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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6D - Nov 2009
Volume 29, Issue 6C - Nov 2009
Volume 29, Issue 6B - Nov 2009
Volume 29, Issue 6A - Nov 2009
Volume 29, Issue 5D - Sep 2009
Volume 29, Issue 5C - Sep 2009
Volume 29, Issue 5B - Sep 2009
Volume 29, Issue 5A - Sep 2009
Volume 29, Issue 4D - Jul 2009
Volume 29, Issue 4B - Jul 2009
Volume 29, Issue 4A - Jul 2009
Volume 29, Issue 4C - May 2009
Volume 29, Issue 3D - May 2009
Volume 29, Issue 3C - May 2009
Volume 29, Issue 3B - May 2009
Volume 29, Issue 3A - May 2009
Volume 29, Issue 2D - Mar 2009
Volume 29, Issue 2C - Mar 2009
Volume 29, Issue 2B - Mar 2009
Volume 29, Issue 2A - Mar 2009
Volume 29, Issue 1D - Jan 2009
Volume 29, Issue 1C - Jan 2009
Volume 29, Issue 1B - Jan 2009
Volume 29, Issue 1A - Jan 2009
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Tension-Stiffening Model and Application of Ultra High Strength Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung ; Na, Chaekuk ; Kim, Sung-Wook ; Kang, Sutae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 267~279
A numerical model that can simulate the nonlinear behavior of ultra high strength fiber reinforced concrete (UHSFRC) structures subjected to monotonic loading is introduced. The material properties of UHSFRC, such as compressive and tensile strength or elastic modulus, are different from normal strength reinforced concrete. The uniaxial compressive stress-strain relationship of UHSFRC is designed on the basis of experimental result, and the equivalent uniaxial stress-strain relationship is introduced for proper estimation of UHSFRC structures. The steel is uniformly distributed over the concrete matrix with particular orientation angle. In advance, this paper introduces a numerical model that can simulate the tension-stiffening behavior of tension part of the axial member on the basis of the bond-slip relationship. The reaction of steel fiber is considered for the numerical model after cracks of the concrete matrix with steel fibers are formed. Finally, the introduced numerical model is validated by comparison with test results for idealized UHSFRC beams.
Nonlinear Analysis of Steel-concrete Composite Girder Using Interface Element
Kwon, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Moon Kyum ; Cho, Kyung Hwan ; Won, Jong Hwa ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 281~290
In this study, an analysis technique of hybrid girder considering nonlinearity of steel-concrete contact surface is presented. Steel-concrete hybrid girder shows partial-interaction behavior due to the deformation of shear connectors, slip and detachment at the interface, and cracks under the applied loads. Therefore, the partial-interaction approach becomes more reasonable. Contact surface is modeled by interface element and analyzed nonlinearly because of cost of time and effort to detailed model and analysis. Steel and Concrete are modeled considering non-linearity of materials. Material property of contact surface is obtained from push-out test and input to interface element. For the constitutive models, Drucker-Prager and smeared cracking model are used for concrete in compression and tension, respectively, and a von-Mises model is used for steel. This analysis technique is verified by comparing it with test results. Using verified analysis technique, various analyses are performed with different parameters such as nonlinear material property of interface element and prestress. The results are compared with linear analysis result and analysis result with the assumption of full-interaction.
Time Dependent Reduction of Clamping Forces of High Strength Bolt F13T
Jo, Jae Byung ; Seong, Taek-Ryong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 291~297
Relaxation of high strength bolts was investigated. Block type and splice type specimens were fabricated with different types of bolts and different clamping lengths. Bolts were tightened to the specified torque. Clamping forces were measured through strain gauges installed on the shafts of bolts, while specimens were kept in a constant temperature and humidity. In all cases, ratio of clamping force reduction is less than 10%. Test results of different types of specimens and bolts and different clamping lengths were compared each other by using a simple model, which is suggested in this study for the estimation of bolt relaxation. The suggested model shows reasonably good agreements with test results for all cases. No difference is found between F13T and F10T bolts, but Dacro coated bolts shows higher relaxation than black bolts by approx. 30%. And also the comparison of test results shows that ratios of bolt relaxation become larger as clamping lengths of bolt shorter and the number of faying surfaces greater.
An Experimental Study on the Stress Behavior of Coped Stringers in Steel Railway Bridge - I : the Reason Why Crack Occurs
Li, Guang Ri ; Park, Young Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 299~305
In this study, in order to research the causes lead to fatigue crack in the coped stringer of a steel railway bridge, we take the steel railway bridge which actually occurs fatigue crack as a research object and manufacture the full size of crossbeam-stringer and floor system model to perform the experimental test. The results indicates that, the fatigue crack in the top of coped area of stringers is caused by the reciprocal action of the in plane stress in the tip of coped area of web by the negative moment occurred in the end of the stringers. While the fatigue crack in the bottom of coped area of stringers is due to the plane stress caused by the out-plane deformation relative to the bottom of coped area of web of the fixed end in the stringers.
An Experimental Study on the Stress Behavior of Coped Stringers in Steel Railway Bridge - II : Repair · Strengthening Method
Li, Guang Ri ; Park, Young Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 307~313
In this study, in order to research the repair-strengthening methods, when fatigue crack occurs in the coped stringers of a steel railway bridge, we manufacture the full size of crossbeam-stringer and floor system model. Also the experimental test is performed on the coped stringers applying the repair-strengthening methods using the stop hole, combination plate, connection plate, bracket, and so on. The results indicate that, the most effective method is to set up connection plate and bracket in the top flange and bottom flange of the stringers, while we can consider the method of punching stop holes in the end of the crack as a subsidiary method. It is necessary to set up the combination plate when the length of crack is quite long.
Evaluation of Structural Performance in CFT Truss Girder with the Arch-Shaped Lower Chord
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Song, Na-Young ; Ma, Hyang-Wook ; Oh, Hyun-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 315~327
In this study, the static test of CFT truss girders for different f/L ratios was conducted to determine how the ultimate strength of the CFT truss girder was affected by different f/L ratios. A total of two CFT truss girders were constructed and tested under bending condition. The length of all specimens is 20,000 mm. The CFT truss girder is a tubular truss composed of chord members made of concrete-filled circular tubes. The main parameter analyzed in the experimental study was the f/L ratio. This factor was experimentally investigated to assess their influence on ultimate strength and stiffness. The test results show that CFT truss girder has good elastic-plastic property and ductility. The presence of the f/L ratios in CFT truss girders alters its ultimate strength because of the global stiffness of the CFT truss girders. The ultimate strength of CFT truss girders increases as the f/L ratio increases. If the f/L ratio of the CFT truss girders increases twofold, the ultimate strengths increase by 80%. The CFT truss girders showed that they retained large deformation capacity, even after reaching the ultimate strength. Results of this investigation demonstrated the potential for efficiently using a CFT truss as a bridge girder.
Cracking Behavior of Concrete Bridge Deck Due to Differential Drying Shrinkage
Yang, Joo Kyoung ; Lee, Yun ; Yang, Eun Ik ; Park, Hae Geun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 329~335
The purpose of this study is to provide the efficient method and guideline of controlling the cracking in bridge deck concrete due to differential drying shrinkage. Drying shrinkage cracking is mainly influenced by the moisture diffusion coefficient that determines moisture diffusion rate inside concrete structures. In addition to the diffusion coefficient, surface coefficient of concrete surface and relative humidity of ambient air simultaneously affect the moisture evaporation from concrete inside to external air outside. Within the framework of cracking shrinkage cracking mechanism, it is necessary to conceive the numerical analysis, which involves these three influencing factors to predict and control the shrinkage cracking of concrete. In this study, moisture diffusion and stress analysis corresponding to drying shrinkage on bridge deck are performed with consideration of diffusion coefficient, surface coefficient, and relative humidity of ambient air. From the numerical results, it is found that cracking behavior due to differential drying shrinkage of bridge deck concrete shows different feature according to three influencing factors and the methodology of controlling of drying shrinkage cracks can be suggested from this study.
A Structural Analysis Model for the Initial Configuration of a Suspension Bridge Considering the Erection Method of Stiffening Girders
Ko, Seong Seok ; Kang, Sung Hoo ; Park, Sun Joon ; Jung, Jae Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 337~346
To determine the initial configuration of the suspension bridge appropriate idealization model and analysis procedure are proposed as considering the boundary and loading conditions of stiffening girder during the erection. The construction stages of a suspension bridge are divided into two steps which are the first stage of the erection and the second stage of the completion in terms of the erection time of stiffening girders, and depending upon such an erection step the initial configuration analysis is classified the first configuration analysis and the revision analysis of the second configuration. The boundary and loading conditions and the analysis procedures for each stage are suggested and the results are verified by comparing with existing data. The results show that the proposed method provides better solution compared to the results using existing method.
Influence of Mineral Admixtures on the Diffusion Coefficient for Chloride Ion in Concrete
Bae, Su-Ho ; Park, Jae-Im ; Lee, Kwang-Myong ; Choi, Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 347~353
The qualitative factors influencing the ingress of chloride ion into concrete are water-binder (W/B) ratio, cement type, age, chloride ion concentration of given environment, wet and dry conditions, etc. Thus, an objective of this experimental research is to investigate the effects of cement types and environmental conditions on the chloride ion diffusion characteristics in concrete through the chloride ion diffusion test. For this purpose, the diffusion coefficients for chloride ion in concrete with three types of cement such as ordinary portland cement (OPC), binary blended cement (BBC), and ternary blended cement (TBC), were measured for the concrete specimens with W/B ratios of 32%, 38%, and 43%, respectively. The diffusion coefficients for chloride ion were also measured for the concrete specimens with W/B ratio of 43%, which were subjected to standard curing and field exposure conditions. It was observed from the test results that the resistance against chloride ion penetration increased with decreasing W/B ratio and those of BBC and TBC concretes were greater than that of OPC concrete. Therefore, it was revealed that the use of these cements containing mineral admixtures is required to extend the service life of RC structures exposed to chloride environment. On the other hand, it was noted that the resistance against chloride ion penetration of field exposure test specimens was slightly lower than that of standard curing test specimens due to the penetration of chloride ion under the irregular ambient temperature, splash of wave, and cycle of wet and dry.
Heat Transfer Analysis of Concrete Members Considering Evaporation Heat under High Temperature
Lee, Taegyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 355~363
When water inside the concrete member evaporates by high temperature, the evaporation heat which absorbs surrounding temperature occurs. The rate of increment of the internal temperature in concrete is reduced due to the evaporation heat in spite of continuously increasing external temperature. In this paper, the prediction method of internal temperature of concrete members considering the evaporation heat under the high temperature is presented. Finite element method is employed to facilitate thermal analysis for any position of member. And the thermal characteristics models of high strength concrete affected by high temperature are proposed. To demonstrate the validity of this numerical procedure, the prediction by the proposed algorithm is compared with the test results of other researchers. The proposed algorithm shows a good agreement with the experimental results including the phenomenon that temperature is lost by the evaporation heat.
Experimental Study on the Time-dependent Property of Chloride Diffusivity of Concrete
Choi, Doo Sun ; Choi, Jae Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 365~371
It is time-consuming to estimate chloride diffusivity of concrete by concentration difference test. For the reason chloride diffusivity of concrete is mainly tested by electrically accelerated method, which is accelerating the movement of chloride ion by potential difference. In this study, portland cement concrete and concrete containing with ground granulated blast-furnace slag (40 and 60% of cement by weight) with water-cementitious material ratio 40, 45, 50 and 60% were manufactured. To compare with chloride diffusivity calculated from the electrically accelerated test and immersed test in artifical seawater, chloride diffusivity tests were conducted. From the results of regression analysis, regression equation between accelerated chloride diffusivity and immersed chloride diffusivity was linear function. And the determinant coefficient was 0.96 for linear equation.
A Study on Moisture Transport of Artificial Lightweight Concrete
Lee, Chang Soo ; Choi, Sang Hyun ; Park, Jong Hyok ; Kim, Young Ook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 373~384
For the first step on the quantitative evaluation of shrinkage reduction and differential shrinkage analysis of lightweight aggregate concrete, this study sets the moisture transport model of concrete by pre-absorbed water of porous lightweight aggregates and measured effective moisture diffusion coefficient, moisture capacity, degree of humidity supply and degree of humidity consumption by water binder ratio and aggregate type. The effective moisture diffusion coefficient in steady state caused by humidity difference between inside and outside of concrete had low value as low water-binder ratio. And in case of same water-binder ratio, effective moisture diffusion of mixtures used normal aggregates were lower than those used lightweight aggregates. To determine moisture store capability of concrete - moisture capacity, moisture contents were measured in 9 humidity conditions. As a result moisture contents of mixtures used lightweight aggregates was higher than mixtures used normal aggregates in all humidity conditions. This study measured lightweight aggregates' degree of humidity supply that applicable to normal atmospheric environment (above RH 50%) and made it quantitatively. Also amount of moisture release was set as a exponential function that represents a clear trend proportion to time and inverse proportion to humidity of the surroundings. As the result of measurement about degree of moisture consumption inside concrete following the internal consumption caused by cement hydration self-drying, it was showed that rapid decrease of humidity, around 10%, at early ages (7~10 days) when water-binder ratio is 0.3 and slow decrease around 5% and 1% when water-binder ratio is 0.4 and 0.5.
Relation Between Shrinkage and Humidity on Lightweight Concrete and Normal Concrete by Water-Cement Ratio
Lee, Chang Soo ; Park, Jong Hyok ; Jung, Bong Jo ; Choi, Young Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 385~393
This study grasped the relationship between relative humidity in concrete and concrete shrinkage followed by pre-absorbed water of porous lightweight aggregates through measurements of concrete shrinkage and humidity and comparisons with established research results. It was showed that shrinkage reduction effect of lightweight concrete is 36% at 7 days early ages and 25% at 180 days long-term ages when water-binder ratio is 0.3. It also showed that shrinkage reduction effect is 19% at 7 days and 16% at 180 days when water-binder ratio is 0.4 and 37%, 32% when water-binder ratio is 0.5. The moisture supply effect of lightweight aggregates was remarkable at early age within 7~10 days irrespective of water-binder ratio. In case of waterbinder ratio is 0.3, the relationship between shrinkage and internal humidity of concrete has been underestimated regardless of applied existing model type and in case of water-binder ratio is 0.4, 0.5, measurement values are relatively similar with existing model equations. Finally this study did regression analyses about the relation among the humidity change and the shrinkage strain as a high-degree polynomial and derived parameters that can connect moisture movement analysis with differential shrinkage analysis in case of considering relative humidity at the time by moisture movement analysis of concrete.
Precast Segmental PSC Bridge Columns with Precast Concrete Footings : I. Development and Verification of System
Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Park, Se-Jin ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 395~405
The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of precast segmental PSC bridge columns with precast concrete footings. The proposed system can reduce work at a construction site and makes construction periods shorter. The precast concrete footings is intended to support precast segmental PSC bridge columns and provides an alternative to current cast-inplace systems, particularly for areas where reduced construction time is desired. Shortened construction time, in turn, leads to important safety and economic advantages when traffic disruption or rerouting is necessary. A model of precast segmental PSC bridge columns was tested under a constant axial load and a cyclically reversed horizontal load. In the companion paper, the experimental and analytical study for the performance assessment of precast segmental PSC bridge columns with precast concrete footings is performed.
Precast Segmental PSC Bridge Columns with Precast Concrete Footings : II. Experiments and Analyses
Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Lee, Jae-Hoon ; Shin, Hyun-Mock ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 29, issue 4A, 2009, Pages 407~419
The purpose of this study is to investigate the seismic behavior of precast segmental PSC bridge columns with precast concrete footings and to provide the details and reference data. Six precast segmental PSC bridge columns were tested under a constant axial load and a cyclically reversed horizontal load. A computer program, RCAHEST (Reinforced Concrete Analysis in Higher Evaluation System Technology), for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures was used. A bonded or unbonded tendon element based on the finite element method, that can represent the interaction between tendon and concrete of prestressed concrete member, is used. A joint element is modified to predict the inelastic behaviors of segmental joints. This study documents the testing of precast segmental PSC bridge columns with precast concrete footings and presents conclusions based on the experimental and analytical findings.