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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 33, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Compressive Strength of Assembled Column System Reinforced with Cross-Arms and Stayed Struts
Kim, Kyung Sik ; Park, Hyun Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2169~2179
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2169
The compressive strengths of simply supported columns may be significantly increased by reinforcing them with an assemblage of cross-arms and stayed struts connecting both ends of the columns and the cross-arm members. The purpose of the stayed struts and cross-arms is to introduce partial restraints against translation and rotation, thereby decreasing the effective buckling length of the column. In this study, buckling strengths of the assembled column system have been quantitatively evaluated from the theoretical methods based on both the equivalent spring model and the stiffness matrix formulation. And the results were compared with those from elastic/inelastic analysis using a finite element analysis package program, ABAQUS, for verification purpose. Expected compressive strength curves have been proposed for the assembled column system as a function of slenderness ratio of the simply supported column.
Evaluation of Structural Capacity of SC Walls in Nuclear Power Plant accounting for the Area Lost to Openings
Chung, Chul-Hun ; Jung, Raeyoung ; Moon, Il Hwan ; Lee, Jungwhee ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2181~2193
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2181
The shear wall with openings built with reinforced concrete(RC) have been elaborately studied by many researchers, whereas the steel plate concrete(SC) wall structure has not been investigated as much. Recent SC wall structures developed in Korea have been partly applied to nuclear power plant structures, although its design specification or guideline for the SC wall structure with openings has not been completed yet. This study based on the account for the area lost to openings evaluates the effects of opening on the structural capacity of the SC structure within nuclear power plant. The results obtained from the study on the area lost to openings have been compared with experimental and numerical studies.
Effective Strengths of Concrete Struts in Strut-Tie Models of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams
Chae, Hyun Soo ; Yun, Young Mook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2195~2209
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2195
The effective strength of concrete struts must be determined accurately for the reliable strut-tie model analysis and design of structural concrete. In this study, the equations of the effective strength, which are useful for the three types of determinate and indeterminate strut-tie models of reinforced concrete deep beams employed in current design codes, are proposed. The effects of shear span-to-effective depth ratio, compressive strength of concrete, and flexural and shear reinforcement ratios are reflected in the development of the proposed equations. To examine the appropriateness of the proposed equations, the strengths of 241 reinforced concrete deep beams, all tested to shear failure, are evaluated by using the three types of strut-tie models with the existing and proposed equations.
Investigation for Bed Stabilization Methods in the Upstream Channel of Haman Weir Using CCHE2D Model
Jang, Eun Kyung ; Ji, Un ; Kwon, Yong Sung ; Yeo, Woon Kwang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2211~2221
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2211
During the four river restoration project, several weirs were constructed in the four rivers to prevent drought and flood, to improve water quality, and to manage water resources. However, due to the weir construction, bed changes are produced in the upstream channel of installed weirs because the incoming flow velocity is reduced and sediment transport capacity is also lowered. Especially, since the Haman Weir is located in the lowest downstream section among newly installed weirs in Nakdong River, bed change and sedimentation problems are expected due to the mild slope and reduced velocity. Therefore, numerical simulation was performed to analyze flow and bed changes in the upstream channel of Haman Weir and to evaluate quantitatively sediment control methods for bed stabilization using CCHE2D model. As a result of flow and bed change simulation after installation of Haman Weir, the flow velocity at the initial condition was faster than the final bed condition with the specific simulation time and it was represented that the locations where bed changes were great were identical for all modeling conditions of flow discharge. In case of 4.5 m of water level lowered from 5.0 m of the management water level at Haman Weir for bed stabilization, the flow velocity was generally faster than the case of the management water level and the continuous erosion was developed at the most narrow channel section as the applied discharge and simulation period were increased. The channel width extension at the most narrow channel section was proposed in this study to prevent and stabilize continuos bed erosion. As a result of numerical analysis, there was no bed erosion after channel width extension and it was presented that the channel geometry extension was effective for bed stabilization at Haman Weir.
Comparison of Precipitation Characteristics using Rainfall Indicators Between North and South Korea
Lee, Bo-Ram ; Chung, Eun-Sung ; Kim, Tae-Woong ; Kwon, Hyun-Han ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2223~2235
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2223
This study aimed to understand temporal and spatial trends of rainfall characteristics in South and North Korea. Daily rainfall observed at the 65 stations in South Korea between 1963 and 2010 and the 27 stations in North Korea between 1973 and 2010 were analyzed. Rainfall Indicators for amount, extremes, frequency of rainfall were defined. Province-based indicators in the recent 10 years (i.e., between 2001 and 2010) were compared to those in the past (i.e., between 1963/1973 and 2000 for South/North Korea). In the recent 10 years, all the indicators except for the number of wet days (NWD) and 200-yr frequency rainfall (Freq200) increased in South Korea and all the indicators except for the annual mean daily rainfall over wet days (SDII) and annual total rainfall amount (TotalDR) decreased in North Korea. Furthermore, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test based on the annual indicators. In some stations, decreasing trends in the past and increasing trends in the recent 10 years were found, and such opposite trends between two periods suggest he limitation in predicting and analyzing the rainfall characteristics based on the average. Results from this study can be used in analyzing the impact of climate change and preparing adaptation strategies for the water resources management.
Application of K-DRUM Model for Pakistan Kunhar River Basin Considering Long-term Snow Melt and Cover
Park, Jin Hyeog ; Hur, Young Teck ; Noh, Joon Woo ; Kim, Seo-Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2237~2244
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2237
In this study, physics based K-DRUM(K-water Distributed RUnoff Model) using GIS spatial hydrologic data as input data was developed to account for the temperature variation according to the altitude change considering snow melt and cover. The model was applied for Pakistan Kunhar River Basin(
) to calculate long-term discharge considering snow melt and cover. Time series analysis of the temperature and rainfall data reveals that temperature and rainfall of the river basin differs significantly according to altitude change compared to domestic basin. Thus, applying temperature and altitude lapse rate during generate input data generation. As a result, calculated discharge shows good agreement with observed ones considering snow melt and accumulation characteristic which has the difference of 4,000 meter elevation above sea level. In addition, the simulated discharge strongly showed snow melting effect associated with temperature rise during the summer season.
Development of Drought Vulnerability Index Using Delphi Method Considering Climate Change and Trend Analysis in Nakdong River Basin
Yang, Jeong-Seok ; Kim, Il-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2245~2254
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2245
A vulnerability index was developed for drought by using trend analysis and Delphi method. Twelve indicators were selected based on three groups, i.e., hydrological, meteorological, and humanistic groups. Data were collected from Nakdong river watershed. Three trend tests, i.e., Mann-Kendall, Hotelling-Pabst, and Sen`s trend tests, were performed for standardizing the indicators and Delphi method was used to estimate the weights for individual indicators. The drought vulnerability index was calculated for seven regions in the Nakdong watershed and Hapcheon turned out to be the most vulnerable region among the study regions. The drought vulnerability index developed in this study can be applied to other regions in Korea for establishing national water resources management plan.
Re-Analysis of Clark Model Based on Drainage Structure of Basin
Park, Sang Hyun ; Kim, Joo Cheol ; Jeong, Dong Kug ; Jung, Kwan Sue ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2255~2265
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2255
This study presents the width function-based Clark model. To this end, rescaled width function with distinction between hillslope and channel velocity is used as time-area curve and then it is routed through linear storage within the framework of not finite difference scheme used in original Clark model but analytical expression of linear storage routing. There are three parameters focused in this study: storage coefficient, hillslope velocity and channel velocity. SCE-UA, one of the popular global optimization methods, is applied to estimate them. The shapes of resulting IUHs from this study are evaluated in terms of the three statistical moments of hydrologic response functions: mean, variance and the third moment about the center of IUH. The correlation coefficients to the three statistical moments simulated in this study against these of observed hydrographs were estimated at 0.995 for the mean, 0.993 for the variance and 0.983 for the third moment about the center of IUH. The shape of resulting IUHs from this study give rise to satisfactory simulation results in terms of the mean and variance. But the third moment about the center of IUH tend to be overestimated. Clark model proposed in this study is superior to the one only taking into account mean and variance of IUH with respect to skewness, peak discharge and peak time of runoff hydrograph. From this result it is confirmed that the method suggested in this study is useful tool to reflect the heterogeneity of drainage path and hydrodynamic parameters. The variation of statistical moments of IUH are mainly influenced by storage coefficient and in turn the effect of channel velocity is greater than the one of hillslope velocity. Therefore storage coefficient and channel velocity are the crucial factors in shaping the form of IUH and should be considered carefully to apply Clark model proposed in this study.
Flow Characteristics According to Velocity Conditions of Cylinder Boundary Under Low Reynolds Number
Song, Chang Geun ; Seo, Il Won ; Kim, Tae Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2267~2275
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2267
Existing conventional model for analysis of shallow water flow just assumed the internal boundary condition as free-slip, which resulted in the wrong prediction about the velocity, vorticity, water level, shear stress distribution, and time variation of drag and lift force around a structure. In this study, a finite element model that can predict flow characteristics around the structure accurately was developed and internal boundary conditions were generalized as partial slip condition using slip length concept. Laminar flow characteristics behind circular cylinder were analyzed by varying the internal boundary conditions. The simulation results of (1) time variations of longitudinal and transverse velocities, and vorticity; (2) wake length; (3) vortex shedding phenomena by slip length; (4) and mass conservation showed that the vortex shedding had never observed and laminar flow like creeping motion was occurred under free-slip condition. Assignment of partial slip condition changed the velocity distribution on the cylinder surface and influenced the magnitude of the shear stress and the occurrence of vorticity so that the period of vortex shedding was reduced compared with the case of no slip condition. The maximum mass conservation error occurred in the case of no slip condition, which had the value of 0.73%, and there was 0.21 % reduction in the maximum mass conservation error by changing the internal boundary condition from no slip to partial slip condition.
Development of Analyzing Model of Groundwater Table Fluctuation(I): Theory of Model
Kim, Nam Won ; Kim, Youn Jung ; Chung, Il-Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2277~2284
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2277
In this study, a groundwater table fluctuation method is suggested to predict groundwater level by means of groundwater table fluctuation due to recharge and discharge under unsteady condition. This model analyzes groundwater variation characteristics by using reaction factor related with groundwater flow and specific yield related with recharge. For the test of this model, measured groundwater level at JD Yongdam 1 and JW Konghang for 5 years (2006-2010) were used. At JD Yongdam 1, the estimated specific yield was 0.023, and the estimated reaction factor was 0.039. At JW Konghang, the estimated specific yield was 0.009 and the estimated reaction factor was 0.028, respectively. This model can estimate recharge and saturated parameters, thus it is expected that this model would be the proper tool for checking the parameter of hydrologic model and percolation features.
Development of Analyzing Model of Groundwater Table Fluctuation(II): Characteristics of Recharge
Kim, Nam Won ; Kim, Youn Jung ; Chung, Il-Moon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2285~2291
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2285
In this study, daily based groundwater recharge was estimated under unsteady state by using groundwater table fluctuation model developed by Kim et al. (2013). This technique analyzes groundwater variation characteristics by using reaction factor related with groundwater flow and specific yield related with recharge. For the application of this model, measured groundwater level at JD Yongdam 1 and JW Konghang for 5 years were used. This model can estimate daily based groundwater recharge and the computed groundwater levels showed good agreement with measured groundwater levels. At JD Yongdam 1 and JW Konghang, the estimated recharges (rates) were 520.4~904.0mm (32.7~61.8%) and 447.4~633.4mm (24.0~45.1%), respectively. The developed model can be suggested as an efficient and precise method to estimate daily based groundwater recharge by using groundwater level data.
Sensitivity Analysis of Uncertainty Sources in Flood Inundation Mapping by using the First Order Approximation Method
Jung, Younghun ; Park, Jeryang ; Yeo, Kyu Dong ; Lee, Seung Oh ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2293~2302
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2293
Flood inundation map has been used as a fundamental information in flood risk management. However, there are various sources of uncertainty in flood inundation mapping, which can be another risk in preventing damage from flood. Therefore, it is necessary to remove or reduce uncertainty sources to improve the accuracy of flood inundation maps. However, the entire removal of uncertainty source may be impossible and inefficient due to limitations of knowledge and finance. Sensitivity analysis of uncertainty sources allows an efficient flood risk management by considering various conditions in flood inundation mapping because an uncertainty source under different conditions may propagate in different ways. The objectives of this study are (1) to perform sensitivity analysis of uncertainty sources by different conditions on flood inundation map using the FOA method and (2) to find a major contributor to a propagated uncertainty in the flood inundation map in Flatrock at Columbus, U.S.A. Result of this study illustrates that an uncertainty in a variable is differently propagated to flood inundation map by combination with other uncertainty sources. Moreover, elevation error was found to be the most sensitive to uncertainty in the flood inundation map of the study reach.
An Experimental Study for Drainage Capacity Improvement of Waterway with Steep Slope
Kim, Jung Soo ; Kim, Ju Hyung ; Yoon, Sei Eui ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2303~2315
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2303
In general, the waterway was installed for drain water from steep slope and waterway cover was set up to prevent overflow and water separation at berm of waterway. In this study, hydraulic experiment was conducted to analyze the flow characteristics and enact standard design criteria of the waterway. Hydraulic experimental apparatus which can change the slope of waterway and the length of berm were installed to analyze of flow characteristics at the waterway. The slopes of waterway were
and the range of discharge were 1.0~5.6
. The flow in berm was distinguished two types such as hydraulic jump and splash flow. These kinds of flows depended on the rates of discharge in waterway. When inlet discharge was below 1.1~2.0
, the separation phenomenon of water was generated at upper and lower portion in berm by the splash flow. The scattering range of water particles and length of water separation was measured depending on the slope of waterway. The start point of scattering was about 20 cm(1.3B) from the place connected upper waterway with brem and the length of water separation was till 210 cm(3.5B) from the place connected lower waterway with brem. Therefore, the waterway cover needed to install from starting of berm to 1B and from the lower part of berm to 3.5B.
Influence of Wave Chamber Slab on Wave Pressure on First and Second Wall of Perforated Caisson Breakwater
Oh, Sang-Ho ; Ji, Chang-Hwan ; Oh, Young-Min ; Jang, Se-Chul ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2317~2328
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2317
In this study, the effect of wave chamber slab on wave pressure along the first and second wall of the perforated caisson breakwater was investigated by performing physical experiment. The experiment was performed without and with the wave chamber slab of the perforated caisson by varying the front wall porosity. The discrepancy in magnitudes of the measured wave pressure along the both walls of the perforated caisson was apparent according to the existence of the wave chamber slab as significantly greater pressures were acquired for all the test cases when the wave chamber was closed upward by the slab. As a result, the magnitudes of the total wave force calculated by integration of the measured wave pressure also were much larger for the caisson breakwater having the wave chamber slab, exceeding the value based on the well known Takahashi`s formula (Takahashi and Shimosako, 1994). With respect to the porosity of the front wall, meanwhile, higher pressures were obtained with a larger porosity, at both the first and second wall of the breakwater.
Algorithm of Predicting Swell-like Significant Waves in the East Coast of Korea
Ahn, Suk Jin ; Lee, Byeong Wook ; Kwon, Seok Jae ; Lee, Changhoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2329~2341
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2329
In this study, we develop an algorithm to predict swell-like significant waves in the east coast of Korea using the directional wave gauge which is installed near Sokcho. Using the numerical wave model SWAN, we estimate wave data in open sea from the wave data observed through the directional wave gauge. Then, using the wave ray method with the open-sea wave data as offshore boundary conditions, we predict the swell-like significant waves at several points in the east coast of Korea. We verify the prediction methods with the SWAN and wave ray methods by comparing numerically predicted data against either target or measured data at the observation site. We can improve the prediction of the swell-like significant waves in the east sea of Korea using both the real-time wave measurement system and the present prediction algorithm.
Experiments for Side Wall Effects of a Perforated Structure Under Oblique Incident Waves
Lee, Jong-In ; Kim, Sun Ou ; Kim, Kyoung Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2343~2350
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2343
The wave height distributions in front of a vertically perforated wall structures for obliquely incident uni-directional irregular waves are mainly investigated by using 3D hydraulic experiments. The difference and similarity of wave propagation along the plain and perforated wall structures are investigated and particularly the effects of side walls in chamber and relative chamber width are analyzed. This study shows that the wave height distribution patterns for normalized wave heights in front of structure is significantly different between the plain and perforated wall structures, and the side wall in the chamber suppresses the growth of waves.
Analysis of Promising Country for Seawater Desalination Plant Using Delphi Method
Yang, Jeong-Seok ; Kim, Il-Hwan ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2351~2357
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2351
An index was developed for analyzing the promising countries for seawater desalination plant and related data sets were collected and analyzed. Each indicators was standardized by scale readjustment method and Delphi method was used to calculate the weights for indicators from questionnaire survey by experts in seawater desalination plant field. Twenty three indicators were selected and they were classified into three groups, economic, social, and environmental indicator groups. Eleven countries (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Iran, Qatar, China, Singapore, India, Algeria, Turkey, United States) were selected considering present data availability and index for each country was calculated. The results show United States and China took the first (0.537) and second (0.490) place for the most promising country for seawater desalination plant. However it will not be easy to play a significant role in the markets because of present seawater desalination technology level and national policy, etc. Saudi Arabia took the third (0.329) place and other countries which has more than 0.2 index value can be considered as a promising countries for seawater desalination plant. We can establish a strategy to export our seawater desalination technology and plant using the result of this study. The developed index can be applied to other countries, which were not included in this study, when their data is available.
Scale Effects and Field Applications for Continuous Intrusion Miniature Cone Penetrometer
Yoon, Sungsoo ; Kim, Kyu-Sun ; Lee, Jin Hyung ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2359~2368
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2359
Cone penetration tests (CPTs) have been increasingly used for site characterizations. However, the site investigations using CPTs are often limited due to soil conditions depending on the cone size and capacity of the CPT system. The small sectional area of a miniature cone improves the applicability of the CPT system due to the increased capacity of the CPT system. A continuous intrusion system using a coiled rod allows fast and cost effective site investigation. In this study, the performance of the continuous intrusion miniature cone penetration test (CIMCPT) system has been evaluated by comparison tests with the standard CPT system at several construction sites in Korea. The results show that the CIMCPT system has a same performance with the CPT system and has advantages on the mobility and applicability. According to field verification tests for scale effect evaluation, the cone tip resistance evaluated by CIMCPT overestimates by 10% comparing to standard CPTs. A crawler mounted with the CIMCPT system has been implemented to improve accessibility to soft ground, and has shown improvement over the truck type CIMCPT system. Therefore, the improved CIMCPT system can be utilized as a cost effective and highly reliable soil investigation methodology to detect the depth of soft ground and to evaluate soil classification.
Estimation on Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity Function of Jumoonjin Sand for Various Relative Densities
Song, Young-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2369~2379
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2369
The Soil-Water Characteristics Curve (SWCC) is affected by the initial density of soil under unsaturated condition. Also, the characteristic of hydraulic conductivity is changed by the initial density of soil. To study the effect of initial density of unsaturated soil, SWCC and the Hydraulic Conductivity Function (HCF) of Jumoonjin sand with various relative densities, 40%, 60% and 75% were measured in both drying and wetting processes. As the results of SWCC estimated by van Genuchten (1980) model, the parameter related to Air Entry Value(AEV),
in the wetting process is larger than that in drying process, but the parameters related to the SWCC slope, n and the residual water content, m are larger than those in wetting process. The AEV is increased or Water Entry Value (WEV) is decreased with increasing the relative density of sand. The AEV is larger than the WEV at the same relative density of sand. As the results of HCF estimated by van Genuchten (1980) model which is one of the parameter estimation methods, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity maintained at a saturated one in the low level of matric suctions and then suddenly decreased just before the AEV or the WEV. The saturated hydraulic conductivity in drying process is larger than that in wetting process. The saturated hydraulic conductivity is decreased with increasing the relative density of sand in both drying and wetting processes. Also, the hysteresis in unsaturated HCFs between drying and wetting process was occurred like the hysteresis in SWCCs. According to the test results, the AEV on SWCC is decreased and the saturated hydraulic conductivity is increased with increasing the initial density. It means that SWCC and HCF are affected by the initial density in the unsaturated soil.
Thermal Behavior of Energy Pile Considering Ground Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Interference Between Piles
Go, Gyu Hyun ; Yoon, Seok ; Park, Do Won ; Lee, Seung-Rae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2381~2391
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2381
In general, ground`s thermal properties, types of heat exchanger, operational method, thermal interference between piles can be considered as key factors which affect the thermal performance of energy pile. This study focused on the effect of these factors on the performance by a numerical model reflecting a real ground condition. Depending on the degree of saturation of ground, pile`s heat transfer rate showed a maximum difference of three times, and the thermal resistance of pile made a maximum difference of 8.7%. As for the type of heat exchanger effects on thermal performance, thermal efficiency of 3U type energy pile had a higher value than those of W and U types. The periodic operation (8 hours operation, 16 hours pause) can preserve about 20% of heat efficiency compared to continuous operation, and hence it has an advantage of preventing the thermal accumulation phenomenon. Thermal interference effect in group piles may vary depending on the ground condition because the extent decreases as the ground condition varies from saturated to dry. The optimal separation distance that maintains the decreasing rate of heat efficiency less than 1% was suggested as 3.2D in U type, 3.6D in W type, and 3.7D in 3U type in a general ground condition.
Evaluation of Heat Exchange Rate of Different Types of Ground Heat Exchangers
Yoon, Seok ; Go, Gyu-Hyun ; Lee, Seung-Rae ; Cho, Nam-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2393~2400
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2393
This research presents an experimental study of heat exchange rate of U, W, 2U and coil type ground heat exchangers (GHEs) measured by thermal performance tests (TPTs). The four types of GHEs were installed in a partially saturated dredged soil deposit of Incheon International Airport area. Thermal response tests (TRTs) were conducted for U, W and 2U type GHEs to deduce the ground thermal conductivity. Besides, TPTs were also conducted for U, W, 2U and coil type GHEs to evaluate heat exchanger rates under 100-hr continuous and 8-hr intermittent operation conditions for five days. Coil shaped GHE showed about twice higher thermal performance than the others GHEs. Furthermore, intermittent operation condition showed 30~40% higher heat exchange rates than continuous operation condition.
Reliability Analysis of Monopile for a Offshore Wind Turbine Using Response Surface Method
Yoon, Gil Lim ; Kim, Kwang Jin ; Kim, Hong Yeon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2401~2409
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2401
Reliability analysis with response surface method (RSM) was peformed for a offshore wind turbine (OWT) monopile, which is one of mostly used foundations under 25m seawater depth in the world. The behaviors of a real OWT monopile installed into sandy soils subjected to offshore environmental loads such as wind and wave were analysed using reliability design program (HSRBD) developed in KIOST. Sensitivity analysis of design variables for a OWT monopile with 6m diameter showed that the larger in pile diameter the smaller in probability of failure (
) of a horizontal deflection and a rotational angle at a pile top, but at a greater than 7m of pile diameter, the reduction rate of
was almost constant. It is a necessary that appropriate local design criteria should be designated as soon as possible because there were significant differences on horizontal deflections;
was 60% at a minimum criteria 15mm deflection, however, 1.5%
when 60mm deflection using 1% of pile diameter from local design criterion standard. Finally, friction angle of sand among many design variables was found most influential design factor in OWT monopile design, and a sensitivity analysis is found an important process to understand which design variables can mostly reduce
with a optimum design for maintaining OWT stability.
Analysis of Stratified Rock under Vertical Load in Pile Foundation of Wind Turbine Using Circular Foundation Analysis Method with Equivalent Effective Width
Kim, Dohan ; Park, Sangyeol ; Moon, Kyoungtae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2411~2425
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2411
In the design of pile foundation on the rock layer in the stratified structure with sedimentary and rock layers, the structural analysis of the stratified rock layer is required to determine the failure modes (flexural failure, punching shear failure or end bearing failure) and the bearing capacity of the rock layer. However, the existing usable Elastic Plate Analysis Method (EPAM) suggested by ACI committee 436 and Korean Code Requirements for Structural Foundation Design is very complex, and engineers have many difficulties in using it. Therefore, in this research, we proposed the relatively simple Circular Foundation Analysis Method (CFAM) with the concept and the equation of the equivalent effective width (radius) instead of the complex EPM, and the related equations of bending moment and shear force to be equal to the analysis results of EPAM. As a result, the proposed CFAM using the equivalent effective width (radius) is simple and convenient to use, and the analysis results of it are very good in their accuracies comparing those of EPAM and Finite Element Method.
Estimating Road Design Hourly Volume via Inflection Point Identification
Ahn, Seongchae ; Choi, Keechoo ; Kim, Boowon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2427~2435
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2427
Design hourly volume and the K-factor, first proposed by FHWA in the 1950s, is based on the 30th hourly traffic volume during a year (out of 8,760 hours). It was used when surveying the traffic volume was laborious in the past and is still being used now although it leaves some to be desired for practical applications. More reasonable K-factor for better design, based on theoretical evidence, is needed. This paper proposes the knee searching method based on simple linear regression to find out the inflection point of the volume ranking curve that describe the annual 8,760 hourly traffic volumes. The method was applied to the Chungcheong province`s national highway, and the results were compared to the existing guidelines` values of K-factors. Identified design hourly traffic volumes ranked between 43rd to 694th, which is much lower than the 30th volume, meaning that some overdesign examples are inevitable if the conventional
volume is used.
Relationship between Interstate Highway Accidents and Heterogeneous Geometrics by Random Parameter Negative Binomial Model - A case of Interstate Highway in Washington State, USA
Park, Minho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2437~2445
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2437
The objective of this study is finding the relationship between interstate highway accident frequencies and geometrics using Random Parameter Negative Binomial model. Even though it is impossible to take account of the same design criteria to the all segments or corridors on the road in reality, previous research estimated the fixed value of coefficients without considering each segment`s characteristic. The drawback of the traditional negative binomial is not to explain the integrated variations in terms of time and the distinct characters specific segment has. This results in under-estimation of the standard error which inflates the t-value and finally, affects the modeling estimation. Therefore, this study tries to find the relationship of accident frequencies with the heterogeneous geometrics using 9-years and 7-interstate highway data in Washington State area. 16-types of geometrics are used to derive the model which is compared with the traditional negative binomial Model to understand which Model is more suitable. In addition, by calculating marginal effect and elasticity, heterogeneous variables` effect to the accidents are estimated. Hopefully, this study will help to estiblish the future policy of geometrics.
The Effect of Weather Conditions on Transit Ridership
Choi, Sang Gi ; Rhee, Jong Ho ; Oh, Seung Hwoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2447~2453
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2447
In this study, the effects of weather conditions such as rainfall, discomfort index, snowfall, and sensible temperature on public transport demand in Seoul were analyzed using statistical data. The reasons were also derived from the survey. The data for the analysis were collected over the weekdays and weekends, and seasonal data of summer and winter were also gathered separately. Rainfall amount, discomfort index, and sensible temperature except snowfall amount, whose samples were insufficient, decreased the public transport demand by 2-7%. Rainfall amount and sensible temperature were statistically significant. Correlation analysis also showed that rainfall amount and sensible temperature are highly correlated with the demand. To find the reasons, the survey was conducted on citizens living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. About 30% of the respondents wished to give up using bus when rainfall was heavy or temperature was low. On the contrary, auto and subway users increased by 10%. The results of this study could be used as the basic data when the public transportation planning or operation related policies according to the weather condition are concerned.
An Investigation of the Effect of Government Subsidy Scheme to Bus Industry on the Efficiency of Inner-City Bus Route System
Jung, Byung Doo ; Kim, Kyoung Sik ; Kim, Ki Hyuk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2455~2464
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2455
This study is focused on the effect of reformation of public transportation system on the efficiency of bus route system as a result of change of government subsidy scheme. Two types of government subsidy scheme has been considered and before and after analysis by Data Envelopment Analysis technique has been carried out for bus routes in Ulsan Metropolitan City. The analysis output has shown that there is no clear evidence to clarify the relationship between the change of government subsidy scheme and the efficiency of bus route system. There are two types of backgrounds may be suggested for this situation such as more longer period necessary to identify the policy effect and limitation to increase the number of passenger in a provincial city. Tobit regression analysis has also been conducted to discover the most effective variables for maximum efficiency and three variables including route length, frequency per vehicle per day, and headway are found to be influential. It is also seen that strategy to minimising input factors and service upgrade plan such as shortened route length and headway, increasing frequency per vehicle are necessary to develop the efficiency of bus routes operated in Ulsan city.
Short-Term Prediction of Travel Time Using DSRC on Highway
Kim, Hyungjoo ; Jang, Kitae ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2465~2471
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2465
This paper develops a travel time prediction algorithm that can be used for real-time application. The algorithm searches for the most similar pattern in historical travel time database as soon as a series of real-time data become available. Artificial neural network approach is then taken to forecast travel time in the near future. To examine the performance of this algorithm, travel time data from Gyungbu Highway were obtained and the algorithm is applied. The evaluation shows that the algorithm could predict travel time within 4% error range if comparable patterns are available in the historical travel time database. This paper documents the detailed algorithm and validation procedure, thereby furnishing a key to generating future travel time information.
Development of More Realistic Overtaking Behavior Model in CA-Based Two-Lane Highway Environment
Yoon, Byoung Jo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2473~2481
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2473
The two characteristics of two-lane-and-two-way traffic flow are platoon and overtaking triggered by low-speed vehicle. It is crucial to develop a robust model which simultaneously generates the behaviors of platoon by low-speed vehicle and overtaking using opposite lane. Hence, a microscopic two-lane and two-way vehicle model was introduced (B. Yoon, 2011), which is based on CA (Cellular Automata) which is one of discrete time-space models, in Korea. While the model very reasonably explains the behaviour of overtaking low-speed vehicle in stable traffic flow below critical density, it has shortcomings to the overtaking process in unstable traffic flow above the critical density. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develope a vehicle model to more realistically explain overtaking process in unstable traffic flow state based on the model developed in the previous study. The experimental results revealed that the car-following model robustly generates the various macroscopic relationships of traffic flow generating stop-and-go traffic flow and the overtaking model reasonably explains the behaviors of overtaking under the conditions of both opposite traffic flow and stochastic parameter to consider overtaking in unstable traffic flow state. The vehicle model presented in this study can be expected to be utilized for the analysis of two-lane-and-two-way traffic flows more realistically than before.
Analysis on Comparison of Highway Accident Severity between Weekday and Weekend using Structural Equation Model
Bae, Yun Kyung ; Ahn, Sunyoung ; Chung, Jin-Hyuk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2483~2491
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2483
In order to identify and understand the crucial factors to induce traffic accident, causal relationships between diverse factors and traffic accident occurrence have been investigated continuously. It is one of most important issues all over the world to reduce the number of traffic accidents and deaths by them. Korea government is also stepping up their effort to reduce the number of traffic accidents and mitigate the severity of the accidents by establishing various traffic safety strategies. By introducing the five-day work week and increasing concern of leisure activities, the differences of trip characteristics between weekday and weekend is getting greater. According to this, the patterns and crucial factors of traffic accident occurrence in weekend appear differently from those in weekday. This study aims to understand major different factors affecting accident severity between weekday and weekend using 12,042 incident data occurred on freeways of Korea from 2006 to 2011. The model developed in this study estimated relationships among various exogenous factors of traffic accident by each type using SEM(Structural Equation Model). The result provides that road factors are related to the accident severity for weekday model, while environment factors affects on accident severity for weekend.
A Comparative Analysis of Characteristics of Mode Choice and Mode Transfer to Public Transit by Mode-Choice Class for the Effective Transportation Demand Management Implement
Hwang, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2493~2501
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2493
Various schemes of transportation demand management(TDM) to discourage the use of cars and enhance public transit performance have been implemented in large cities. Nevertheless, policy effects in reducing car have not been satisfactory. Car-dependent travelers who tend to keep driving cars regardless of the change of the trip circumstances as such increase of travel time and cost according to car use or improvement of public transit service may be due to not according to utility reflecting mode-specific impedance and their own socio-economic characteristics. In this study, travelers were classified into four groups by their choice frequency of private car and public transit in unspecified multiple trip(car-dependent, car-choice, public transit-choice, public transit-dependent class). And the characteristics of each group were comparative analyzed. The results show that the group of a higher car-dependent is a higher priority on convenience and comfortability of the car when making decisions and the group of a lower of car-dependent is likely to change to public transit.
Study on Trip Generation Characteristics of Single-Person Household in Seoul Metropolitan Area
Ahn, Hyo Won ; Rhee, Jong Ho ; Oh, Seung Hwoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2503~2508
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2503
Single-person households in the Seoul Metropolitan Area have increased sharply during recent 20-30 years. Despite of decreasing in the total population, the number of single-person household is predicted to increase continuously. However, the effect of single-person household growth on the domestic transport sector has not been studied concretely. In this study, the differences on trip generation characteristics by household size and attributes were figured out by analyzing Seoul Metropolitan Area Household Travel Behavior Survey (SMA-HTBS). Firstly, trip generation rates (trips/day/person) were produced by household attribute, household member attribute and trip attribute based on SMA-HTBS. Secondly, trip generation rate of single-person household and that of multi-person (2 or more) household were compared by significance test. It was found that trips generation characteristics of single-person household is quite different from those of multi-person household by housing type, residential type, living area, and transport mode. The result of this paper is expected to contribute developing more sophisticated trip generation model and transport policy reflecting trip generation characteristics of single-person household.
Field Applicability of Augmented Reality Technology by Marker Mapping for Construction Project (Focused on Measurement Process of Rebar Work)
Kim, SunYoung ; Kim, HyeonSeung ; Moon, HyounSeok ; Kang, LeenSeok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2509~2518
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2509
Augmented reality (AR) technology visualizes a real type object that cannot simulate in virtual reality technology by overlapping a virtual object and real object in a computer system. This study suggests a methodology and prototype system for applying AR system to rebar distribution work in a civil engineering project. Rebar work in civil engineering project is a representative activity that is progressed by empirical approach of skilled labor rather than formalized manual. AR technology improves the constructability of rebar work because AR tool can identify missing rebars and different rebars comparing with the drawings. AR system developed in this study can enhance the understanding of rebar work using 3D modeling with real image of construction site and save construction cost by reducing reconstruction work.
A Study on the Development of Work-Crew Based Daily-Productivity for Representative B.O.Q Item in River Conservation Project
Yoo, Duk-Yul ; Park, Hyung-Keun ; Lim, Hyeong-Min ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2519~2528
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2519
The standard of estimate is being used as basic material for appropriating construction expenses of public institutions and private institutions. The present thesis aims to propose a new form of a standard of estimate and a calculation method of work amount of equipment by targeting a representative construction type selected at river reservation work. The present thesis expects that the convenience of users can be expanded by improving applicability of a standard of estimate and simplifying a calculation process of work amount of equipment in a process planning stage so that the provision of work crew lineup information and daily productivity information is possible by a standard of estimate. In case of river conservation work, because the variables called work conditions act very largely, there exists much difficulty for generalizing productivity information and work amount of equipment, but if its accuracy could be enhanced by improving continuous productivity information and work amount information of equipment, the simplification of process planning establishment and cumulative process through a standard of estimate would be possible.
A Study on Core Competencies to increase Global Competitiveness for the Korean Construction Industry - Focusing on Discrepancies Between Construction and Design Competencies -
Kim, Sang-Bum ; Kim, Yong-Bi ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2529~2539
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2529
The Korean construction industry has led the miraculous economic boost of Korea by providing solid domestic infrastructures such as highway, roads, and airports. It also played a critical role in global construction market and eaned more than 500 billions dollars in terms of their accumulated international orders. However, domestic construction market has significantly decreased in recent years due to the domestic political environments and global economic crisis. Therefore, the importance of international construction market cannot be more emphasized to the Korean construction market in order for the sustainable growth. There has been, however, little research in the area of identifying required competency elements for the Korean construction industry to stay successful in the global market. The main purpose of this study is to identify elements of core competency to increase global competitiveness for Korean construction industry. Core global construction competency elements were derived from the internal and external environmental analyses along with the extensive literature review, expert interviews and a survey. This study utilized the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) and a gap analysis in providing insights on the status competitiveness of the Korean construction industry in terms of required global core competency elements. The analysis shows that project management and financial management are the main areas for improvements required to engineering contractors while construction contractors need to take a more balanced approach among technical, project management, and financial management in order to increase their global competencies.
Quantification of a Global Construction Core Competencies for Korean Construction/Engineering Firms
Kim, Sang-Bum ; Kim, Yong-Bi ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2541~2549
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2541
The Construction industry has been dealing with much trouble due to global economic recession and domestic political trends emphasizing on welfare than development. Consequently, domestic construction market has been dramatically shrunk during the last a few years, and international market has become the only potential solution for the industry. However, there has been lack of efforts in developing a quantified measure of global competencies for Korean engineering and construction organizations. This study attempted to develop quantified indices for Korean engineering and construction contractors with which the level of global construction competencies can be objectively monitored. In doing so, a survey questionnaire was developed to identify relative importances of core competency elements which were derived from extensive literature reviews and experts interviews. AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was employed as a main analysis method in developing quantification measures. The analysis results reveal little differences in competency requirements between engineering and construction firms and it implies that the global market becomes more integrated and requires a total solution for a construction project. The developed core competency measures can be used to quantify the level of preparedness of Korean engineering and construction firms at the time of evaluation and also be used as a basis for performance benchmarking indicators if they are compared with business showings.
A Study on the Selection and Applicability Analysis of 3D Terrain Modeling Sensor for Intelligent Excavation Robot
Yoo, Hyun-Seok ; Kwon, Soon-Wook ; Kim, Young-Suk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2551~2562
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2551
Since 2006, an Intelligent Excavation Robot which automatically performs the earth-work without operator has been developed in Korea. The technologies for automatically recognizing the terrain of work environment and detecting the objects such as obstacles or dump trucks are essential for its work quality and safety. In several countries, terrestrial 3D laser scanner and stereo vision camera have been used to model the local area around workspace of the automated construction equipment. However, these attempts have some problems that require high cost to make the sensor system or long processing time to eliminate the noise from 3D model outcome. The objectives of this study are to analyze the advantages of the existing 3D modeling sensors and to examine the applicability for practical use by using Analytic Hierarchical Process(AHP). In this study, 3D modeling quality and accuracy of modeling sensors were tested at the real earth-work environment.
The Status and Improvement Scheme of Educational Program for Specialty Contractors` Employees
Hong, Sung-Ho ; Jung, Dae-Woon ; Shin, Ju-Yeoul ; Lee, Dong Wook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2563~2573
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2563
Specialty contractors are in charge of the actual construction work and managing many work force in construction sites. The effective educational program for specialty contractors` employees is essential to improve the competitiveness of construction industry. However, there is no in-depth research on training programs for their management or technical staff. Therefore, this study proposes a framework of educational program for the specialty contractors` employees in order to enhance their competence. An extended review of literature related the educational program was carried out to understand the concept, structure, and element of the education system. A questionnaire survey for specialty contractors` employees was performed to investigate the status and problems of educational programs as well as the their educational needs. Based on the survey, the demand-oriented education programs is required to meet the needs of specialty contractors` employees. The framework of demand-oriented education programs for specialty contractors` employees consists of training contents, training type and method, training hour.
Comparison of Cost Performance for Delivery Methods on Public Construction Projects
Lee, Yoo Sub ; Kang, Tai Kyung ; Shin, Eun Young ; Park, Wonyoung ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2575~2582
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2575
In the delivery systems for public construction works, design-build methods such as turn-key and alternative have contributed to improving the quality of structures and developing the construction technology. However, it is pointed out that construction based on a design-build method is likely to waste a budget due to its higher contract price than construction based on a design-bid-build method. Other issues such as contract monopoly, bid rigging and deliberation irregularity in design-build. Since there are not much works have been accomplished to comparatively analyze the actual performance and effect based on delivery methods, discussing and judging the performance and effect of each deliver method with limited information could lead to an error. Thus, this study by extensively investigates the actual project cost data, ranging from contract price to the construction cost of the public construction works and comparatively analyzed the characteristics of each delivery method about cost structure and fluctuation trend. This work is expected to assist stake-holders in properly understanding delivery systems for public construction works and promoting their efficient management.
A Study on the Creative Industry Population Based on Different Spatial and Non-Spatial Urban Structure
Ahn, Jung Geun ; Hwang, Jeong Gyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2583~2591
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2583
A number of cities have been constantly decreasing their residents by the low quality of life and environment. A creative industry is being noticed for not only securing the competitiveness of the city but also increasing the number of population. Thus, the urban structure for inducing creative industry population becomes to major issue to the most of local governments. This study aims to suggest the relationships between urban structure and creative industry population based on different urban sizes. To measure the population of creative industry, this study used the `National Business Survey` by the National Statistical Office, which classified the statistical data of industrial places on a basis of city, district, and borough. Based on the results of expert questionnaire surveys, it conducted an analysis on the importance of urban structure and drew some critical factors that have an important effect on attracting the population of creative industry. The relationships between creative industry population and urban structure evaluated by multiple regression analysis. This study found out that the cultural factors like cultural space or culture events were drawn as very significant factors that have a positive effect on the population of creative industry population. It is judged that the creation of culture environment, which can enrich the creative industry, is needed to strengthen the competitiveness of the cities.
Orhtophoto Accuracy Assessment of Ultra-light Fixed Wing UAV Photogrammetry Techniques
Lee, In Su ; Lee, Jae One ; Kim, Su Jeong ; Hong, Soon Heon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2593~2600
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2593
The main purpose of this study is to carry out the performance evaluation of Ultra-light Fixed Wing UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry which is being, currently, applied for various fields such as cultural assets, accident survey, military reconnaissance work, and disaster management at home and abroad. Firstly, RMSE estimation of Aerial Triangulation (AT) are within approximately 0.10 cm in position (X, Y). And through the comparison of parcel`s boundary points coordinates by terrestrial surveying and by UAV photogrammetry, the analysis shows that RMSE are shifted approximately 0.174~0.205 m in X-direction, 0.294~0.298 m in Y-direction respectively. Lastly, parcel`s area by orthophoto of UAV photogrammetry and by that of cadastre register has been shown the difference by 0.118 m2. The results presented in this study is just one case study of orthophoto accuracy assessment of Ultra-light fixed wing UAV photogrammetry, hereafter various researches such as AT, direct-georeferencing, flight planning, practical applications, etc. should be necessary continuously.
Accuracy Analysis of Absolute Positioning by GNSS
Lee, Yong Chang ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 33, issue 6, 2013, Pages 2601~2610
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2013.33.6.2601
The main limiting factors of Precise Point Positioning(PPP) accuracy are errors in broadcast satellite orbits, clock errors, and the others, which are receiver-dependent errors(ionospheric, tropospheric refraction, multipath, and tides, etc.). Therefore, to facilitate high precision PPP, precise orbits/clocks corrections, the receiver-dependent errors corrections have to apply to multi frequency GNSS measurements for an ionosphere free combination and integer ambiguity resolution in real-time. Currently, there are many Analysis Centers, which offer the precise corrections stream computed in real-time using the global or regional GNSS tracking network. The goles of this research considered performances of the real-time static PPP with using RTCM corrections from NTRIP casters. For this, the corrections streams of Analysis Centers received via NTRIP does apply to GNSS data of check points individually, as well as jointly, in accordance with various session lengths. After that, have compared the PPP results from the corrections streams with each other, and with Standard Point Positioning(SPP) results.