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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of P-M Interaction Curve for Circular Concrete-Filled Tube (CFT) Column
Moon, Jiho ; Park, Keum-Sung ; Lee, Hak-Eun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 355~365
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0355
Concrete-filled tubes (CFTs) have been used in civil engineering practices as a column of buildings and a bridge pier. CFTs have several advantages over the conventional reinforced concrete columns, such as rapid construction, enhanced buckling resistance, and inherited confinement effect. However, CFT component have not been widely used in civil engineering practice, since the design provisions among codes significantly vary each other. It leads to conservative design of CFT component. In this study, the design provisions of AISC and EC4 for CFT component were examined, based on the extensive test results conducted by previous researchers and finite element analysis results obtained in this study. Especially, the focus was made on the validation of P-M interaction curves proposed by AISC and EC4. From the results, it was found that the current design codes considerably underestimated the strength of CFT component under general combined axial load and bending. Finally, the modified P-M interaction curve was proposed and successfully verified.
An Experimental Study on the Shear Failure Behavior of Post-installed Set Anchor for Concrete
Um, Chan-Hee ; Yoo, Seung-Woon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 367~375
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0367
Recently the use of concrete post-installed set anchors has been increasing because this constructing method is flexible and easy to attach or fix structural members when we repair, reinforce, or remodel a concrete structures. Depending on the shear strength of steel, the strength of concrete, edge distance and anchor interval, etc, the anchor loaded in shearing exhibits various failure modes such as steel failure, concrete failure, concrete pryout. In this study, the objective is to investigate the effects of the variations like anchor embedment depth, anchor interval, edge distance and concrete strength on the shear failure behavior of post-installed concrete set anchor embedded in concrete. The results of embedment depth experiments show that concrete strength has much effection on the shallow embedment depth. Steel failure occur to all results of the anchor interval experiments, but concrete is failed when edge distance experiments that less than the embedment depth. Through the comparision of the same parameters experiments results show that as strong as concrete strength are the displacement results are small.
Optimum Design and Structural Application of the Bracing Damper System by Utilizing Friction Energy Dissipation and Self-Centering Capability
Hu, Jong Wan ; Park, Ji-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 377~387
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0377
This study mainly treats a new type of the bracing friction damper system, which is able to minimize structural damage under earthquake loads. The slotted bolt holes are placed on the shear faying surfaces with an intention to dissipate considerable amount of friction energy. The superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wire strands are installed crossly between two plates for the purpose of enhancing recentering force that are able to reduce permanent deformation occurring at the friction damper system. The smart recentering friction damper system proposed in this study can be expected to reduce repair cost as compared to the conventional damper system because the proposed system mitigates the inter-story drift of the entire frame structure. The response mechanism of the proposed damper system is firstly investigated in this study, and then numerical analyses are performed on the component spring models calibrated to the experimental results. Based on the numerical analysis results, the seismic performance of the recentering friction damper system with respect to recentering capability and energy dissipation are investigated before suggesting optimal design methodology. Finally, nonlinear dynamic analyses are conducted by using the frame models designed with the proposed damper systems so as to verify superior performance to the existing damper systems.
Full-Scale Test on Precast Concrete Arch Bridge with Reinforced Joint and Backfill
Chung, Chulhun ; Joo, Sanghoon ; Choi, Dongchan ; Lee, Jongyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 389~402
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0389
In this paper, the load test of full-scale precast concrete arch bridges considering reinforced joint and backfill was conducted. It is an improved method that the reinforced joint enhanced the structural performance of conventional masonry arch system which was proposed by previous researchers. The models of full-scale test are
(rise), which are 2 meters in width. The critical load position was shown at a third-span from the results of the pre-analysis. Based on the this results, the positions of load, measuring items and points were determined in experiments. As a result, the maximum load capacity of the specimen
, a relatively small rise to span ratio (compared to the specimen
), was higher than the specimen
. It was evaluated that all the specimens have sufficient structural performance on the design load.
Effective Strength of 3-Dimensional Concrete Strut
Yun, Young Mook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 403~413
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0403
For the reliable design of the structural concrete by the strut-tie model approaches of current design codes, the effective strengths of concrete struts must be determined with sufficient accuracy. Many values and equations for the effective strengths have been suggested until now. As those are for the two-dimensional concrete struts, however, it is inappropriate to employ them in the strut-tie model designs of three-dimensional structural concretes. In this study, an approach, that determines the effective strengths of three-dimensional concrete struts consistently and accurately by reflecting the state of 3-dimensional stresses, the 3-dimensional failure criteria of concrete, the degree of cracks (or tensile strains of reinforcing bars crossing the struts), the strut`s longitudinal length, the deviation angle between strut orientation and compressive principal stress flow, compressive strength of concrete, and the degree of concrete confinement by reinforcing bars, is proposed. To examine the validity of the proposed approach, the ultimate strength analyses of 115 reinforced concrete pile caps tested to failure by previous investigators were conducted by the ACI 318-11`s strut-tie model approach with the existing and proposed effective strengths of concrete struts.
Evaluation of Residual Stress using IITC of Experimental Stress Analysis on Concrete Structure
Lee, Ho Beom ; Han, Sang Hee ; Jang, Il Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 415~424
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0415
The carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is evaluated by the measured data from displacement and strain gauges for given loads and the results of numerical analysis that are compared with the measured ones. Consequently, this process could be accomplished in doing the direct measurement of residual stress on existing concrete. This study is concerned with the development of IITC (Instrumented Indentation Technique for Concrete) system which is based on the experimental stress analysis technique using non-destructive test method to evaluate the residual stress of concrete structures depending on the types of applied loadings in analysing indentation load - indentation depth curve derived experimentally on concrete surface. As a result, in this paper, almost all of systematized H/W and S/W were newly developed to estimate the residual stresses of concrete structures. Thus, the creation of new experimental equations for deriving residual stresses and automatical calculations of residual stresses using the empirical formula can lead to evaluate the structural resistances conveniently in the structures from construction phase to maintenance stage.
Strut-Tie Model Approach Associated with 3-Dimensional Grid Elements for Design of Structural Concrete - (I) Proposal of Approach
Kim, Byung Hun ; Yun, Young Mook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 425~436
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0425
Although the strut-tie model approaches of current design codes are regarded as the valuable methods for designs of structural concretes with D-regions, the approaches have to be improved because of the uncertainties in terms of the concepts and provisions for designs of 3-dimensional structural concretes. To improve the uncertainties, a new strut-tie model approach is proposed in this study. In the proposed approach, the concepts of employing a 3-dimensional grid element allowing load transfers in all directions at a node to construct a strut-tie model, a numerical analysis approach to determine the effective strengths of concrete struts and nodal zones by reflecting the effects of reinforcing bars and 3-dimensional stress state, and maximum areas of struts and ties to examine their load carrying capacities are integrated into the strut-tie model approaches of current design codes.
Strut-Tie Model Approach Associated with 3-Dimensional Grid Elements for Design of Structural Concrete - (II) Validity Evaluation
Kim, Byung Hun ; Yun, Young Mook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 437~446
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0437
In this study, the ultimate strengths of 13 slab-column joints and 51 torsional beams were evaluated to verify the validity of the strut-tie model approach presented in the companion paper. In addition, the design of the bridge pier subjected to multiple load combinations with longitudinal and lateral loads was conducted. The analysis results were compared with those by the provisions of BS 8110, ACI 318, and AASHTO-LRFD. The design results of the bridge pier were also compared with those by the provisions of ACI 318`s sectional design method and AASHTO-LRFD`s strut-tie model method.
Comparison of Flexural Tensile Behaviors with Different Filling Directions in Producing UHPCC Flexural Member
Kang, Su-Tae ; Ryu, Gum Sung ; Koh, Kyung Taek ; Kim, Sunyong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 447~455
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0447
This study was intended to estimate the efficiency of inducing fiber arrangement in UHPCC (Ultra High Performance Cementitious Composites). For the purpose, UHPCC members produced by several different placing methods according to flow characteristics were prepared; flexural behaviors were compared and correlation between the flexural behavior and the characteristics of fiber arrangement was investigated. Test results showed that placing method for inducing specific fiber arrangement had a considerable influence on the flexural performance. The standard specimen in which fibers are induced to be directed parallel to the principle tensile direction presented higher flexural tensile strength but lower variation. Therefore it should be considered that the flexural tensile strength actually developed in UHPCC member may be highly different and in lager variation. The qualitative variation of fiber arrangement according to the flow of UHPCC was also predicted considering the flow pattern and the boundary effect; the prediction provided good explanation to the difference in the flexural behavior according to the induced flow.
Assessment of Snowmelt Impact on Chungju Dam Watershed Inflow Using Terra MODIS Data and SWAT Model
Kim, Saet Byul ; Ahn, So Ra ; Shin, Hyung Jin ; Kim, Seong Joon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 457~467
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0457
This study is to evaluate the snowmelt impact on dam inflow for the Chungju Dam watershed
using Terra MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). To determine the SWAT snowmelt parameter; snow cover depletion curve (SCDC) the snow depth distribution (SDD) using Terra MODIS was used, the snow depth was spatially interpolated using snowfall data of ground meteorological stations. For 10 sets (2000-2010) data during snowmelt period (November-April), the sno50cov parameter, that is, the 50% coverage at a fraction of SCDC which determines the shape of snow depletion process, showed the values of 0.4 to 0.7. The SWAT model was calibrated with average
of 0.54 using the sno50cov of each year. The 10 years average streamflow during snowmelt period was 104.3 mm which covers 12.0% of the annual streamflow.
Comparison of Design Rainfalls From the Annual Maximum and the Non-annual Exceedance Series
Park, Yei Jun ; Kwon, Hyun-Han ; Chung, Eun Sung ; Kim, Tae-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 469~478
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0469
The annual maximum series (AMS) is usually used to estimate hydrological quantiles in practice because it is simple to construct and straightforward to probabilistic interpretation. However, it is limited to use the AMS in Korea due to the lack of reliable observed data which leads to the overestimation of design rainfall and/or flood. Using the 40-year observations of rainfall provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration, this study constructed the AMS and non-annual exceedance series (NAES) after identifying the independent storm event, analyzed the correlation between design rainfalls estimated from the AMS and NAES, and proposed a new method of point frequency analysis to estimate design rainfalls from the small number of observations.
A Study on Imposing Exact Solutions as Internal Boundary Conditions in Simulating Shallow-water Flows over a Step
Hwang, Seung-Yong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 479~492
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0479
In this study, was proposed a numerical scheme imposing exact solutions as the internal boundary conditions for the shallow-water flows over a discontinuous transverse structure such as a step. The HLLL approximate Riemann solver with the MUSCL was used for the test of the proposed scheme. Very good agreement was obtained between simulations and exact solutions for various problems of the shallow-water flows over a step. In addition, results by the numerical model showed good agreement with those of dam-break experiments over a step and stepped chute one. Developed model can simulate the shallow-water flows over discontinuous bottom such as a drop structure without additional rating curve or topography smoothing. Given the proper evaluations for the flow resistance by a step and the energy loss by the nappe flow in the future, could be simulated flooding and drying of the shallow-water flows over discontinuous topography such as a weir or the river road with retaining wall.
Comparative Analysis of Estimation Methods for Basin Averaged Effective Rainfall Using NRCS-CN Method
Moon, Geon-Woo ; Yoo, Ji-Young ; Ahn, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Tae-Woong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 493~503
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0493
The NRCS-CN method is generally applied for estimating effective rainfalls in practice, in which the basin-averaged CN is normally used. In order to develop a more appropriate method for estimating effective rainfalls in a basin, this study compared estimated effective rainfalls from two distinct methods with the observed direct runoff. The first method is to estimate the basin-representative effective rainfall using the basin-averaged CN (hereafter, effective rainfall I), whereas the second method to estimate the basin-averaged effective rainfall through areal-averaging sub-area effective rainfalls corresponding to the soil type and landuse type (hereafter, effective rainfall II). The overall results indicated that the effective rainfall II was higher than the effective rainfall I and closer to the observed direct runoff. The study also performed error analyses to verify that the effective rainfall II can be applied in practice in a basin as more accurate estimate of basin-representative effective rainfall.
Effect of Joint on the Earth Pressure Against an Excavation Wall in Rockmass
Son, Moorak ; Adedokun, Solomon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 505~513
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0505
This paper investigated the effect of joint on the earth pressure against an excavation wall in rockmass with the consideration of various rock and joint conditions. For this purpose, this study briefly reviewed of the previous earth pressure studies, and then numerical parametric studies were conducted based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) to overcome the limitations of the previous studies. The numerical tests were carried out with the controlled parameters including rock types and joint conditions (joint shear strength, joint inclination angle, and joint set), and the magnitude and distribution characteristics of the induced earth pressure were investigated considering the interactions between the ground and the excavation wall. In addition, the earth pressures induced in rock stratum were compared with Peck`s earth pressure for soil ground. The results showed that the earth pressure against an excavation wall in jointed rockmass were highly affected by different rock and joint conditions and thus different from Peck`s empirical earth pressure for soil ground.
A Characteristic of Deformation and Strength of Domestic Sands by Triaxial Compression Tests
Park, Choon Sik ; Kim, Jong Hwan ; Park, Cheol Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 515~527
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0515
This study conducted experiment for understanding engineering characteristics of domestic sands by examining standard sand and sand from Yokji Island and Nakdong River in terms of confining pressure,
, over consolidation and relative density factors through triaxial compression test. The test showed that deviator stress by strain positively changed as confining pressure and relative density grow while
and over consolidation factors do not directly correlated with it. Angle of internal friction decreases as confining pressure increases which strengthens contact force between particles, and declines as relative density drops, whereas
and over consolidation factors hardly affect the results. When it comes to volumetric strain, volume expansion decreases as confining pressure increase due to crushability and rearrangement of particles while
and over consolidation shows same movement unconditionally, and relative density appears compressed as it grows at the beginning however it expands as axial strain increases. Modulus of elasticity (
) by strain has tendency into convergence resulting in initial secant modulus of elasticity (
) > secant modulus of elasticity(
) > tangent modulus of elasticity (
). On the other hand, it grows as confining pressure and relative density increase while indicating similar modulus of elasticity (
) regarding on
and over consolidation. Slope of critical line (M) tended to decrease as confining pressure increases, follow same line according to
, confining pressure and relative density, and increase as relative density grows.
Prediction of Physical Characteristics of Cement-Admixed Clay Ground
Park, Minchul ; Jeon, Jesung ; Jeong, Sangguk ; Lee, Song ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 529~536
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0529
Physical characteristics of cement-admixed clay such as water content, specific gravity, unit weight and void ratio are main factors for strength, compressibility and prediction of consolidation behavior. In the past, the physical characteristics of admixed soils could be understanded through complex laboratory tests and field survey after construction. In this study, the tests were performed with conditions such as clay water contents 0%-170%, cement contents 5%-25% and curing period 3-90days after that analyzed for changes which are water content, specific gravity unit weight and void ratio of admixed soils. A prediction of properties through mechanical relationships with clay in situ water content, cement content and curing period could be proposed using the test results. The prediction equation of void ratio of admixed soils was derived using void ratio equation in geotechnical engineering and compared with test results of bangkok clay and then this study could be verified.
A Study on Parking Characteristics in University Campuses
Oh, Seung Hwoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 537~547
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0537
Parking infrastructure in university campuses has been inadequately developed in spite of rapid increase in car ownership of professors, staffs and students. However, only a few researches have been conducted domestically and overseas to identify and solve the problem. Thus, in this study owner drivers in 16 campuses located in Seoul Metropolitan Area were interviewed to figure out what they thought were important factors and how much they were satisfied when they were using parking lots in campuses. The questionnaires of the survey included economy, accessibility, convenience, punctuality, safety and informativeness. The Importance-Satisfaction Analysis was conducted based on the survey. And the parking characteristics of university campuses were compared based on the levels of importance and satisfaction calculated by ISA. Lastly, criteria of establishing campus parking management guideline were suggested as well.
Development of Estimation Models for Parking Units -Focused on Gwangju Metropolitan City Condominium Apartments-
Kwon, Sung-Dae ; Ko, Dong-Bong ; Park, Je-Jin ; Ha, Tae-Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 549~559
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0549
The rapid expansion of cities led to the shortage of housing in urban areas. The government compensated for this shortage through large scale residential developments that increased the housing supply. The supply of condominium apartments remains above 83% of the entire housing supply, and the proportion of apartments are at a steady increase, at about 50%. Due to the increase, illegally parked cars resulting from the shortage of parking spaces within the apartment complex have become increasingly problematic as they block the transit of emergency vehicles, and heighten the tension among neighboring residents in obtaining a parking space. Especially, the future residents are considered to plan the parking based on the estimated demand for parking. However, the parking unit method utilized to estimate the parking demand accounts for the exclusive use of space, which is believed to be far from the parking demands in reality. The reason for this discrepancy is that, as the number of households decrease, and area of exclusive space is expanded, the planned parking increases. On the other hand, when the number of households increase, and the area of exclusive space is reduced, the planned parking decreases, thus methods to recalculate the parking units based on estimated parking demand is an urgent concern. To estimate the parking units based on condominium apartments, this study first examined the existing research literature, and appointed the field of investigation to collect the necessary data. In addition, field study data and surveys collected and analyzed, in order to identify the problems underlying parking units, and problems regarding the current traffic impact assessment parking unit calculation method were deduced. Through identifying the influential factors on parking demand estimates, and performing a factorial analysis based on the collected data, the variables were selected in relation to the parking demand estimates, to develop the parking unit estimate model. Finally, through comparing and verifying the existing traffic impact assessment parking unit estimate against the newly developed model using collected data, a far more realistic parking unite estimate was suggested, reflecting the characteristics of the residents. The parking unit estimate model developed in this study is anticipated to serve as the guidelines for future parking lot legislature, as wel as the basis to provide a more realistic estimate of parking demands based on the resident characteristics of an apartment complex.
Traffic Accident Damage Severity of Old Age Drivers by Multilevel Analysis Model
Jang, Tae Youn ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 561~571
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0561
This study analyzes traffic accident severity of old age drivers in fourteen cities and counties of Jeonbuk Province. It is assumed that traffic accident effecting factors have two staged structure by personal and driving environment and urban characteristics. Multilevel Analysis Model is used under the assumption of hierarchical characteristics to analyze factors effecting severity. As the driver`s age increases after sixty-five years old, accident damages become severe. The drunk driving is likely to make traffic accident damage more severer. The number of fatal accident by old age drivers is about three time more than by no old age drivers. Old age drivers have higher number of night traffic accidents but severer ones in daytime. Old age drivers show the higher number of traffic accidents but severer ones in fine weather. Wet road surface also influences damage severity and especially old age drivers show higher serious damage and fatal than no old drivers.
Determination of the Required Minimum Spacing Between Signalized Intersection and Minor Road
Kwon, Sung-Dae ; Kim, Yoon-Mi ; Kang, Nam-Won ; Ha, Tae-Jun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 573~582
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0573
Since there is no clear installation criteria on minimum spacing between signalized intersection and minor road, many problems have occurred in terms of traffic operation and safety. Even though many studies about entrance/exit intersection have been done in operational aspects, there is no specific and detailed research between the signalized intersection and minor road by now. Thus, this research suggests the optimal spacing between signalized intersection and minor road considering traffic operation and safety. Also, survey on vehicle behavior was conducted in this research. In conclusion, by suggesting the required minimum spacing between signalized intersection and minor road, it can be contribute in establishing and operating the installation criteria between signalized intersection and minor road.
A Study on the Road Safety Analysis Model: Focused on National Highway Areas in Cheonbuk Province
Lim, Joonbeom ; Kim, Joon-Ki ; Lee, Soobeom ; Kim, Hyunjin ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 583~595
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0583
Currently, Korean transportation policies are aiming for increase of safety and environment-friendly and efficient operation, by avoiding construction and expansion of roads, and upgrading road alignments and facilities. This is revealed by that there have been 22 road expansion projects (30%) and 50 road improvement projects (70%) under the 3rd Five-Year Plan for National Highways (`11~`15), while there were 53 road expansion projects (71%) and 22 road improvement projects (29%) under the 2nd Five-Year Plan for National Highways. For more effective road improvement projects, there is a need of choosing projects after an objective and scientific safety assessment of each road, and assessing safety improvement depending on projects. This study is intended to develop a model for this road safety analysis and assessment. The major objective of this study is creating a road safety analysis and assessment model appropriate for Korean society, based on the HSM (Highway Safety Manual) of the U.S. In order to build up data for model development, the sections thought to have identical geometrical structure factors in 5 lines, Cheonbuk province, were divided as homogeneous sections, and representative values of geometric structures, facilities, traffic volume, climate conditions and land usage were collected from the 1,452 sections divided. In order to build up data for model development, the sections thought to have identical geometrical structure factors in 5 lines, Cheonbuk province, were divided as homogeneous sections, and representative values of geometric structures, facilities, traffic volume, climate conditions and land usage were collected from the 1,452 sections divided. The collected data was processed correlation analysis of each road element was implemented to see which factor had a big effect on traffic accidents. On the basis of these results, then, an accident model was established as a negative binomial regression model.Using the developed model, an Crash Modification Factor (CMF) which determines accident frequency changes depending on safety performance function (SPF) predicting the number of accident occurrence through traffic volume and road section expansion, road geometric structure and traffic properties, was extracted.
Improve the Reliability Measures of Bus Arrival Time Estimation Model
Kim, Jisoo ; Park, Bumjin ; Roh, Chang-Gyun ; Kang, Woneui ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 597~604
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0597
In this study, we investigate to show the limitations of current bus arrival time estimation model based on each bus route, and to propose a bus arrival time estimation model based on a bus stop to overcome these limitations. Using the characteristic of bus arrival time calculated on travel time between two bus stops, we develop a model to estimate bus arrival times with the data of all buses traveling the same section regardless of bus route numbers. In the proposed model, an estimated arrival time is calculated by weighted moving average method, and verification between observed value and estimated time is performed on the basis of RMSE. Error was reduced by up to 20% compared to the existing models and the data update period was reduced by more than half that is related to the accuracy of bus arrival time information. We expect to solve the following problems with the suggested method: sudden increase or decrease in arrival time of the bus, the difference of the expected arrival times at the same stop between two or more buses having different route numbers, and impossibility of offering information of a bus if the bus is not operated with the designated schedule.
Transport Efficiency Analysis of the Lines of Urban Railway using Data Envelopment Analysis
Kim, Soo Hyun ; Jung, Hun Young ; Lee, Won Gyu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 605~616
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0605
The purpose of this study is to analyze transport efficiency of each of the 17 urban railway lines being operated by national public agencies using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and to seek strategies for improving efficiency of the urban railway system. The study identified the economies of scale derived from these values of efficiency and examined the effects on cost for free ride loss and profit of transport by the fare system as the external factor. At the time, Transport profits are estimated by two production factors such as the number of vehicles and service frequency derived from multiple regression. Finally, the measures to improve the efficiency were presented in terms of profitability in the national urban railway line by applying the values of efficiency derived from DEA to multidimensional scaling (MDS).
Route Optimization for Emergency Evacuation and Response in Disaster Area
Kang, Changmo ; Lee, Jongdal ; Song, Jaejin ; Jung, Kwangsu ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 617~626
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0617
Lately, losses and damage from natural disasters have been increasing. Researchers across various fields in Korea are trying to come up with a response plan, but research for evacuation plans is still far from satisfactory. Hence this paper proposes a model that could find an optimized evacuation route for when disasters occur over wide areas. Development of the model used methods including the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm, feasible path method, genetic algorithm, and pareto efficiency. Computations used parallel computing (SPMD) for high performance. In addition, the developed model is applied to a virtual network to check the validity. Finally the adaptability of the model is verified on a real network by computating for Gumi 1stNational Industrial Complex. Computation results proved that this model is valid and applicable by comparison of the fitness values for before optimization and after optimization. This research can contribute to routing for responder vehicles as well as planning for evacuation by objective when disasters occur.
The Activation Plan of Variable Speed Control of Considering Urban Freeway Continuos Traffic Characteristics (In Busan Metropolitan City)
Jeong, Yong-Hwa ; Choi, Yang-Won ; Lim, Chang-Sik ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 627~635
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0627
Currently the highest speed limit on the road traffic congestion or because you can not cope with climate change to cause a traffic accident may be a factor. According to the Road Traffic Act as well as 20% to 50% in case of inclement weather, but the driver must slow speed left to the judgment of the difficulties, and to slow the vehicle and the relative velocity between the vehicle does not run longer be a big influence on the environment and safety. Thus, variable speed control for drivers on the road, specify the appropriate maximum speed limit in bad weather It keeps motorists slowed the run rate to prevent accidents or reduce the severity of accident damage is expected to be possible. The purpose of this study is the frequent traffic accidents Continuous Busan (City Freeway) around the variable speed control in the appropriate sections so that it can be done by analyzing the characteristics of traffic accidents were the severity of the accident. Highway and urban environment, the geometry of the structure because it has a lot of Curved planar point compared to wet and dry road surfaces by simulated rain wet had bom the more the speed the greater the risk of an accident was the result. Based on these results, the primary section, first urban highway tunnel, near the lamp, near Toll Plaza, near binary Outlet after considering various factors such as speed reduction is needed in the first period by conducting awareness and recognize the need for the participation of the driver and the future city installation and operation of highways in all sectors is expected to be expanded.
A Preliminary Study on Intersection Geometric Designs Considering Safety of Crossing Bicycle - Focusing on Curve Radius of Pavement Edge at Intersection
Hwang, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 637~643
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0637
Recently there have been an increasing amount of bicycle accidents along with the increased usage of bicycles. Bicycle accidents occur frequently by perpendicular collision at the inner intersection. Bicycle traffic is especially concentrated in residential areas and around schools which results in the vulnerability of cyclists. This paper is to inform the potential risks of collisions between bicycles and cars turning right at the intersections using simulation analysis which focuses on the pavement edge of intersection geometric designs factor and checks on the drivers behavior. The result of the analysis shows that as the curve radius of pavement edge at the intersection becomes larger and the more attention drivers are paying to the rear by turning their heads to the right, the potential risk of collisions between bicycles and cars turning right will decrease.
Development of the Decision-Making System for National Highway Pavement Management
Do, Myungsik ; Kwon, Sooahn ; Lee, Sang Hyuk ; Kim, Yongjoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 645~654
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0645
PMS (Pavement Management System) of National highways in Korea has used HDM (Highway Development and Management)-4 developed by World Bank for decision-making for maintenance and rehabilitation of pavements. However using HDM-4 is not appropriate in Korea because HDM-4 requires excessive input factors for analysis and economic analysis models loaded in HDM-4 are not suitable for Korean circumstances. Thus this study aims development of decision-making system for effective pavement management with reflecting Korean circumstances. Moreover this study proposed to define component of system, deterioration models, and basic units for component, and to analyze characteristics of component of system, and also to develop optimal decision-making system. The decision-making system for PMS mainly consists of 1) DB of highways, traffics, and socio-economic index, 2) pavement deterioration model, 3) speed prediction models by pavement conditions, 4) economic evaluation models, and 5) decision-making supporting system. Also this study provided analysis results in case studies for system verifications. However pavement deterioration models considering future probabilistic characteristic and index of decision-making are needed to develop for a further study.
Development of Quantity Take-off Algorithm for Irregularly Shaped Structures using 3D Object
Ha, Cheol-Seok ; Moon, So-Yeong ; Moon, Hyoun-Seok ; Kang, Leen-Seok ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 655~666
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0655
Recently, as the appearance and exterior design of the construction structure are highlighted, the irregularly shaped structures are increasing in a construction facility. Many softwares provide a quantity take-off function of 3D object under BIM environment, however, they are focused on the limited function based on the solid modeling method. Because the vast geometric information of the curved surface is difficult to extract in the 3D objects that consist of major changes in vertical section shape as the irregularly shaped structures, it is difficult to express a 3D object as a solid model. On the other hand, the irregularly shaped structures can be expressed in relatively free in the surface model because the surface model consists of points, lines and surfaces. Accordingly, the surface modeling method is suitable for the modeling of large irregularly shaped structures. This study suggests a quantity take-off algorithm for the irregularly shaped structures using the surface modeling approach that is beneficial in the design work of structures. Some case projects are used for verifying the accuracy of the proposed method.
Analysis of Road Construction Projects` Escalation under Historical Data-Based Estimate System in Jeju
Hong, Jeong-Ho ; Lee, Dong Wook ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 667~676
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0667
This study has conducted case studies in order to suggest alternatives to the historical data-based estimate system. Price fluctuation calculation methods based on historial cost indexes, standard estimate and construction cost indexes were applied to 9 road construction sites in Jeju for an analysis. As a result, in 5 construction sites (about 56% of 9 sites), the index control rate calculated based upon historical data-based estimate system was higher than that calculated based upon standard estimate and construction cost indexes. Thus the establishment of the requirements for the adjustment of contract price due to price fluctuation delays, which leads to a significant difference in price fluctuation amount. And, in an analysis of construction cost indexes, the indexes for road construction were used for calculating index control rate which ranges from 2.0 to 9.4 percent, indicating the time of construction amount and price fluctuation application has a significant influence on index control rate.
Design of Flexible BIM System for Alignment-Based Facility
Lee, Seung Soo ; Lee, Min Joo ; Jeong, Jong Yoon ; Seo, Jong Won ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 677~685
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0677
Despite the significant benefits of BIM (Building Information Modeling), it is not being vitalized for the facilities that are designed based on the horizontal and vertical alignments because of the lack of flexibility in manipulating surface models generated based on alignments. Alignment-based design produces a surface model in one piece through the definition of the typical cross-section along the alignment. Therefore, linking these alignment-based 3D surface models, that are not modularized and difficult to partition, to the required attribute information is very difficult This paper presents design of a flexible BIM technology suitable for the alignment-based civil infrastructure by providing the partitioning functionality for surface models, the contents library for cross-sectional design components, and the attribute information along with the critical functionalities needed for the design, construction and maintenance of alignment-based civil infrastructure.
IFC Property Set-based Approach for Generating Semantic Information of Steel Box Girder Bridge Components
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Park, Sang Il ; Park, Kun-Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 687~697
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0687
This study ranges from planning phase to the detailed design phase of steel box girder bridge and proposes ways to generate semantic information of components through Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), a data model for Building Information Modeling (BIM). The classification of components of steel box girder bridge was performed to define information items required for identifying semantic information based on IFC, and spatial information items based on topology and physical information items based on functions of components were classified to create additional properties that does not support IFC by applying user-defined property set within the IFC framework. Steel box girder bridge information model based on IFC was implemented through BIM software and semantic information input interface, which was developed in this study to examine the effectiveness of the additionally created user-defined property. Furthermore, the quantity take-off of components was performed through information model of steel box girder bridge, and the applicability of the proposed method was tested by comparing the quantity take-off based on design document with the result.
The Effect of The Special Law on the Waterfront-Space Use on Space and Landscape Change of Four Major Rivers - Focused on the EcoDeltaCity Project of Nakdong River -
Kim, Jong Gu ; Kim, Yu Jun ; Kang, Youn Won ; Hong, Ji Su ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 699~710
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2014.34.2.0699
Government enacted "The special Law on the waterfront-space" to conduct four-river refurbishment project and to construct systematically regions around national rivers from 2009. This law allows public apartments and recreational facilities etc. to be located around four-river, then the law may give rise to serious space change and landscape damage. So we draw some problems of the established development project about the riverside area, and expected a space and landscape change of waterfront-space with a 3D simulation. The result, it is important to adjust the development density of site and apply various contents with take the regional characteristics into consideration for sustainable development.