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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association (KTA)
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 15, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Flexural performance evaluation of SFRC with design strength of 60 MPa
Moon, Do-Young ; Kang, Tae-Sung ; Chang, Soo-Ho ; Lee, Gyu-Phil ; Bae, Gyu-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 175~186
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.175
Based on Model Code 2010, flexural and residual strength, flexural toughness of SFRC with design strength of 60 MPa are evaluated. For comparisons, SFRC with design strength 40 MPa was tested. Distribution of steel fibers in crack surface of specimens was evaluated by visual inspection. The used steel fibers were hooked fibers with aspect ratio of 64, 67 and 80. In all specimens, mix ratio of steel fibers was 0.5% Vol. In results, only SFRC with the highest aspect ratio satisfied requirements specified in Model Code 2010. The results demonstrated that the use of high aspect ratio will provide enough flexural toughness for high strength concrete. Also, it is found that low slump of high strength concrete can help to enhance isotropic fiber distribution.
Integrity evaluation of grouting in umbrella arch methods by using guided ultrasonic waves
Hong, Young-Ho ; Yu, Jung-Doung ; Byun, Yong-Hoon ; Jang, Hyun-Ick ; You, Byung-Chul ; Lee, Jong-Sub ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 187~199
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.187
Umbrella arch method (UAM) used for improving the stability of the tunnel ground condition has been widely applied in the tunnel construction projects due to the advantage of obtaining both reinforcement and waterproof. The purpose of this study is to develop the evaluation technique of the integrity of bore-hole in UAM by using a non-destructive test and to evaluate the possibility of being applied to the field. In order to investigate the variations of frequency depending on grouted length, the specimens with different grouted ratios are made in the two constraint conditions (free boundary condition and embedded condition). The hammer impact reflection method in which excitation and reception occur simultaneously at the head of pipe was used. The guided waves generated by hitting a pipe with a hammer were reflected at the tip and returned to the head, and the signals were received by an acoustic emission (AE) sensor installed at the head. For the laboratory experiments, the specimens were prepared with different grouted ratios (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100 %). In addition, field tests were performed for the application of the evaluation technique. Fast Fourier transform and wavelet transform were applied to analyze the measured waves. The experimental studies show that grouted ratio has little effects on the velocities of guided waves. Main frequencies of reflected waves tend to decrease with an increase in the grouted length in the time-frequency domain. This study suggests that the non-destructive tests using guided ultrasonic waves be effective to evaluate the bore-hole integrity of the UAM in the field.
Evaluation of the performance for the reformed lattice girders
Kim, Hak-Joon ; Bae, Gyu-Jin ; Kim, Dong-Gyu ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 201~214
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.201
Lattice girders are widely used as a substitute for H-steel ribs at domestic tunnels. However, lattice girders have a weak point in terms of the support capacity compare to H-steel ribs because of the lower stiffness and the weakness of the welded parts. To improve the weakness of the lattice girder, reformed lattice girders are developed in Korea by adding one more spider and having flat welded surface. Laboratory tests and field measurements were performed for the original and the reformed lattice girders to evaluate the performance of the reformed lattice girders. According to the laboratory compression test, reformed lattice girders have 16% higher load bearing capacity than that of original lattice girders. Reformed lattice girders are more stable than original lattice girders because reformed lattice girders tend to bend less according to the field measurements.
Evaluation of steel fiber reinforcement effect in segment lining by full scale bending test
Lee, Gyu-Phil ; Bae, Gyu-Jin ; Moon, Do-Young ; Kang, Tae-Sung ; Chang, Soo-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 215~223
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.215
An experimental research on the possibility of using fiber reinforced concrete precast tunnel segments instead of traditional reinforced concrete(RC) segment has been performed in europe. This solution allows removing the traditional reinforcement with several advantages in terms of quality and cost reduction. Full-scale bending tests were carried out in order to compare the behaviour of the segments under flexural actions on both rebar reinforced concrete and rebar-fiber reinforced elements. The test results showed that the fiber reinforced concrete can substitute the traditional reinforcement; in particular the segment performance is improved by the fiber presence, mainly in terms of crack.
Experimental evaluation of the effects of cutting ring shape on cutter acting forces in a hard rock
Chang, Soo-Ho ; Choi, Soon-Wook ; Park, Young-Taek ; Lee, Gyu-Phil ; Bae, Gyu-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 225~235
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.225
Cutter forces acting on a disc cutter in TBM are the key parameters for TBM design and its performance prediction. This study aimed to experimentally evaluate cutter forces with different ring shapes in a hard rock. The stiffness of a cutter ring was indirectly estimated from a series of full-scale linear cutting tests. From the experiments, it was verified that the rolling stress acting on a V-shape disc cutter was much higher than on a CCS disc cutter even though the penetration depth by a V-shape disc cutter could be increased in the same cutting condition. Finally, it is suggested that a prediction model considering the shape parameters of a disc cutter should be used for its better prediction.
A experimental study on the loads and temperature acting on the shaft of a disc cutter during linear rock cutting test
Choi, Soon-Wook ; Chang, Soo-Ho ; Park, Young-Taek ; Lee, Gyu-Phil ; Bae, Gyu-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 237~251
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.237
This study aimed to estimate the axial stress and torque on a shaft in a disc cutter. The corresponding inner temperature and the surface temperature of a cutter ring were also measured by using strain gauges and thermocouples during the linear cutting tests. The maximum values of the axial stress and torque were recorded to 11.3 MPa,
respectively. They have higher correlations with normal force rather than rolling force. The results of temperature measured by thermocouples during a linear cutting test showed that the rate of increase in temperature was below
. When the cutter spacing is set to be 70 mm, the inner temperature and surface temperature of a disc cutter were
respectively. Similarly, when the cutter spacing is 90 mm, the temperature values were
Effect of orientation of fracture zone on tunnel behavior - Numerical Investigation
Yoo, Chung-Sik ; Cho, Yoon-Gyu ; Park, Jung-Gyu ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 253~270
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.253
This paper concerns the effect of orientation and geometric characteristics of a fracture zone on the tunnel behavior using a numerical investigation. A parametric study was executed on a number of drill and blast tunnelling cases representing different fracture and tunnelling conditions using two and three dimensional finite element analyses. The variables considered include the strike and dip angle of fracture zone relative to the longitudinal tunnel axis, the width and the clearance of the fracture zone, the tunnel depth, and the initial lateral stress coefficient. The results of the analyses were examined in terms of the tunnel deformation including crown settlement, convergence, and invert heave as well as shotcrete lining stresses. The results indicate that the tunnel deformation as well as the shotcrete lining stress are strongly influenced by the orientation of the fracture zone, and that such a trend becomes more pronounced for tunnels with greater depths.
Model for predicting ground surface settlement by field measuring and numerical analysis in shield TBM tunnel
Kim, Seung-Chul ; Ahn, Sung-Youll ; Lee, Song ; Noh, Tae-Kil ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 271~287
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.271
In this study, more convenient model(S-model) for predicting ground surface settlement is developed through comparing field monitoring data of the domestic subway applied shield TBM method with conventional equation & numerical analysis. Sample stations are chosen from whole of excavation section and lateral & vertical ground surface settlement characteristic with excavation are analysed. Based on analysis result, through the comparison with actual monitoring data, the model that is possible to compute maximum surface settlement and settlement influence area is suggested with assumption that lateral surface settlement forms are composed relaxed zone and elastic zone. In addition, vertical ground surface settlement patterns with excavation are similar to cubic-function and S-model with assumption that coefficients are function of tunnel diameter and depth is suggested. Consequently, the ground surface settlement patterns are significantly similar to actual monitoring data and numerical method result. Thus, as a result, when tunnels are excavated using sheild TBM through rather soft weathered soil & rock layer, prediction of ground surface settlement with excavation using convenient S-model is practicable.
A numerical study on the characteristics of the smoke movement and the effects of structure in road tunnel fire
Yoo, Ji-Oh ; Oh, Byung-Chil ; Kim, Hyo-Gyu ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 289~300
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.289
This study numerically considered the characteristic of smoke movement and the effect of hot smoke gas on tunnel wall surface temperature during road tunnel fire under boundary condition of fire growth curve that is applied to fire analysis in road tunnels. The maximum heat release rate were 20 MW and 100 MW and tunnel air velocities were 2.5 m/s and velocity induced by thermal buoyancy respectively, also the cooling effect of tunnel wall was considered. As results, when tunnel air velocity was constant at 2.5 m/s during tunnel fire, due to the cooling effect of tunnel wall, the smoke layer was rapidly descent after some distance and it flowed the same patterns at the downstream. When heat release rate was 100 MW (and jet fan was not installed), the maximum temperature of tunnel wall surface has risen up to
. The heat transfer coefficient of tunnel wall surface was varied from 13 to
A numerical study on effects of thermal buoyance force on number of jet fans for smoke control
Yoo, Ji-Oh ; Shin, Hyun-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 301~310
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.301
Jet fans are installed in road tunnels in order to maintain critical velocity when fire occurs. Generally the number of jet fans against fire are calculated by considering critical velocity and flow resistance by wall friction, vehicle drag force, thermal buoyance force and natural wind. In domestic case, thermal buoyance force is not considered in estimating the number of jet fans. So, in this study, we investigated the pressure loss due to the thermal buoyance force induced by tunnel air temperature rise and the impact of thermal buoyance force on the number of jet fans by the numerical fire simulation for the tunnel length(500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3500m) and grade (-1.0, -1.5, -2.0%). Considering the thermal buoyance force, number of jet fans have to be increased. Especially in the case of 100MW of heat release rate, the pressure loss due to thermal buoyance force exceed the maximum pressure loss due to vehicle drag resistance, so it is analyzed that number of 2~11 jet fans are needed additionally than current design criteria. Thus, in case of estimating the number of jet fans, it must be considered of thermal buoyance force induced tunnel air temperature rise by fire.
Effect of Segment thickness during Shield TBM tunnelling in case study
Kim, Sang-Hwan ; Kim, Won-Kyung ; Lee, Hye-Yoon ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 311~320
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.311
This paper presents the effect of Segment thickness during Shield TBM tunnelling in case study. In order to perform this study, the ground condition developed in the investigation site are reviewed and analysed. It is also carried out the construction problems occurred in the site during Shield TBM tunnelling. Several Segments were broken partially during advance tunnel by jacking pressure. The data surveyed from site are analysed in order to investigate the cause of Segment break. The numerical and analytical evaluations are carried out to examine the effect of Segment behaviour. From the results, it is found that the main causes of Segment break may be the jacking system and Segment thickness. In addition, new jacking technique is suggested to install safely the Segment during advance tunnel by jacking.
Evaluation of disc cutter penetration depth of shield TBM in practice
Kim, Sang-Hwan ; Park, In-Joon ; Chang, Soo-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 321~331
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.321
This paper describes the evaluation of shield TBM disc cutter penetration depth in practice. In this study the disc cutter penetration depth used to design the excavation speed of tunnel is reviewed. The characteristics of ground encountered in the investigation site are analysed and evaluated. The shield TBM used in the field is reviewed to verify the applicability of machine in the site. The thrust and torque capacities of each TBM disc cutter are also evaluated. Based on the field data, the excavation volume and speed are re-analysed to evaluate the disc cutter penetration depth used in the design stage. It is clearly found that the design value of disc cutter penetration depth needs to modify when estimation of the TBM capacities in very hard rock formation (
Groundwater inflow rate estimation considering excavation-induced permeability reduction in the vicinity of a tunnel
Moon, Joon-Shik ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 333~344
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.333
This paper discussed about the effect of permeability reduction of the jointed rock mass in the vicinity of a tunnel which is one of the reasons making large difference between the estimated ground-water inflow rate and the measured value. Current practice assumes that the jointed rock mass around a tunnel is a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium with constant permeability. However, in actual condition the permeability of a jointed rock mass varies with the change of effective stress condition around a tunnel, and in turn effective stress condition is affected by the ground water flow in the jointed rock mass around the tunnel. In short time after tunnel excavation, large increase of effective tangential stress around a tunnel due to stress concentration and pore-water pressure drop, and consequently large joint closure followed by significant permeability reduction of jointed rock mass in the vicinity of a tunnel takes place. A significant pore-water pressure drop takes place across this ring zone in the vicinity of a tunnel, and the actual pore-water pressure distribution around a tunnel shows large difference from the value estimated by an analytical solution assuming the jointed rock mass around the tunnel as a homogeneous, isotropic medium. This paper presents the analytical solution estimating pore-water pressure distribution and ground-water inflow rate into a tunnel based on the concept of hydro-mechanically coupled behavior of a jointed rock mass and the solution is verified by numerical analysis.
A numerical study on rock cutting by a TBM disc cutter using SPH code
Jeong, Ho-Young ; Jeon, Seok-Won ; Cho, Jung-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 345~356
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.345
Numerical simulation on rock cutting by a TBM disc cutter was carried out using SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) code. AUTODYN3D, a commercial software program based on finite element method, was used in this study. The three-dimensional geometry of a disc cutter and a rock specimen were modeled by Lagrange and SPH code respectively. The numerical simulation was carried out for Hwangdeung granite for 10 different cutting conditions. The results of the numerical simulation, i.e. the relation between cutter force and failure behavior, had a good agreement with those from LCM test. The cutter forces measured in the numerical simulation had 10% deviation from the LCM test results. Moreover, the optimum cutter spacing was almost identical with the experimental results. These results indicate that SPH code can be successfully used had applicability for simulation on rock cutting by a TBM disc cutter. However, further study on Lagrange-SPH coupled modelling would be necessary to reduce the computation time.
Development of a back analysis program for reasonable derivation of tunnel design parameters
Kim, Young-Joon ; Lee, Yong-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 15, issue 3, 2013, Pages 357~373
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2013.15.3.357
In this paper, a back analysis program for analyzing the behavior of tunnel-ground system and evaluating the material properties and tunnel design parameters was developed. This program was designed to be able to implement the back analysis of underground structure by combination of using FLAC and optimized algorithm as direct method. In particular, Rosenbrock method which is able to do direct search without obtaining differential coefficient was adopted for the back analysis algorithm among optimization methods. This back analysis program was applied to the site to evaluate the design parameters. The back analysis was carried out using field measurement results from 5 sites. In the course of back analysis, nonlinear regression analysis was carried out to identify the optimum function of the measured ground displacement. Exponential function and fractional function were used for the regression analysis and total displacement calculated by optimum function was used as the back analysis input data. As a result, displacement recalculated through the back analysis using measured displacement of the structure showed 4.5% of error factor comparing to the measured data. Hence, the program developed in this study proved to be effectively applicable to tunnel analysis.