM4 developed by Il Won Seo (2008) are applied to simulate flow and diffusion behavior, respectively. Numerical results of flow characteristic are compared with the measured data at Jeon-ryu station. Simulation is carried out from June 23 to 25 in 2006 on the ground that hydrologic data is satisfactory and tidal difference is huge during that period. The result shows that reverse flow occurs 5 times according to the tidal elevation at Yu-do and the maximum reverse flow is observed up to Jang-hang IC, which is 32.9 km in length. Also analysis is focused on the process of generation and disappearance of reverse flow, the distribution of water surface elevation and velocity along the maximum velocity line, and the transport of nonconservative pollutant. Pollutant injected from Gul-po stream spreads widely across the river; however, the size of BOD cloud entering from Gok-reung stream is relatively small because water depth at the mid and left side becomes deeper and maximum velocity occurs along the right bank so that transverse mixing is completed quickly. Finally, mixing characteristic of horizontal salinity distribution is obtained by estimating the salinity input with analytical solution of 1D advection-dispersion equation.
Development of Decision Support System for Flood Forecasting and Warning in Urban Stream
Yi, Jaeeung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 28, issue 6B, 2008, Pages 743~750
Due to unusual climate change and global warming, drought and flood happen frequently not only in Korea but also in all over the world. It leads to the serious damages and injuries in urban areas as well as rural areas. Since the concentration time is short and the flood flows increase urgently in urban stream basin, the chances of damages become large once heavy storm occurs. A decision support system for flood forecasting and warning in urban stream is developed as an alternative to alleviate the damages from heavy storm. It consists of model base management system based on ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System), database management system with real time data building capability and user friendly dialog generation and management system. Applying the system to the Tanceon river basin, it can forecast and warn the stream flows from the heavy storm in real time and alleviate the damages.