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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association (KTA)
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Effect of blast-induced vibration on a tunnel
Moon, Hoon-Ki ; Shin, Jong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 207~219
In urban areas, it is very often to excavate ground adjacent to existing structures for the construction of new buildings. Deformation and vibration induced by such construction activities may cause damages to the existing structures and petitions from citizens. To secure safety of the existing structures, particularly of tunnels, establishment of general guidelines on vibration have been crucial concerns, although some institutions have their own guidelines which are not generally accepted. This study aims establishing guidelines for tunnel safety due to blast-induced vibration. Numerical methods are adopted for this study. Blast load equation proposed by International Society of Explosive Engineers (2000) is used to decide detonation pressure. Analysis models were obtained from the construction cases of Seoul Metros. By performing dynamic numerical analysis, vibration velocity of an existing tunnel is evaluated. The numerical results are verified by comparing with the field measurement data obtained in excavation sites adjacent to an existing tunnel. Based on the results vibration safety zone is proposed. Influence circle for vibration velocity is drawn and the area not exceeding the allowable vibration velocity is established.
Defect ratio evaluation of the rock bolt grouting using the reflection method of guided ultrasonic waves
Yu, Jung-Doung ; Bae, Myeong-Ho ; Han, Shin-In ; Lee, In-Mo ; Lee, Jong-Sub ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 221~232
Rock bolts have been installed into rockmass as a main support system. In order to evaluate the rock bolt integrity using non-destructive technique, the transmission method of the guided ultrasonic wave has been successfully performed. For the transmission method, however, the source for the generation o# guided ultrasonic waves should be installed at the end of the steel bar during construction of the rock bolt in the field. The purpose of this study is to suggest a reflection method that the source and the receiver are installed on the head of the steel bar. The reflection method is compared with the transmission method using non-embedded rock bolts and rock bolts embedded in concrete block. In this experiment, the piezo disc element is used as the source and the AE sensor is used as the receiver. The wavelet transform is applied to determine the energy velocity. The experimental studies show that the reflection method produces almost identical value of the transmission method, and the energy velocity increases with the defect ratio. This study suggests that the reflection method of the guided ultrasonic wave may be a suitable method fur the rock bolt integrity evaluation in the field.
A study on the relationship between initial and final convergence in NATM tunnels
Kim, Bum-Joo ; Hwang, Young-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 233~243
A tunnel behavior predicted in the investigation and design stage is often different from its actual behavior due to mainly the complexity of ground conditions. In a tunnel construction, therefore, it is necessary to ensure the stability of the tunnel by predicting the behaviors of the ground and the supports through observations and measurements, and modifying immediately excavation and reinforcing methods when necessary. To do so, it is important to be able to predict the final tunnel behavior based on the initial tunnel behavior as early as possible. In this study, the correlations were obtained between the initial and the final convergence by analyzing statistically the convergence measurement data, collected from two domestic road tunnels under construction using NATM. In order to estimate the unknown displacements, occurred during the period between the excavation and the first measurement, two methods were used - one is the method by means of regression analysis using a modified exponential function and the other the method by a simple linear regression analysis using the data measured within the distance from tunnel face equal to the tunnel diameter (D). Finally, the relationships were obtained between the initial and final convergence, including the non-measured displacements estimated from the two different methods, by performing linear regression analyses. The regression analysis results showed that there are clear linear relationships between the initial and final convegence and the difference between the two linear regression equations was not that large for when using the exponential function and the simple linear function to estimate the non-measured displacements.
A numerical study on the analysis of behavior characteristics of inclined tunnel considering the optimum direction of steel rib
Park, Sang-Chan ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Shin, Young-Wan ; Shin, Hyu-Soung ; Kim, Young-Geun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 245~256
The steel rib, one of the main support of tunnel, plays a very important role to stabilize tunnel excavation surface until shotcrete or rockbolt starts to perform a supporting function. In general, a steel rib at the horizontal funnel is being installed in the direction of gravity which is known favorable in terms of constructability and stability. However, as the direction of principal stress at the inclined tunnel wall is different from that of gravity, the optimum direction of steel rib could be different from that at the horizontal tunnel. In this study, a numerical method was used to analyze the direction of force that would develope displacement at the inclined tunnel surface, and that direction could be the optimum direction of steel rib. The support efficiency of steel rib could be maximized when the steel rib was installed to resist the displacement of the tunnel. Three directions which were recommended for the inclined tunnels in the Korea Tunnel Design Standard were used for the numerical models of steel rib direction. In conclusion, the results show that all displacement angle of the models are almost perpendicular to the tunnel surface regardless of face angle. So if the steel rib would be installed perpendicular to the inclined tunnel surface, the support efficiency of steel rib could be maximized.
A Study on leakage monitoring of tunnel linings using the electric resistivity survey
Shin, Jong-Ho ; Shin, Yong-Seok ; Yoon, Jong-Ryeol ; Kim, Ho-Jong ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 257~267
Tunnels acting as drains involve groundwater-related problems such as deterioration of drainage systems or leakage through the linings. Generally initial and minor leakage problems can not be recognized by naked eyes. When the leakage over the linings is noticed, damages to structures and facilities have already occurred and could be considerable. Therefore it is vital to recognize initial leakage as early as possible and provide appropriate measures. Detection of leakage under operation requires installing piezometer. However, that may cause destruction of water proofing sheet which is generally not allowed. In this study electric resistivity method, one of the geophysical surveys, was adopted to detect possible leakage through tunnel linings. Physical lining models were made in the laboratory. The electric response was monitored for varying hydraulic conditions. It is shown that the method is very useful to detect initial leakage and monitor the malfunction of drainage system. Furthermore the method can also be used to check the quality of any repairing works of linings.
Evaluation methods of shotcrete lining stresses considering steel rib capacities by two-dimensional numerical analysis
Ha, Tae-Wook ; Kim, Dae-Young ; Shin, Young-Wan ; Yang, Hyung-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 269~282
In general, the effects of steel ribs are not considered in the numerical analysis of tunnel design. However, attempts have been increased recently to consider these effects in the analysis of shallow tunnels in soft ground, based on the fact that the steel ribs embedded in the shotcrete take a role to support some portion of the redistributed load due to excavation. In such analyses, the steel ribs can be considered in four different methods: (1) a conventional method where the steel ribs are not considered, (2) a method using the equivalent composite cross section in which the bending moment of shotcrete is not considered, (3) a method using the equivalent composite cross section in which both the compressive stress and the bending moment for the shotcrete and steel rib are considered, and (4) a method using beam elements for the shotcrete and the steel rib, respectively. These methods are adopted in the numerical analysis using FLAC 2D to investigate stresses of both the shotcrete and the steel rib. The overall results show that the analyses are more practical and economical when the effects of steel rib are considered fer the methods (2), (3), and (4). Since the results of those analyses considering steel rib capacity may be different according to the ground condition, it will be necessary to consider the appropriate method among them in accordance with design conditions.
A boundary line between shear strain formations associated with tunnelling adjacent to an existing piled foundation
Lee, Yong-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 283~293
A study of interactive ground behaviour due to tunnelling adjacent to existing piles has not been recognized well for the most geotechnical engineers so far. Because this is a very sophisticated boundary condition problem. In this study, therefore, the author has conducted both the laboratory model test and finite element analysis (FEA) to figure out such a complicated ground behaviour related to shear strain formations. Based on the model testing and FEA results, a boundary line which divides into two distinctive shear strain formations in relation to the locations of end-bearing pile tips was proposed. The author believes that the proposed boundary line may be helpful for planning the appropriate tunnel positions for avoiding damage of buildings which supported by piled-foundations in urban areas.
Mechanical behaviour of tunnel liner using precast segment reinforced by rib
Lee, Gyu-Phil ; Lee, Sung-Won ; Shiin, Hyu-Soung ; Hwang, Jae-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 295~302
Due to the limitation of construction efficiency and structural safety, the application of the high covering and wide width tunnels was limited prior to the introduction of precast cut and cover tunnels. Therefore, a cut and cover tunnel structure with rib reinforcement is proposed to mechanically improve the safety on condition of high covering and wide width tunnel. In this study, large-scale experiments are carried out to examine the mechanical behavior of the cut and cover tunnel structure with rib reinforcement under static load condition. Based on the results obtained from this study, the ultimate load of tunnel structure increases to about 3.3 times by rib reinforcement. Consequently, safety of tunnel structure increases compared to non-installed cases due to confining crown part by rib reinforcement.
Development of a roller supported piston type loading platen reducing the frictional restraint along the interfaces between the specimen and platens under the biaxial loading condition
SaGong, Myung ; Kim, Se-Chyul ; Lee, J.S. ; Park, Du-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 10, issue 3, 2008, Pages 303~312
Multi-axial compression tests have been frequently adopted for the evaluation of material properties of rock cores and rock fracture model tests. Special care has to be applied on the boundary condition between the specimen and loading platen to draw the precise test results of the multi-axial compression tests. With the use of dry steel platen, the stress rotation will occur, due to the frictional restraint from the boundary between the specimen and loading platen. The restraint will deviate the expected test results under the conditions of the given external pressures. Various methods have been applied to reduce the side restraint along the specimen/loading platen interface. The steel brush type loading platen is one example of the attempts. In this paper, a new type of loading platen is introduced to overcome the limitation caused by the use of the brush type loading platen, which requires some internal space for the installation of the brushes. The new type of loading platen, roller supported steel piston type loading platen. is constituted of shot steel pistons which have sufficient stiffness to deliver the external pressure and the shaft type roller installed at the rear of the pistons. The pistons are designed to follow the local deformation of the specimens. In this paper, structural details of the loading platen are presented and frictional and biaxial compression tests results are shown to verify the required functions of the loading platen. Furthermore, calibration process is followed by a comparison between the test results and numerical analyses.