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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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Korean Society of Civil Engeneers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Design Bending Moment of Cantilever Slab for Long Span decks with KL-510 Load
Chung, Chulhun ; Joo, Sanghoon ; Lee, Hanjoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 595~604
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0595
This paper proposed the design bending moments of cantilever slabs with KL-510 load according to span length of long span decks. Their span length range is from 6.0 to 12.0 meter, and length of cantilever slabs is from 30 to 50 percent of their span length. The effects of orthotropic concrete decks, stiffness of steel girders and multiple lane loading factors (MLLF) were reflected in the design bending moments. The proposed design bending moments of cantilever slabs were compared to the design bending moments with DB-24 load.
Prediction of Failure Strength of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams using Two-dimensional Grid Strut-Tie Model Method
Yun, Young Mook ; Kwon, Sang Hyok ; Chae, Hyun Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 605~615
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0605
It is difficult to form a rational strut-tie model that represents a true load transfer mechanism of structural concrete with disturbed stressed region(s). To overcome the difficulty and handle numerous load cases with just one strut-tie model, a two-dimensional grid strut-tie model method was proposed previously. However, the validity of the method was not fully examined, although the incorporated basic concepts and new methods regarding the effective strength of concrete strut, load carrying capacity of struts and ties, and geometrical compatibility of grid strut-tie model were explained in detail. In this study, for accurate strength analysis and reliable design of reinforced concrete deep beams, the appropriateness of the two-dimensional grid strut-tie model method is verified. For this, the failure strength of 237 reinforced concrete deep beams, tested to shear failure, is predicted by the two-dimensional grid strut-tie model method, and the results are compared with those obtained by the sectional shear design methods and conventional strut-tie model methods of current design codes.
Evaluation of Effects of Groundwater Pumping Near Stream Using Analytical Model
Lee, Jeongwoo ; Chung, Il-Moon ; Kim, Nam Won ; Lee, Min Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 617~625
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0617
The objective of this study was to evaluate the groundwater drawdown and streamflow depletion due to each groundwater pumping from 110 wells located near stream using the Hunt`s analytical solution (1999). The calculated results revealed that the streamflow depletion rate divided by the pumping rate for each well location mostly exceeded about 80% of pumping rate on average for 5 years. The results also showed that the stream boundary condition has made the influence distance shorter and the drawdown distribution skewed except for the streambed hydraulic conductivity and the stream bed factor (SBF) lower than
and 1.0, respectively. It was found that the groundwater pumping has significant impacts on the stream depletion showing above 80 % of stream depletion rate when the streambed hydraulic conductivity is higher than
and the stream depletion factor(SDF) is lower than 100. However, for other conditions, the SDF is not sufficient to be used as a criterion for determining whether the pumping has great impacts on stream depletion or not. Furthermore, the variation of the streambed hydraulic conductance has little change in stream depletion rate for the condition that the stream width is greater than 400 m.
A Experimental Study on Behavioral Characteristics and Loss Ratio of Sediment for Reclaimed Revetment
Kim, Dong Hyun ; Cho, Jae Nam ; Kim, Kyu-Sun ; Lee, Seung Oh ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 627~635
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0627
Recently, several construction projects have been built to create residential area, industrial complex and agricultural land on reclaimed on- and offshore regions. Estimating the quantity of filling materials during reclamation is the most curcial factor of the total construction cost of reclamation project. However, the estimation of loss ratio, defined as the ratio of loss amount to overall dumped amount, mostly depends on the empirical methods and formulae based on the material characteristics due to the lack of sufficient literature about the loss ratio according to hydraulic conditions. In this studies the loss ratio of materials considering flow conditions and material characteristics were examined through hydraulic experiments. A series of hydraulic experiments was conducted using five different hydraulic conditions and two types of materials such as sand and anthracite in a horizontal rectangular flume (
), in which a round type revetment was installed. It is found that the loss ratio generally tends to increase with increasing the particle Froude number regardless of the types of materials. Also, when the flow velocity(u) becomes higher than the critical flow velocity (
), the loss ratios of sand and anthracite are dramtically increased up to 7.4% and 24.4%, respectively. As a future work, more specific mean velocities will be considered to figure out the loss ratio and more accurate estimation of amount of filling materials will be possible to present with confidence.
Improvement of Water Supply Capability of the Nakdong River Basin Dams with Weirs
Jang, Cheol-Ho ; Kim, Young-Oh ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 637~644
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0637
This study sought to reevaluate the water supply capacities of the Nakdong river dams, and identify measures to remedy any shortages using weirs, focusing on 5 multipurpose dams and 8 weirs. The reevaluation of the dams was performed by the HEC-5 program using the original design criteria and inflow data recorded for each dam. The results show that the capacities of the 3 dams has decreased to 73~87%. Three simulations were performed to determine the effect of coordinating the dams and weirs. The first simulation was based on individual operation of the dams; the second on coordinated operation of the dams; and the third on coordinated operation of the dams and weirs. To obtain a water supply reliability of 95%, the annual water shortage was calculated for a 20-year period (1992~2011). In addition, long-term runoff simulation data used in the national river basin investigation by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation were used with the dam discharge data, because long-term inflow data for the weirs were not available. The simulations were performed by the HEC-ResSim program, with the reservoir network divided into 2 groups based on the Waegwan water station. The results show that water supply capacity for the 3 simulations to be
, respectively. This indicates that coordinated operation of the dams and weirs could provide an additional water supply of
Analysis on Mechanism of Wave Attenuation under Wave-Current Interaction
Lee, Woo-Dong ; Hur, Dong-Soo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 645~650
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0645
In this study, we conducted a numerical simulation using Navier-Stokes Solver (HYMO-WASS-3D) in order to analyze wave attenuation under wave-current interaction found in existing hydraulic experiments. It showed that wave energy and wave height are reduced as the wave propagates in coexisting fields between waves and currents. And the wave attenuation became more serious as the velocity of current and thus turbulence intensity were increased at wave-current coexisting field. As well, the wave attenuation became more serious with lower wave height and shorter period when the wave propagates the same distance under interactions between waves and currents.
A Study on the Recycling of Foodwaste Leachate as External Carbon Sources Using Microbubble
Lim, Ji-Young ; Park, Soo-Young ; Kim, Jin-Han ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 651~657
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0651
The purpose of this research was to examine the possibility on the recycling of foodwaste leachate as external carbon sources using microbubble. The following operating conditions were selected: pressurizing tank 3 bar, circulation flow rate 3.65 LPM, and air flow rate 0.3 LPM with batch type. Microbubble contact time of 18 hours is optimal time to satisfy the recycling of foodwaste leachate as external carbon sources with batch type. HRT 18 hours came up to standard for external carbon sources, except for T-P concentration with continuous type. Coagulants need to be used for removal of dissolved phosphorus concentration by more than 88.5% of the total phosphorus concentration. The VFA was influenced by the organic decomposition rate and the concentration in the aerobic condition. It was considered that the VFA was needed for selection the optimal HRT or the addition of acid fermentation process in order to meet recycling standard of foodwaste leachate.
Analysis of Influential Factors on Ploughing Failure of Footwall Slope
Moon, Joon-Shik ; Park, Woo-Jeong ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 659~665
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0659
The limit equilibrium method (LEM) is commonly used for slope design and stability analysis because it is easy to simulate slope and requires short calculating time. However, LEM cannot adequately simulate ploughing failure in a footwall slope with a joint set dipping parallel with slope, e.g. bedding joint set. This study performed parametric study to analyze the influence factors on ploughing failure using UDEC which is a commercial two-dimensional DEM (Distinct Element Method)-based numerical program. The influence of joint structure and properties on stability of a footwall slope against ploughing failure was investigated, and the factor of safety was estimated using the shear strength reduction method. It was found that the stability of footwall slope against ploughing failure strongly relies on dip angle of conjugate joint, and the critical bedding joint spacing and the critical length of slab triggering ploughing failure are also affected by dip angle of conjugate joint. The results obtained from this study can be used for effective slope design and construction including reinforcement.
Analysis on the Car Ownership Structure Considering Household Car Ownership Pattern
Lee, Jeong Hun ; Jung, Hun Young ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 667~675
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0667
The goal of this study is to be used as baseline data for transportation demand management. At the present time the number of registered car and householding car is increasing, so there is a need to analyze the car ownership pattern through household car hold status. Also, it is necessary to analyze the factor of increasing car. The research is proceeded with classifying as the household which is holding private cars or holding passenger cars and non passenger cars based on the result of the research of the household travel survey data. The result of this study is shown as follows. According to car ownership pattern, there are more households holding passenger cars only when they are holding less than 2 cars. Otherwise there are more households holding passenger car and non passenger car when they are holding more than 3 cars. Using the Ordered Logit Model, there are more differences in factors affects holding cars by variables of housing type and household properties.
Performance Evaluation of the Small Automatic Line Marking Equipment
Lee, Yongmun ; Kim, Sangtae ; Kim, Heungrae ; Choi, Keechoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 677~684
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0677
In order to improve the nighttime visibility of the lane, the need for the development of the automated line marking equipment is on the rise. The purpose of this study is to suggest performance assessment methodology that can be assessed from various aspects such as productivity, safety and quality performance of line marking equipment and to comprehensively analyze the performance of hand-operated and automated equipment based on field test. The following shows the results. It suggested a methodology capable of analyzing the performance of the line marking equipment in terms of productivity, safety and quality. Automated equipment for line marking was analyzed that can be obtained productivity achievement rate of 156.3% as compared with hand-operated equipment. On the basis of the expert advise and literature review, we derived twelve safety factors and ten quality factors of unit work in line marking. By utilizing the AHP technique, we estimated the importance of safety and quality factors. Automated equipment for line marking was analyzed to have been able to expect safety improvement rate of 49.8% and quality improvement rate of 47.2%. It is expected that the performance assessment methodology suggested in this study will be useful in analyzing objective and quantitative validity and expected effectiveness of the line marking equipment.
Effectiveness Analysis of Phosphorescent Pavement Markings for Improving Visibility and Design Standards: Focusing on Expressway Accident Hot Spots
Yi, Yongju ; Lee, Myunghwan ; Choi, Keechoo ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 685~694
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0685
Visibility of lane marking is impaired at night, or in case of rain, and thereby threatens traffic safety. Recently, various studies and technology have been developed to improve lane marking visibility, such as the extension of lane marking life expectancy (up to 1.5 times), improvement of lane marking equipment, improvement of lane marking visibility (32.7%) by applying phosphorescent material mixed paint, and expressway lane design standards alternative (length 6m, gap 12m, width 13cm: 27.8% of painted surface are reduced) adoption with ergonomic analysis. In this study, a set of cost-benefit analyses was performed for the cases where such techniques were applied. Based on the literature review, 26.9% of traffic accidents would be prevented by improving lane marking visibility by 32.7%; accident reduction benefit was calculated as much as 12.5 billion KRW. Meanwhile, total increased cost when introducing phosphorescent material mixed paint and lane design standards alternative is calculated as 30.6 billion KRW. However, economic feasibility could not be secured with 0.41 of cost-benefit ratio when applied to the expressway network as a whole. Additionally, cost-benefit (B/C) analysis was applied to each of the top 20 night accident hot spots and the results of B/C ratios were between 0.67 and 4.20, showing that 11 out of 20 spot sections of expressway can have economic feasibility. This results indicate, with this kind of pavement marking applied to accident hot spots in rural expressway, better visibility and economic feasibility can be guaranteed through traffic accident reduction. Some limitations and future research agenda have also been discussed.
Development of the Rubber Removal Primer to Reduce Pavement Damage for Removal of Rubber Deposits in Runways
Kim, Young-Ung ; You, Kwang-Ho ; Cho, Nam-Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 695~704
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0695
Rubber deposited during aircraft landing is known as the main cause of reducing surface friction force on wet surfaces. Thus, rubber deposits are removed at regular intervals for sae airplane landing. The high-pressure waterblast method, widely used for the removal of rubber deposits, is regarded as the main cause for the loss of surface material because in this method, water hits the surface directly at a high pressure. In this study, a rubber removal primer is developed to reduce surface damage by lowering the pressure of waterblast relatively during the removal of rubber deposits such that the deposits are removed efficiently even with a lower water pressure. To achieve this, basic materials appropriate for the primer were selected and their performance, penetration rate, and site applicability were evaluated. Based on the evaluations, the proportion of additive required for improving the performance of the basic materials was first determined. Then, the optimum mix ratio was derived through the evaluation of the effect on pavements, and the development of the rubber removal primer was completed.
Analysis on the Safety of Structure and Economics of Replacement Method Using Rock Debris in the Soft Ground - Case Study of Miho Stream Crossing Road in Cheongju City
Heo, Kang Kug ; Park, Hyung Keun ; Ahn, Byung Chul ; Min, Byeong Uk ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 705~713
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0705
For the soft ground construction, the factors not considered in the design stage occurs in the construction stage so that they cause the increase of the construction cost due to the structural stability and the design change. The subject of the study is the construction section of the industrial complex access road made in the Ochang region of Chungcheongbuk-do. The study is concerned with selecting the soft ground handling method such as the replacement method using rock debris and the surcharge reflecting the service load as the soft ground handling measure and analyzing the effect of reducing the construction cost with the stability of structures and the reduction of the construction period. The soft ground in the study section consists of sandy and cohesive soil and is 2.4m to 5.5m deep. It is distributed unevenly between the 1.5m to 5.9m stratums under the ground surface. Settlement is not serious, but the future uneven settlement and difference are expected so that the future settlement behavior is estimated by analyzing the site measurement results after the soft ground treatment. Moreover, in consideration of the regional characteristics and economic efficiency, soil with good quality is replaced with rock debris as the replacement material so that 29% of the construction cost is reduced due to the increase of stability and the reduction of duration. If the estimation of the dispersion of the pore water pressure within the dam body and the change of the underground water level and the relation of the actually measured soft ground with consolidation is studied further on the basis of the study, it is expected that the behavior of the soft ground will be correctly estimated in various site conditions.
Evaluation of the Influence Factors on the Ballast Settlement by using the Discrete Element Method
Kim, Ki Jae ; Lee, Sung Jin ; Jang, Seung Yup ; Hwang, Sung Ho ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 715~722
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0715
Most of the domestic railroad tracks are ballast track and repetitive maintenance is required in this track. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize maintenance process for maintenance cost reduction and more effective maintenance. For this, it is important to develop a reasonable settlement progressive model of ballast layer. However, the behavior of ballast is different to that of soils, since ballast is composed of large coarse gravel. Thus, in this study, we carried out numerical analysis by using the discrete element method (PFC 2D) for better understanding of ballast settlement and development of reasonable settlement progressive model. And, we evaluated the settlement of ballast according to particles shape, porosity and loading conditions.
Estimation of the Natural Damage Disaster Considering the Spatial Autocorrelation and Urban Characteristics
Seo, Man Whoon ; Lee, Jae Song ; Choi, Yeol ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 723~733
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0723
This study aims to analyze the effects of urban characteristics on the amount of damage caused by natural disasters. It is focused on the areas of a municipal level in Korea. Also, it takes into account the spatial autocorrelation of the damage caused by natural disasters. Moran`s I statistics was estimated to examine the spatial autocorrelation in the damage from the study area. Subsequent to evaluating the suitability for spatial regression models and the OLS regression model, the spatial lag model was employed as an empirical analysis for the study. It showed that the increase in residential area leads to the decrease in the amount of natural disaster damage. On the other hand, the increase in green area and river basin is associated with the increase in the damage. As a result of empirical analysis, appropriate policy establishment and implementation about the damage-adding factors is needed in order to reduce the amount of damage in the future.
A Study on the Establishment and Application Plan of Social and Physical Indicators for the Inclusive City
Hwang, Sun Ah ; Kim, Jong Gu ; Sohn, Jee Hyun ;
Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers, volume 36, issue 4, 2016, Pages 735~745
DOI : 10.12652/Ksce.2016.36.4.0735
In international communities such as UN-Habitat, Asian Development Bank, OECD, and etc. the importance of formulating and planning for equal living of all citizens within a city regardless of any social hierarchy is being recognized recently. For this purpose the concept of `the inclusive city` is introduced, which requires the collective consideration of physical and social factors in urban planning. This study aims at the establishment of efficient indicators in order to graft the concept of the inclusive city on urban design, and at searching a plan capable of improving the inclusiveness through applying the developed indicators to an urban space actually. After introducing the indicators the priority orders of those are searched through AHP analysis and the corelation with the factors of urban planning is examined and analysed based on the priority, so as to suggest an efficient and practical plan for promoting the inclusive city in future.