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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 33, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of Heavy Vehicles Using Expressway Networks Based on Weigh-in-motion Data
Gil, Heungbae ; Kang, Sang Gyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1731~1740
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1731
The design life and durability of the bridges are strongly affected by the Gross Vehicle Weight(GVW) of heavyweight trucks. The Weigh-In-Motion(WIM) systems are typically used to collect information on truck total weight and speed. The statistical analysis of the GVW measured using High Speed WIM systems showed that most of heavy vehicles were from Vehicle Type 7, 10, and 12. The analysis was also carried out to determine goodness of fit with theoretical probability distributions. The normal distribution was shown to best describe the overall distribution of GVW. The top 10% of the GVW appeared to best fit by the Weibull 3 probability distribution.
A Structural Performance Test of a Full-scale Pretension PSC Girder
Kim, Tae Kyun ; Lee, Doo Sung ; Lee, Sung Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1741~1751
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1741
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the static behavior of a prestressed concrete (PSC) girder using pre-tension method. A 30m long full-scale pretension PSC girder is fabricated by the portable fabrication system and tested. All results have been compared to those obtained from F.E.A results. Deflections at the middle of girders have been measured for evaluation. Also, strains of concrete at the middle of span have been measured. From the results of experimental, the load when initial crack was developed was obtained to be 1.75 time the unfactered design load in the full-scale girder specimen. Also, the data of specimen are satisfied the desgin requirements of ductility on the Korea Bridge Design Specification(2010). In service state, the vertical deflection at center of test specimen when a initial crack was developed is satisfied the vertical deflection requirement under live load of the Korea Bridge Design Specification(2010). To verify the experimental results, we numerical analyze the test and confirmed that the data were similar with results from the test above. The pretension girder fabricated in site were found to have enough strength for safety under and after construction.
Ship Collision Risk Assessment and Sensitivity Analysis for Sea-crossing Bridges
Bae, Yong Gwi ; Lee, Seong Lo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1753~1763
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1753
In the design phase of sea-crossing bridge projects, ship collision problem is mostly participated in decision of substructure section and it would be performed by risk assessment and impact simulations. Ship collision risk is assessed by probability model which is similar to method II of Guide Specification and Commentary for Vessel Collision Design of Highway Bridge(AASHTO, 2009). However, several factors used in the applicable code are limited to inland waterways or have many local characteristics. Accordingly, it should be needed judgement of engineer or referred to related criteria, research finding. In this study risk assessment for In-cheon bridge and review of existing substructure's impact risk and resistance capacity are performed using the 2010's ship passage data. And then consideration regarding to presumption and applied instance of factors needed for risk assessment and related research findings are performed on the basis of AASHTO Guide's Method. As a result of study, adequate variable region of factors needed for risk assessment is defined and sensitivity analysis for appropriate region is performed. Consequently, factors that should be applied carefully or needed for direct analysis of local data are confirmed. This research could be fundamental material to risk assessment related to design for sea-crossing bridge taken into account ship collision.
Axial Behavior of Concrete Cylinders Confined with FRP Wires
Cho, Baiksoon ; Lee, Jong-Han ; Choi, Eunsoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1765~1775
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1765
The application of FRP wire as a mean of improving strength and ductility capacity of concrete cylinders under axial compressive load through confinement is investigated experimentally in this study. An experimental investigation involves axial compressive test of three confining amounts of FRP wire and three concrete compressive strengths. The effectiveness of FRP wire confinement on the concrete microstructure were examined by evaluating the internal concrete damage using axial, circumferential, and volumetric strains. The axial stress-strain relations of FRP wire confined concrete showed bilinear behavior with transition region. It showed strain-hardening behavior in the post-cracking region. The load carrying capacity was linearly increased with increasing of the amount of FRP wire. The ultimate strength of the 35 MPa specimen confined with 3 layer of FRP wire was increased by 286% compared to control one. When the concrete were effectively confined with FRP wire, horizontal cracks were formed by shearing. It was developed from sudden expansion of the concrete due to confinement ruptures at one side while the FRP wire was still working in hindering expansion of concrete at the other side of the crack. The FRP wire failure strains obtained from FRP wire confined concrete tests were 55~90%, average 69.5%, of the FRP wire ultimate uniaxial tensile strain. It was as high as any other FRP confined method. The magnitude of FRP wire failure strain was related to the FRP wire effectiveness.
Dimensionless Discharge Formula of Parshall Flumes with Arbitrary Shape
Kim, Sooyoung ; Lee, Seung Oh ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1777~1783
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1777
Parshall flume is more practical one of hydraulic structures for measuring flowrate in open channels and also has more advantages when the magnitude of flow velocity is relatively lower or much more sediments are brought from upstream. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has suggested the empirical formulas standardized by the sizes and dimensions of Parshall flume. However, the related studies using the numerical simulations and experiments are relatively rare. Therefore, in this study, it was examined whether the numerical simulation was adequacy for reproducing the hydraulic characteristics of Parshall flume as much as laboratory experiments by comparing the results from numerical simulations and empirical equation. And for arbitrary Parshall flume, that is unlisted in the ISO standards due to environmental conditions, constructional difficulties etc, thus, the hydraulic experiments should be conducted to obtain the empirical formulas for it, the results from numerical simulations were compared with those of laboratory experiments. Consequently, it was convinced that the numerical simulation about Parshall flume was simulated appropriately instead of experimental approach. And the dimensionless discharge equation of arbitrary ones was suggested using the results of numerical simulations, and the equation was validated by comparing with laboratory experimental results showing the maximum relative error of 2.3%. If the actual topography, the shape of inlet and submerged flow, which is excluded in this study, were carefully considered, it would be possible to supply a simple empirical discharge equation based on numerical results. Also, it can replete hard works for hydraulic experiment being error-prone with complex procedures to a minimum of economic effort.
Analysis of Shallow Water Flow in Curved Channel Using Dispersion Stresses Method
Song, Chang Geun ; Seo, Il Won ; Kim, Tae Won ; Ahn, Jungkyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1785~1795
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1785
Most of the previous models for analysis of shallow water flow assumed the uniform velocity distributions over the flow depth so that they produced incorrect velocity prediction at meandering part due to the ignorance of secondary current. In this study, the vertical velocity profiles in longitudinal and transverse direction were decomposed as the mean and variation components, which resulted in additional dispersion stresses terms in momentum equations. The proposed model were applied at the channels with
bends, and shallow water flow in curved channel was analyzed using dispersion stresses. The dispersion stresses acted as a sink or source in the momentum equations, which caused the transverse convection of momentum to shift from the inner bank to the outer bank.
Flood Routing of Sequential Failure of Dams by Numerical Model
Park, Se Jin ; Han, Kun Yeun ; Choi, Hyun Gu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1797~1807
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1797
Dams always have the possibility of failure due to unexpected natural phenomena. In particular, dam failure can cause huge damage including damage for humans and properties when dam downstream regions are densely populated or have important national facilities. Although many studies have been conducted on the analysis of flood waves about single dam failure thus far, studies on the analysis of flood waves about the sequential failure of dams are lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to calculate the peak discharge of sequential failure of dams through flood wave analysis of sequential failure of dams and this analysis techniques to predict flood wave propagation situation in downstream regions. To this end, failure flood wave analysis were conducted for Lawn Lake Dam which is a case of sequential failure of dams among actual failure cases using DAMBRK to test the suitability of the dam failure flood wave analysis model. Based on the results, flood wave analysis of sequential failure of dams were conducted for A dam in Korea assuming a virtual extreme flood to predict flood wave propagation situations and 2-dimensional flood wave analysis were conducted for major flooding points. Then, the 1, 2-dimensional flood wave analysis were compared and analyzed. The results showed goodness-of-fit values exceeding 90% and thus the accuracy of the 1-dimensional sequential failure of dams simulation could be identified. The results of this study are considered to be able to contribute to the provision of basic data for the establishment of disaster prevention measures for rivers related to sequential failure of dams.
Comparison of Data-based Real-Time Flood Forecasting Model
Choi, Hyun Gu ; Han, Kun Yeun ; Roh, Hong Sik ; Park, Se Jin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1809~1827
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1809
Recently we need to take various measures to prepare for extreme flood that occur due to climate change. It is important that establish flood forecasting system to prepare flood over non-structure measures. The objective of this study is to develop superior real-time flood forecasting model by comparing the Neuro-fuzzy model and the multiple linear regression model. The Neuro-fuzzy model and the multiple linear regression model are established using same input data and applied for various flood events in Nakdong basin. The results show that the Neuro-fuzzy model can carry out flood forecasting results more accurately than the multiple linear regression model. This study can contribute to the establishment of a high accuracy flood information system that secure lead time in Nakdong basin.
A Study on the Effect of Dredging and Operation of Weirs on Hydraulic Characteristics in Nakdong River
Ahn, Jung Min ; Lyu, Siwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1829~1840
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1829
It is essential to understand the hydraulic characteristics in accordance with the changes in the river environment and operating hydraulic structures for increasing flood-control capacity. The objective of this study is to analysis the effect of dredging and operation of weirs on hydraulic characteristics in Nakdong River(Seongju~Imhaejin). HEC-RAS model has been used to examine the hydraulic characteristics with considering the flow transition through the unsteady flow analysis and the information about the specifications of multi-functional weirs. The relationship between Manning n and roughness height k, the effect of weir installation and operation on the flow and stage, and the bed change resulted from the river treatment project have been examined by steady and unsteady flow analysis. It is expected that the result from this study can be the basic data for the river treatment and management.
Analysis of Hydraulic Passage Efficiency of Ice-Harbor Type Fishway for Flowrate Change
Jo, Jae An ; Han, Eun Jin ; Kim, Young Do ; Baek, Kyong Oh ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1841~1850
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1841
The various types of fishways are installed at the multi-functional weirs in the four major rivers to minimize the negative effect due to the construction of the transverse structures. The movable weir was installed at the upstream of the ice-harbor type artificial fishway of the Dalseong weir in the Nakdong river, which can control the fishway flowrate regardless of the river flowrate. The incoming flowrate to the artificial fishway is closely related with the hydraulic characteristics that dominate the fish passage efficiency. Thus, it is crucial to find out the weir operation rule for properly sustaining efficient fish-passage, such as the optimized flowrate. In this study, the FLOW-3D was used to analyze and compare the various hydraulic characteristics associated with the passage efficiency, based upon the given different flowrate, and subsequently provide the optimized flowrate for the fishway movable weir to maintain the best efficient flow condition for the fish-passage.
Evaluation of Short-Term Drought Using Daily Standardized Precipitation Index and ROC Analysis
Yoo, Ji Young ; Song, Hoyong ; Kim, Tae-Woong ; Ahn, Jae-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1851~1860
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1851
The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is widely applied to evaluate for meteorological droughts. However, the SPI is limited to capture a drought event with a short duration, expecially shorter than one month. In this study, we proposed a daily SPI (DSPI) as a way to overcome the limitation of the monthly SPI for drought monitoring. In order to objectively assess the ability of the drought reproduction of the DSPI, we performed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using the quantified drought records from official reports, newspapers, etc. The results of ROC analysis showed that the DSPI has an ability to reproduce short-term drought compared with other indices. It also showed that the main cause of historical droughts was the shortage of rainfall accumulated during the time period less than 90 days compared with the rainfall of normal years.
Development of Daily Rainfall Simulation Model Based on Homogeneous Hidden Markov Chain
Kwon, Hyun-Han ; Kim, Tae Jeong ; Hwang, Seok-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1861~1870
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1861
A climate change-driven increased hydrological variability has been widely acknowledged over the past decades. In this regards, rainfall simulation techniques are being applied in many countries to consider the increased variability. This study proposed a Homogeneous Hidden Markov Chain(HMM) designed to recognize rather complex patterns of rainfall with discrete hidden states and underlying distribution characteristics via mixture probability density function. The proposed approach was applied to Seoul and Jeonju station to verify model's performance. Statistical moments(e.g. mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis) derived by daily and seasonal rainfall were compared with observation. It was found that the proposed HMM showed better performance in terms of reproducing underlying distribution characteristics. Especially, the HMM was much better than the existing Markov Chain model in reproducing extremes. In this regard, the proposed HMM could be used to evaluate a long-term runoff and design flood as inputs.
Projection of Future Drought of Korea Based on Probabilistic Approach Using Multi-model and Multi Climate Change Scenarios
Park, Beom-Seop ; Lee, Joo-Heon ; Kim, Chang-Joo ; Jang, Ho-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1871~1885
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1871
In this study, spatio-temporal distribution of future drought in South Korea was predicted by using the meteorological data generated from GCMs on which a variety of climate changing scenarios are applied. Drought phenomena was quantitatively analyzed using SPI(Standardized Precipitation Index). In addition, potential drought hazard maps for different drought duration and return period were made for the South Koreaby drought frequency analysis after deriving SDF(Severity-Duration-Frequency) curves using the 54 weather stations throughout the country. From the potential drought hazard maps, drought is expected to be severer in Nakdong River basin and Seomjin River basin under A2 scenario. It was also predicted that drought would be severe in the Han River basin by RCP8.5 scenario. In the future, potential drought hazard area would be expanded until the Eastern part of Nakdong River basin as compared with that of past under A2 scenario condition. Research results indicated that future drought would be extensively occurred all areas of South Korea not limiting in the southern part of country.
Investigation on the Behavioral and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Submerged Floating Tunnel based on Regular Wave Experiments
Oh, Sang-Ho ; Park, Woo Sun ; Jang, Se-Chul ; Kim, Dong Hyawn ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1887~1895
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1887
In this study, physical experiments were performed in a two-dimensional wave flume to investigate the hydraulic and structural performance of a SFT model. The experiments were made by generating regular waves of different heights and periods under various conditions of buoyancy to weight ratio (BWR) and water depth as well. Through the analysis of the experimental data, it was clarified that the sway and heave motions of the tunnel body linearly increased with wave height and period. In contrast, the roll motion was rather insignificant unless wave height and period were comparatively large as the design wave. Similarly proportional relationship with respect to wave height and period was obtained in case of the maximum tensile force acting on the tension legs and the wave loads on the tunnel body. Regarding the change of water depth or BWR conditions, generally decreasing trend was obtained according to increase of water depth but decrease of BWR for both of the magnitudes of structural behaviors or wave loadings on the SFT structure.
Rheological Characteristics of Fine-Grained Soil with Sand Content
Kang, Hyo-Sub ; Kim, Yun-Tae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1897~1905
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1897
Rheological properties such as yield stress and viscosity is the main parameters to determine the fluidity of the debris flow. In this study, several series of rheometer tests were performed to investigate rheological properties of fine-grained soil samples with various sand contents and various liquidity indices. Test results indicated that the general shape of the flow curves for fine-grained soils had characteristics of a shear thinning fluid, with a decrease in viscosity as shear rate increases. The yield stress and viscosity of fine-grained soil samples with same sand content gradually decreased as the liquidity index increased. At the same liquidity index, yield stress and viscosity of fine-grained soil increased with an increase in sand content. The yield stress and viscosity of fine-grained soil greatly decreased with a slight increase in water content. Also, the yield stress and viscosity tend to increase with increasing concentration by volume(
) of the fluid matrix. The values of the four coefficients
were obtained by regression analysis for each fine-grained soil.
Study on Thermal Performance of Energy Textile in Tunnel
Lee, Chulho ; Park, Sangwoo ; Sohn, Byonghu ; Choi, Hangseok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1907~1914
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1907
Textile-type heat exchangers installed on the tunnel walls for facilitating ground source heat pump systems, so called "energy textile", was installed in an abandoned railroad tunnel around Seocheon, South Korea. To evaluate thermal performance of the energy textile, a series of long-term monitoring was performed by artificially applying daily intermittent cooling and heating loads on the energy textile. In the course of the experimental measurement, the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of the energy textile, pumping rate, temperature distribution in the ground, and air temperature inside the tunnel were continuously measured. From the long-term monitoring, the heat exchange rate was recorded as in the range of 57.6~143.5 W per one unit of the energy textile during heating operation and 362.3~558.4 W per one unit during cooling operation. In addition, the heat exchange rate of energy textile was highly sensitive to a change in air temperature inside the tunnel. The field measurements were verified by a 3D computational fluid dynamics analysis (FLUENT) with the consideration of air temperature variation inside the tunnel. The verified numerical model was used to evaluate parametrically the effect of drainage layer in the energy textile.
Analysis of Optimized Column-pile Length Ratio for Supplementing Virtual Fixed Point Design of Bent Pile Structures
Jeong, Sangseom ; Kim, Jaeyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1915~1933
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1915
In this study, the virtual fixed point analysis and 3D fully modeling analysis for bent pile structures are conducted by considering various influencing factors and the applicability of the virtual fixed point theory is discussed. Also, the optimized column-pile length ratio is analyzed for supplementing virtual fixed point design and examining a more exact behavior of bent pile structures by taking into account the major influencing parameters such as pile length, column and pile diameter, reinforcement ratio and soil conditions. To obtain the detailed information, the settlement and lateral deflection of the virtual fixed point theory are smaller than those of 3D fully modeling analysis. On the other hand, the virtual fixed point analysis overestimates the axial force and bending moment compared with 3D fully modeling analysis. It is shown that the virtual fixed point analysis cannot adequately predict the real behavior of bent pile structures. Therefore, it is necessary that 3D fully modeling analysis is considered for the exact design of bent pile structures. In this study, the emphasis is on quantifying an improved design method (optimized column-pile length ratio) of bent pile structures developed by considering the relation between the column-pile length ratio and allowable lateral deflection criteria. It can be effectively used to perform a more economical and improved design of bent pile structures.
Proposed Optimized Column-pile Diameter Ratio with Varying Cross-section for Bent Pile Structures
Kim, Jaeyoung ; Jeong, Sangseom ; Ahn, Sangyong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1935~1946
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1935
In this study, the behavior characteristics of bent pile structures with varying cross-section was examined through the measured results of field load test. A framework for determining the bending stress is calculated based on the stresses in the circumference of the pile using 3D finite element analysis. It is found that the bending stress near the pile-column joint changes rapidly and fracture zones occurs easily at variable cross-sections in bent pile structures. Also, the optimized column-pile diameter ratio was analyzed through the relationship between the column-pile diameter ratio and lateral crack load ratio. Based on this study, the optimized column-pile diameter ratio can be obtained near the inflection point of the curve between the column-pile diameter ratio and lateral crack load ratio. Therefore, a present study by considering the optimized variable cross-section condition would be improved bent pile structures design.
Measurement of Stress and Displacement Fields in Particle Assembly subjected to Shallow Foundation Loading via Photoelasticity Technique
Byeon, Bo-Hyeon ; Jung, Young-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1947~1955
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1947
The purpose of this paper is to present an photoelasticity technique for measuring the displacement and stress distribution in particle assembly subjected to shallow foundation loading. Photoelastic measurement technique was employed to visualize the force transmission of a particle assembly. A model assembly bounded by a steel frame was built by stacking bi-dimensional circular particles made of polycarbonate elastomer. Each particle was coated by a thin photoelastic sheet so that the force transmission represented by bright light stripes can be visualized. In a contacted particle, both magnitude and orientation of principal stress difference can also be measured via the photoelasticity technique. The different distributions of the contact stresses at the initial loading and near the failure were quantitatively compared. The photoelastic patterns and displacement fields observed in the pre-failure state disappears immediately after the buckling of confined force chains.
A Study on the Estimation Method of Rock Load Applied to Concrete Lining Using Back Analysis
Park, Ki Hwan ; Shin, Young Wan ; Kim, Jung Joo ; Yoo, Han Kyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1957~1968
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1957
Design criteria for rock load on tunnel concrete lining has not been established yet. Generally rock load on tunnel concrete lining is empirically estimated, which leads to a conservative design. Ordinary estimation method of rock load includes various problems. Estimating by numerical analysis is very complicated and has not been verified with field measurements. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study on practical method of estimating rock load which is more accurate to the real rock load on tunnel concrete lining. This study, presents estimation method of rock load on tunnel concrete lining. Crown settlement of the tunnel construction site has been measured and it was been back analyzed to estimate the rock load. The rock load was estimated to be smaller compare to the ordinary estimation method.
Estimation of Optimal Fare for Cloud Transportation System
Ryu, Seong Beom ; Bae, Sang Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1969~1980
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1969
The Traffic congestion is caused by the increasing traffic demand. Thus, economic losses have been increasing every year. To solve these problems, car sharing and rental car systems that are equipped with IT technologies emerge. Car sharing has many advantages-the alleviation of the traffic congestion, the saving of maintenance cost for cars, the reduction of car possessiveness, the solution for the hassle of car ownership, for business and personal duty, and the improvement of connectivity between public transportations-. The goal of the car sharing is to achieve low-carbon and eco-friendly transportation. In this study, we review papers related to the car sharing system and the cost system of traffic systems. We estimate the optimal cost of the cloud traffic system that is one of the car sharing services. We suggest a methodology to estimate operational cost and use cost through the analysis of cost system between similar traffic means. The range of the maximum and minimum cost was determined through the comparison and analysis of similar traffic means. Expected demand and the cost that people are willing to pay were estimated through optimized value pricing. The minimum cost per hour that was compared to the cost of rental car was estimated at 5,333 won and the maximum cost per hour that was compared to taxi cost was estimated at 17,700 won. The cost for users was estimated at 6,930 won. The cost of 50% demands was estimated at 6,550won. Future studies should analyze service hours of users, weather, demand pattern and trend and consider them into the cost estimation.
Assessment of CO
Emissions of Vehicles in Highway Sections Using Principal Component Analysis
Lee, Yoon Seok ; Kim, Da Ye ; Oh, Heung Un ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1981~1987
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1981
emissions of vehicles vary with vehicle's speeds. In addition, the speeds vary with road type, location, time and traffic volume. In this paper, the section in which a large quantity of
emissions per vehicle is exhausted is determined and analyzed with principal component analysis(PCA). In results of analysis, the principal components analysis were divided into two principal components. It had been identified that the main component was the time zone one which is able to explain each components' role. The first principal component could explain the role of a major component on
emissions per vehicle in the early morning and afternoon hour, respectively. The second principal component could explain the role of the component on
emissions per vehicle in the morning and afternoon peak hours, respectively. Therefore, the section in which a large quantity of
emissions per vehicle could be deterimined by PCA scores.
Optimum Location Choice for Bike Parking Lots Using Heuristic P-Median Algorithm
Park, Bora ; Lee, Kyu Jin ; Choi, Keechoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1989~1998
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1989
As the importance of 'bike revitalization' has been emphasized in our society, many cities around the world put enormous efforts to create a bike-oriented transportation system. None the less, the results were not much productive and effective. In this study, to decide the location and number of the bike-parking facilities, the heuristic P-median algorithm has been applied with and without budget constraints. A test network with 30 candidate locations (centroids) were employed. The results show that the optimum number of bike parking lots with and without the budget limits are 9 and 20, respectively. Since the optimum locations determined in this study were congruous with the actual bike parking lots with high utilization rates, it is expected that the proposed methods can be applied for determining the optimum locations of the bike parking facilities elsewhere. Some limitations and future research agenda have also been discussed.
Development of Two-Lane Car-Following Model to Generate More Realistic Headway Behavior
Yoon, Byoung Jo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1999~2007
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.1999
The key characteristics of two-lane-and-two-way traffic flow are platoon and overtaking caused by low-speed vehicle such as truck. In order to develop two-way traffic flow model comprised of CF(car-following) and overtaking model, it is essential to develop a car-following model which is suitable to two-way traffic flow. Short distance between vehicles is caused when a high-speed vehicle tailgates and overtakes foregoing low-speed vehicle on two-way road system. And a vehicle following low-speed vehicle decides to overtake the front low-speed vehicle using suitable space within the headway distribution of opposite traffic flow. For this reason, a two-way CF model should describes not only running within short gap but also headway distribution. Additionally considering domestic two-way-road size, there is a on-going need for large-network simulation, but there are few studies for two-way CF model. In this paper, a two-way CA model is developed, which explains two-way CF behavior more realistic and can be applied for large road network. The experimental results show that the developed model mimics stop-and-go phenomenon, one of features of congested traffic flow, and efficiently generates the distribution of headway. When the CF model is integrated with overtaking model, it is, therefore, expected that two-way traffic flow can be explained more realistically than before.
A Study on Imputing the Missing Values of Continuous Traffic Counts
Lee, Sang Hyup ; Shin, Jae Myong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2009~2019
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2009
Traffic volumes are the important basic data which are directly used for transportation network planning, highway design, highway management and so forth. They are collected by two types of collection methods, one of which is the continuous traffic counts and the other is the short duration traffic counts. The continuous traffic counts are conducted for 365 days a year using the permanent traffic counter and the short duration traffic counts are conducted for specific day(s). In case of the continuous traffic counts the missing of data occurs due to breakdown or malfunction of the counter from time to time. Thus, the diverse imputation methods have been developed and applied so far. In this study the applied exponential smoothing method, in which the data from the days before and after the missing day are used, is proposed and compared with other imputation methods. The comparison shows that the applied exponential smoothing method enhances the accuracy of imputation when the coefficient of traffic volume variation is low. In addition, it is verified that the variation of traffic volume at the site is an important factor for the accuracy of imputation. Therefore, it is necessary to apply different imputation methods depending upon site and time to raise the reliability of imputation for missing traffic values.
Determination of Types and Element on Parking Ramp
Kwon, Sung-Dae ; Kim, Yoon-Mi ; Nam, Chang-Kyu ; Ha, Tae-Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2021~2031
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2021
Due to the rapid economic growth within the nation, the quality of life of individuals have improved dramatically. The scope of living activities of individuals have also extended, resulting in a rapidly increasing demand for automobiles. The number of vehicles registered in Korea is rapidly increasing and will reach 188.71 million as of December 2012. Compared to the registered residents of 50.94 million provided by the Ministry of Public Administration and Security, the registered population reflects about 4 people per every automobile. Due to the high demands for vehicles, the demands for parking lots in collective housing and businesses are also increasing. In reality, the current state of expansion of parking lots are underground, due to the limited available space on ground level. Specifically, the slope of a parking lot cannot exceed 17% linear slope and 14% curved slope according to the 'parking lot laws', however studies show that the driver feels at risk for safety when stopped on the parking ramp while driving in the parking lot. This study seeks to examine the suitability of parking lot ramps, concerning the safety aspects of the driver. First, the ramp type was categorized as linear or curved, then test drives were performed based on variations of slopes, slant distances, directions and points. A survey was administered to the driver after the completion of the test drive, in order to element design for an ideal ramp. In the case of curved ramp, the results of the estimate suggests a counterclockwise, slope at a maximum of 12% incline. The maximum slope for a linear ramp was analyzed to be between 13~14%, suggesting that slope greater than 15% need to be eliminated. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the element design parking ramp reported in this study will help to serve as a reference for future parking lot related guidelines, and provide cost effective traffic safety mechanisms in future parking lot businesses to follow.
Management of Vertical Control Points by Vector Method for Determination of Highway and Railroad Vertical Alignment
Kim, Jeong Hyun ; Han, Chang-Gun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2033~2040
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2033
There have been noticeable developments for the optimization of the highway and railroad alignments with the IT and computerized tools. The designers expect that all of the quantitative design elements should be considered. This study developed a methodology which can be useful for the vertical alignment design. It provides a accurate "vertical control point" searching method, and makes the vertical alignment optimization more efficiently. The vector method makes the searching faster and calculates more accurate application sections. The results from this method generate more reliable vertical alignments than the conventional raster method for less computation time.
Bus Route Evaluation Hodel based on Zone Considering Interregional -By Zone Distribution of Seoul Trunk Bus
Park, Bumjin ; Kang, Weon Eui ; Roh, Chang-Gyun ; Kim, Jisoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2041~2048
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2041
It is necessary to evaluate methods for reasonable diagnosis for public transportation. However, previous studies have the problems in evaluation ground and propriety. Therefore, this research develop the method and equation for evaluating bus route considering interregional equity and route doubleness. This study developed in bus route evaluation method using Seoul bus Zone, and included the result of evaluation test using 199 route Seoul trunk bus (blue bus). Zone (0) (Jongno-gu, Jung-gu and Yongsan-gu) has the highest score in Evaluation result. Also this zone has good bus route, so it is easy to move to other Zone. It is possible to change and add the bus route to use the equation in this study, considering interregional equity.
Analysis of Anxiety EGG per Driving Speed on Different Design Speed Road
Lim, Joon Beom ; Lee, Soo Beom ; Joo, Sung Kab ; Shin, Joon Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2049~2056
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2049
With the advance in information communication, the information age has come, and desire of human being in increasing. In this circumstance, the necessity for design for building of superhighways is arising to improve the mobility in the field of transportation, too. This study was conducted to analyze if driver can drive at a design speed on a superhighway with a design speed exceeding 120km/h. For this study, it was experimented if the running speed that makes a driver feel anxious, increased, when road alignment and standard improved, due to the differences of design speed. For the experiment, 30 subjects were asked to attach brain wave analyzers to bodies. Then, this study compared powers of
waves generated, when they felt anxious, driving on the roads with different design speeds, and driving virtually through a simulator. Here, Kangbyeonbukro (90km/h), Jayuro(100km/h), Joongang Expressway(110km/h), and Seohaean Expressway(120km/h) were selected as experimental sections. While drivers drove on the Kangbyeonbukro and Jayuro at a speed of 80km/h - 130km/h, on the Joongang Expressway at a speed of 100km/h - 150km/h, and Seohaean Expressway at a speed of 110km/h - 180km/h, powers of anxiety EEGs(electroencephalogram) were compared, and during the simulation driving at the same speed of 110km/h - 180km/h, powers of anxiety EEGs were compared and analyzed. Moreover, the speed when anxiety EEGs increased, was statistically verified through paired t-test. As the result, the speed when anxiety EEGs increased during the simulation driving was nearly 30km/h higher than when they increased during the actual driving on the expressways, and anxiety EEGs increased at the same speed, when subjects drove on the roads with a design speed of 90km/h and 100km/h. It means that there were small differences in road alignment and standard. However, the running speed to make drivers feel anxious was increased at both roads with a design speed of 110km/h and 120km/h. It implies that drivers can drive at a higher speed, as road alignment and standard improve.
Traffic Demand Forecasting Method for LCCA of Pavement Section
Do, Myungsik ; Kim, Yoonsik ; Lee, Sang Hyuk ; Han, Daeseok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2057~2067
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2057
Traffic demand forecasting for pavement management in the present can be estimated using the past trends or subjective judgement of experts instead of objective methods. Also future road plans and local development plans of a target region, for example new road constructions and detour plans cannot be considered for the estimate of future traffic demands. This study, which is the fundamental research for developing objective and accurate decision-making support system of maintenance management for the national highway, proposed the methodology to predict future traffic demands according to 4-step traffic forecasting method using EMME in order to examine significance of future traffic demands affecting pavement deterioration trends and compare existing traffic demand forecasting methods. For the case study, this study conducted the comparison of traffic demand forecasting methods targeting Daejeon Regional Construction and Management Administration. Therefore, this study figured out that the differences of traffic demands and the level of agent costs as well as user costs between existing traffic demand forecasting methods and proposed traffic demand forecasting method with considering future road plans and local development plan.
Preliminary Assessment Model based on BSC for Evaluating Practical Utilization of 4D CAD System
Kim, HyeonSeung ; Moon, HyounSeok ; Kang, LeenSeok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2069~2079
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2069
Recently, BIM(Building Information Modeling) is on the rise as a customized solution for construction environment, but construction companies rarely introduce and apply BIM in the construction site. Due to such issues, the fact that empirical data for evaluating the quantitative effect of BIM application is insufficient might be an another main reason. In the end, construction companies cannot assure investment effect of BIM and therefore don't make an investment actively. To activate BIM application, the evaluation system that quantitatively assess usability of BIM needs to be developed. This study aims to suggest a methodology that evaluates the usability quantitatively according to introduction and operation of BIM by construction companies. Accordingly, this study analyzes applicability of 4D CAD by developing an evaluation index and its model with BSC(Balanced Score Card) for 4D CAD, which have high practical use among BIM techniques, and verifies the usability as the entire evaluation index of BIM. Therefore, it is expected that the developed assessment model will be utilized as the critical decision-making information in order to introduce related techniques by identifying the usability and operational issues of 4D CAD.
Life Cycle Cost Analysis at Design Stage of Cable Stayed Bridges based on the Performance Degradation Models
Koo, Bon Sung ; Han, Sang Hoon ; Cho, Choong Yuen ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2081~2091
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2081
Recently, the demand on the practical application of life-cycle cost effectiveness for design and rehabilitation of civil infrastructure is rapidly growing unprecedently in civil engineering practice. Accordingly, in the 21st century, it is almost obvious that life-cycle cost together with value engineering will become a new paradigm for all engineering decision problems in practice. However, in spite of impressive progress in the researches on the LCC, the most researches have only focused on the Deterministic or Probabilistic LCC analysis approach and general bridge at design stage. Thus, the goal of this study is to develop a practical and realistic methodology for the Life-Cycle Cost LCC-effective optimum decision-making based on reliability analysis of bridges at design stage. The proposed updated methodology is based on the concept of Life Cycle Performance(LCP) which is expressed as the sum of present value of expected direct/indirect maintenance costs with expected optimal maintenance scenario. The updated LCC methodology proposed in this study is applied to the optimum design problem of an actual highway bridge with Cable Stayed Bridges. In conclusion, based on the application of the proposed methods to an actual example bridge, it is demonstrated that a updated methodology for performance-based LCC analysis proposed in this thesis, shown applicably in practice as a efficient, practical, process LCC analysis method at design stage.
Analysis and Prioritization of Factors Causing the Inefficiency of Domestic Public Construction Projects
Chang, Chul-Ki ; Yoo, Wi Sung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2093~2105
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2093
Successful implementations of domestic public construction projects have been increasingly concerned with the efforts to improve the inefficient execution. However, the existing factors causing the inefficient execution have been repeatedly occurred in many projects. This is because the previous studies have been concentrated on identifying the factors without in-depth analysis and systematic prioritization. This study has clarified the characteristics of the inefficient public construction projects, identified the causes, constructed their hierarchical structure, and analyzed the impacts on them. In particular, the critical factors causing the inefficient execution are prioritized by the outcomes derived from the questionnaire surveys, which is limited to the pre-construction stage. They are utilized in prioritizing the institutional and political improvements. However, in the future, the analytic and detailed guideline for remedying the factors causing the inefficient execution of a project should be studied, and their analysis will be extended to the construction stage.
A Study on Development of the Intelligent Bridge Maintenance System Using RFID
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Lee, Yun-Sung ; Kim, Heon ; Lee, Dong-Woon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2107~2124
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2107
The inspections that are being done on current bridges in our country are made to go through a process of being recorded on the management system and then converted by the computer. This has deteriorated the credibility of manual-analog types of data, inefficient care of information, and produced potential problems of the structures of bridges through subjective evaluations. In order to solve these troubles, this research has aimed at effectiveness, management, and convenience so that the inspector at the actual scene of the bridge structures will be able to achieve the primary purpose of infrastructure safety through precise supervision. To assist this, this study has suggested a state of the art IT intellectual management system that has applied RFID. This system has been designed to decrease the inspecting time on the actual scene, which will provide more time for efficient inspection and by using the converted DB, managing and utilizing high quality data will come naturally and through the objective evaluation, it will be possible to make exact judgments of the structures of the bridge. Also, regardless of the location, it has been found that the work performance was excellent through highly effective management.
Fracture Behavior of Dowel Joint of Concrete Slab Track
Kwon, Kusung ; Jang, Seung Yup ; Chung, Wonseok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2125~2133
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2125
Recently, an interest on joint behavior between adjacent concrete slab tracks has increasing due to large application of such track system. Dowel bars are widely used to improve load transfer capacity across the joints. Dowel bars reduce the deflections and stresses by transferring the load between the slabs. This study proposes the lumped shear spring model to efficiently model dowel joints of adjacent slabs. This model includes bearing stiffness between dowel bar and concrete as well as dowel gap. Strength of the proposed spring model is evaluated based on Concrete Capacity Design method under the assumption of shear failure mode in the joints. Experiments are also performed up to failure to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model. It has been observed that the proposed model is able to predict initial nonlinearity due to dowel gap, and capture material nonlinearity of the test slabs. Thus, it is recommended that the proposed model can be effectively applied to the dowel joints of concrete slab track.
A Study on Influential Change of Locational Variables According to the Process of Residential Improvement Projects
Lim, Jae Moon ; Oh, Se Kyung ; Kwon, Tae Jung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2135~2146
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2135
Most researches about residential improvement projects deal with different process phase in order to examine important affecting variables. The main purpose of this study is to identify influential change of locational variables according to the process of residential improvement projects. Generally the residential improvement project consists of four phases such as site designation, project committee approval, residents association establishment and final project approval. The discriminant and correlation analyses are employed to examine the changes of locational variables by each phase of the project process. In residential redevelopment projects, the finding shows that locational variables in the final project approval phase act differently from those in the other phases. On the other hand, the variables act similarly among the four phases in the case of residental rebuilding projects although the significant level of discriminant analysis result, in the site destination phase, is relatively low significance. Therefore, there is no difference among the project process phase to examine to what extent of the residential improvement projects.
A Study on the Evaluation of the Residential Environment of the Permanent Rental Housing in Busan Using Stepwise Logistic Regression
Choi, Yeol ; Kim, Hyeong Jun ; Chun, Sun Mi ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2147~2156
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2147
This study aims to analyze the evaluation of the residential environment on the permanent rental housing in Busan. The Permanent Rental Housing policy is one of the special measures which contribute to getting the low-income urban dwellers settled in places of their own. Unfortunately the government has focused on expanding the quantity of housing even though housing doesn't mean just a physical object but the foundation of life. So the occupants who answered the survey lived in the permanent rental housing which were constructed by Busan Metropolitan Corporation. The purpose of the study is to give suggestions which can make up for dissatisfaction and apply preference of occupants based on the results of the research. The result of this study is in following; there were few significant managerial variables determinants of residential satisfaction. And significant variables are; position of rooms and bathroom facilities in internal building characteristics, color of apartment and playground in exterior building characteristics, commuting distance and viewshaft in locational characteristics. Therefore, the government needs to use cutting edge housing technologies aimed at improvement of residential environment and achievement of affordable expense simultaneously.
A Study on the Park Using Pattern Focusing on user Behavior in River-eco-park
Back, Jun Wook ; Park, Jong Min ; Kim, Jong Gu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 5, 2013, Pages 2157~2168
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.5.2157
This study is about facilities using pattern for 'River-eco-park' that is Hwa-myeong Eco-park, Sam-rak Eco-park, Maek-do Eco-park. Through doing surveys, most patterns could be divided 5 patterns; 'Eco observation facility pattern', 'Promenade pattern', 'Bike path pattern', 'Sports facility pattern', 'Fitness center pattern'. Then we find channel of movement of user patterns by follow-up surveys. On the basis of this surveys, we are going to suggest some directions for River-eco-park design.