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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association (KTA)
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Experimental study on behavior of the existing tunnel due to adjacent slope excavation in a jointed rock mass
Lee, Jin-Wook ; Lee, Sang-Duk ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~9
When a rock slope is excavated adjacent to a existing tunnel, the behavior of the existing tunnel in the jointed rock masses is greatly influenced by the joint conditions and slope status. In this study, the effects of joint dip and slope angle close to a tunnel are investigated through a large scale model using a biaxial test equipment (
length)). The jointed rock masses were built by concrete blocks. The diameter of the modeled tunnel is 0.6 m and the dip angles of joint vary in the range of
. In addition, the excavated slope angle varies within
. Deformational behaviors of the tunnel were analyzed in consideration of joint dip and slope angle. With increase of the joint dip and slope angle, the magnitude of tunnel distortion and the moment of tunnel lining were increased. Rock mass displacement in horizontal was also dependent on the joint dip and the excavated slope angle, which indicated the optimal slope reinforcement for a specific rock mass conditions.
A study on the evaluation method and reinforcement effect of face bolt for the stability of a tunnel face by a three dimensional numerical analysis
Kim, Sung-ryul ; Yoon, Ji-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 11~22
Tunnel excavation with several sections and appropriate auxiliary measures such as face bolt and pre-grouting are widely used in case of weak and less rigid ground for the stability of a tunnel face during excavation. This papers first described the evaluation methods proposed in technical literature to maintain the tunnel face stable, and then studied by FEM analysis whether face reinforcement is need in what degree of ground deformation and strength features for the stability of a tunnel face when excavating by full excavation with sub-bench. Lastly, a three dimensional FEM analysis was performed to study how the tunnel face itself and the ground around the tunnel behave depending on different bolt layouts, length of bolts, number of bolts. There were relative differences in comparison of results on the stability of a tunnel face by a theoretical evaluation methods and FEM analysis, but the same in reinforced effect of face. It was found that the stability of a tunnel face can be obtained with face bolt installed longer than 1.0D (tunnel width), bolt density of about 1 bolt per every
(layout of grid type), and reinforcement area of
arch area of upper section.
A study on the bending stresses of tunnel shotcrete due to the coefficient of lateral earth pressure
You, Kwang-Ho ; Jung, Ji-Sung ; Park, Yeon-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 23~35
This study was performed to investigate the bending stresses of tunnel shotcrete as a function of the coefficient of lateral earth pressure. To perform this study, a large scale model tunnel with an one-lane horseshoe shaped road tunnel was prepared. The 3 dimensional numerical analyses were carried out to verify the results obtained from the model tests. For the loading system during the tests, 11 cylinder pressure jacks which can be controlled individually were used to simulate various loading conditions. The tests were preformed three times with three different lateral earth pressure coefficients of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The bending stresses of shotcrete measured in tests were compared and analyzed with those calculated from numerical analyses. As a result, it was found that the bending compressive stresses obtained from numerical analyses were similar to those of tunnel model tests and bending tensile stresses were slightly overestimated during numerical analyses.
Heat of hydration characteristics on high-performance concrete for large dimensional tunnel linings
Min, Kyung-Hwan ; Jung, Hyung-Chul ; Yang, Jun-Mo ; Yoon, Young-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 37~45
In this study, experiments of development and application of 50 MPa high-performance concrete are performed for large dimensional tunnel linings. In order to produce 50MPa high-performance concrete, eight optimal mixtures replacing with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag up to 50 percent of type I Portland cement were selected then tests for mechanical properties and simple adiabatic temperature rise tests were carried out. And in order to assess the quantitative characteristics of heat of hydrations of developed mixtures, three mixtures that the type I Portland cement (OPC) and each one mixture of binary and ternary mixtures (BS30, F15S35) were reselected, then the adiabatic temperature rise tests and mock-up tests were performed. Consequently, the comparisons between the results of mock-up tests and finite element analysis can be enhanced the reliability of analyzing routines of thermal behaviours of the developed high-performance concrete.
Integrity evaluation of rock bolts in the field by using hammer-impact reflection method
Yu, Jung-Doung ; Bae, Myeong-Ho ; Lee, Yong-Jun ; Min, Bok-Ki ; Lee, In-Mo ; Lee, Jong-Sub ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 47~56
Rock bolts and shotcrete play a crucial role as a main support system in the underground space. Thus, the safety of the underground space may be affected by the defect of rock bolts. In order to evaluate the rock bolt integrity by using non-destructive technique, the transmission method of the guided ultrasonic waves, which are generated by using the piezo disk elements has been successfully performed. The energy generated by the piezo disk elements, however, is not enough for the rock bolts in the field. In addition, the piezo disk elements should be installed at the end of the steel bar during construction of the rock bolts. The purpose of this study is the devolvement of the reflection method, which may generate enough energy, and the application in the field rock bolts. Both laboratory and field tests are carried out. The guided ultrasonic waves with high energy are generated by the hammer impact with the center punch, and the AE sensor is used to measure the reflected guided waves. The received guided waves are analyzed by the wavelet transform. The peak value of the wavelet transform produces the energy velocity, which is used for the evaluation of the rock bolt integrity. The energy velocity increases with an increase in the defect ratio in both laboratory and field rock bolts. This study demonstrates that the hammer-impact reflection method may be a suitable method for the evaluation of the rock bolt in the field.
A study on the field tests and development of quantitative two-dimensional numerical analysis method for evaluation of effects of umbrella arch method
Kim, Dae-Young ; Lee, Hong-Sung ; Chun, Byung-Sik ; Jung, Jong-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 57~70
Considerable advance has been made on research on effect of steel pipe Umbrella Arch Method (UAM) and mechanical reinforcement mechanism through numerical analyses and experiments. Due to long analysis time of three-dimensional analysis and its complexity, un-quantitative two-dimensional analysis is dominantly used in the design and application, where equivalent material properties of UAM reinforced area and ground are used, For this reason, development of reasonable, theoretical, quantitative and easy to use design and analysis method is required. In this study, both field UAM tests and laboratory tests were performed in the residual soil to highly weathered rock; field tests to observe the range of reinforcement, and laboratory tests to investigate the change of material properties between prior to and after UAM reinforcement. It has been observed that the increase in material property of neighboring ground is negligible, and that only stiffness of steel pipe and cement column formed inside the steel pipe and the gap between steel pipe and borehole contributes to ground reinforcement. Based on these results and concept of Convergence Confinement Method (CCM), two dimensional axisymmetric analyses have been performed to obtain the longitudinal displacement profile (LDP) corresponding to arching effect of tunnel face, UAM effect and effect of supports. In addition, modified load distribution method in two dimensional plane-strain analysis has been suggested, in which effect of UAM is transformed to internal pressure and modified load distribution ratios are suggested. Comparison between the modified method and conventional method shows that larger displacement occur in the conventional method than that in the modified method although it may be different depending on ground condition, depth and size of tunnel, types of steel pipe and initial stress state. Consequently, it can be concluded that the effect of UAM as a beam in a longitudinal direction is not considered properly in the conventional method.
Evaluation of bonding state of shotcrete lining using nondestructive testing methods - experimental analysis
Song, Ki-Il ; Cho, Gye-Chun ; Chang, Seok-Bue ; Hong, Eun-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 71~83
Shotcrete is an important primary support for tunnelling in rock. The quality control of shotcrete is a core issue in the safe construction and maintenance of tunnels. Although shotcrete may be applied well initially onto excavated rock surfaces, it is affected by blasting, rock deformation and shrinkage and can debond from the excavated surface, causing problems such as corrosion, buckling, fracturing and the creation of internal voids. This study suggests an effective non-destructive evaluation method of the tunnel shotcrete bonding state applied onto hard rocks using the impact-echo (IE) method and ground penetration radar (GPR). To verify previous numerical simulation results, experimental study carried out. Generally, the bonding state of shotcrete can be classified into void, debonded, and fully bonded. In the laboratory, three different bonding conditions were modeled. The signals obtained from the experimental IE tests were analyzed at the time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain (i.e., the Short- Time Fourier transform). For all cases in the analyses, the experimental test results were in good agreement with the previous numerical simulation results, verifying this approach. Both the numerical and experimental results suggest that the bonding state of shotcrete can be evaluated through changes in the resonance frequency and geometric damping ratio in a frequency domain analysis, and through changes in the contour shape and correlation coefficient in a time-frequency analysis: as the bonding state worsens in hard rock condition, the autospectral density increases, the geometric damping ratio decreases, and the contour shape in the time-frequency domain has a long tail parallel to the time axis. The correlation coefficient can be effectively applied for a quantitative evaluation of bonding state of tunnel shotcrete. Finally, the bonding state of shotcrete can be successfully evaluated based on the process suggested in this study.
Evaluation of the blast-restriction zone to secure tunnel lining safety
Shin, Jong-Ho ; Moon, Hoon-Ki ; Choi, Kyu-Cheol ; Kim, Tae-Kyun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 85~95
In urban areas, blast excavation adjacent to tunnels is carried out frequently. It is generally required to secure static and dynamic stability of nearby tunnel structures for any such activities. Although there is some national guidelines for static safety, there is little guides to risk zoning controling the dynamic behavior of the underground structures. In this study, impacts on the blast-induced vibration are investigated using numerical study. An attempt to define the restricted area of blast adjacent to subway tunnels was also made. Particular concerns were given to tunnel depth and ground types. By carrying out the parametric study on depth and ground patterns, the envelope of blast distance of which dynamic response on the lining is controlled under 1 cm/sec, is established. It is shown that the increase in depth has increased the required safety distance slightly until the distance of 3.5 times of the tunnel diameter. Despite small changes in safety distance, it can be generally said that the effects of depth and stiffness of the ground is not significant in controlling the particle velocity of the tunnel linings.
Analysis of cause and deterioration about using 3-Arch tunnel
Lee, Yu-Seok ; Park, Sung-Woo ; Whang, In-Baek ; Shin, Yong-Suk ; Kim, Sun-Gon ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 11, issue 1, 2009, Pages 97~105
This paper studied the cause of the deterioration of the four 3-Arch tunnels built in mid-1990. The common deteriorations of the four 3-Arch tunnels were longitudinal cracks, leakage and efflorescence at the same parts of lining concrete. Three fourths of 3-Arch tunnels, there was high percentage longitudinal cracks and a quarter was low frequency about longitudinal cracks. So the material reviewed to find out the differences between two groups in construction process and analysis was conducted such as non-destructive testing, precise visual survey and safety evaluation of one tunnel which had bad ground condition As the result, the tunnels were safety condition and the primary deterioration occurred during the construction process, namely, problems arrangement of rebar and the effects of the blast at middle tunnel.