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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association (KTA)
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Sep 2015
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jul 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - May 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Effect of orientation of fracture zone on tunnel behavior during construction using model test
Cho, Yun-Gyu ; Shin, Seung-Min ; Chung, Eun-Mok ; Choi, Jung-Hyuk ; Yoo, Chung-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 189~204
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.189
This paper presents the results of reduced scale model tests on the effect of fault zone characteristics on the tunnel deformation behavior. A series of model tests were carried out on deep tunnels considering different fault zone orientations and offset distance. The tunnelling process was simulated in the model tests using compressed air technique. During the tests, the tunnel and ground deformation were mainly monitored while reducing the pressure inside the tunnel and the relationship between the pressure level and the tunnel deformation were established. The results indicate that for a given offset distance the tunnel behavior is influenced the most when the fault zone dips vertically while smallest influence occurs when the fault zone dips 45 degrees.
Exploration of underground utilities using method predicting an anomaly
Ryu, Hee-Hwan ; Kim, Kyoung-Yul ; Lee, Kang-Ryel ; Lee, Dae-Soo ; Cho, Gye-Chun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.205
Rapid urbanization and industrialization have caused increased demand for underground structures such as cable, and other utility tunnels. Recently, it has become very difficult to construct new underground structures in downtown areas because of civil complaints, and engineering problems related to insufficient information about existing underground structures, cable tunnels in particular. This lack of information about the location and direction-of-travel of cable tunnels is causing many problems. To solve these problems, this study was focused on the use of geophysical exploration of the ground in a way that is theoretically, different from previous electrical resistivity surveys. An electric field analysis was performed on the ground with cable tunnels using Gauss` law and the Laplace equation. The electrical resistivity equation, which is a function of the cable tunnel direction, the cable tunnel location, and the electrical conductivity of the cable tunnel, can be obtained through electrical field analysis. A field test was performed for the verification of this theoretical approach. A field test results provided meaningful data.
A study on evacuation characteristic by cross-sectional areas and smoke control velocity at railway tunnel fire
Yoo, Ji-Oh ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Rie, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Won ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 215~226
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.215
In this study, with variables the cross section area (
) and the wind velocity(0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 m/s), the time of getting off train dependent on the way of itself and the width of the evacuation route was analyzed, and also fire and evacuation characteristics is reviewed by cross section area of each wind velocity. As the result, if cross section become smaller, the density of harmful gases in the tunnel increased more than the ratio of decreasing cross section area. In the case of small cross sectional area, the surrounding environment from initial fire is indicated to exceed the limit criteria suggested in performance based design. In the analysis of effective evacuation time for evacuation characteristics, the effective evacuation time was the shortest in the case of evaluating effective evacuation time by the visibility. Also, there was significant difference between the effective evacuation time on the basis of performance based evaluation and the effective evacuation time obtained by analyzing FED (Fractional effective dose), one of the analysis method obtaining the point that deaths occur, against harmful gases.
A study on the design of shield tunnel lining in high water pressure condition
Lee, Young-Joon ; Kim, Ki-Lim ; Jeong, Keon-Woong ; Hong, Eui-Joon ; Kim, Seon-Hong ; Jun, Duk-Chan ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 227~236
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.227
In impermeable ground, water pressure is applied due to discontinuity such as joint or fissure. Therefore, water pressure should be considered in design regardless of ground condition. However, when the shape of segmental lining is circular, water pressure may reduce the lining member force, so it is important to define the assumption and the concept of design in case of high water pressure. This paper presents the concepts of design of the lining of shield tunnel at high water pressure and in impermeable ground condition. In addition, the member forces in various load conditions were compared in this study. (elastic equation, closed form solutions, beam-spring model).
Evacuation safety analysis depending on the type of subway platform and ticket barrier
Park, Byoung-Jik ; Park, Il-Gyu ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 237~242
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.237
With the rapid development of modern society, subway has become one of the most typical urban transport systems. Since fire accident occurred at Daegu subway in 2003, importance of life safety and disaster prevention have been widely recognized and many studies have been carried out. As a result of these studies, fire-retardant and non-combustible interior material and platform screen door with passenger guide indication device have been developed, but studies on a subway evacuation criteria have been in a stalemate. Therefore, this study is intended to improve the subway evacuation standard. It is very difficult to take into account whole subway system, so a typological approach to a ticket was carried out referring to previous studies focused on a subway platform. this paper selected the most common subway platforms and estimated evacuation time among 10 platforms from previous studies and 8 from this study. As a result, evacuation time exceeded 6 minutes which is the guideline of existing standard. Therefore, it is necessary to update the standard for evacuation time and add supplementary conditions which can help establishing the measures for safety facilities and prevention measures.
An analysis study for reasonable installation of tunnel fire safety facility
Park, Jin-Ouk ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Park, Byoung-Jik ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 243~248
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.243
Domestic road and railroad construction have been increasingly growing and for reasons of mitigating traffic congestion, urban plan and refurbishment project, deeper and longer tunnels have been built. The event of fire is the most fatal accident in a tunnel, and it can be very disastrous with a high possibility. In this study, QRA (Quantitative Risk Analysis) which is one of quantitative risk analysis approaches was applied to tunnel fire safety design and the evaluation of QRA cases and the cost comparison of QRA methods were carried out. In addition analysis of risk reduction effect of tunnel fire safety system was conducted using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and the priority of major factors that could mitigate the risk in tunnel fire was presented. As a result, significant cost reduction effect could be obtained by incorporating QRA and it is expected to design fire safety system rationally. The priority of fire safety system based on risk mitigation effect by fire safety system considering the cost is in order of water pipe, emergency lighting, evacuation passage and smoke control system.
The study on interval calculation of cross passage in undersea tunnel by quantitative risk assesment method
Yoo, Ji-Oh ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Rie, Dong-Ho ; Shin, Hyun-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 249~256
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.249
Quantitative Mokpo-Jeju undersea tunnel is currently on the basis plan for reviewing validation. As for the cross section shape for express boat of 105 km line, sing track two tube is being reviewed as the Euro tunnel equipped with service tunnel. Also, 10 carriage trains have been planned to operate 76 times for one way a day. So, in this study, quantitative risk assessment method is settled, which is intended to review the optimal space between evacuation connection hall of tunnel by quantitative risk analysis method. In addition to this, optimal evacuation connection hall space is calculated by the types of cross section, which are Type 3 (double track single tube), Type 1 (sing track two tube), and Type 2 (separating double track on tube with partition). As a result, cross section of Type 2 is most efficient for securing evacuation safety, and the evacuation connection space is required for 350 m in Type 1, 400 m in Type 2, and 1,500 m in Type3 to satisfy current domestic social risk assessment standard.
Simulation study of smoke spread prevention using air curtain system in rescue station platform of undersea tunnel
Park, Sang-Heon ; An, Jung-Ju ; Han, Sang-Ju ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 257~266
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.257
This study introduce that we studied optimization and possibility of smoke spread prevention with air-curtain system in undersea tunnel named from Ho-Nam to Jeju line in domestic if a fire break out in train. To verify performance, air-curtain system is installed between rescue station platform and each door of passenger car to provide safety route to evacuator and we studied simulation model of various cases about 15 MW fire severity considering domestic specifications. As a result we verified the fact that CASE1(air jet with 15degree toward passenger car) and CASE 5 (air jet with 15degree toward passenger car and pressure air blast from cross passage) is best Smoke Spread Prevention and less inflow carbon monoxide. Through above results, we expect that air-curtain system is one of the facilities for fire safety and provide us safety platform route in undersea tunnel.
Experimental study on the ground movement due to consecutive construction of retaining wall and underground space in cohesionless soil
Park, Jong-Deok ; Yu, Jeong-Seon ; Kim, Do-Youp ; Lee, Seok-Won ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 267~281
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.267
The ground movement and changes in earth pressure due to the consecutive construction of retaining wall and underground space were studied experimentally. A soil tank having 160 cm in length and 120 cm in height, was manufactured to simulate the vertical excavation like retaining wall by using 10 separated right side walls and underground space excavation like tunnel by using 5 separated bottom walls. The variation of earth pressure and surface settlement were measured according to the excavation stages. The results showed that the decrease of earth pressure due to the wall movement can cause the increase of earth pressure of the neighboring walls proving the arching effect. Experiments simulating continuous construction sequence also identified arching effect, however only 50% of earth pressure was restored on the 10th right side wall due to the movement of 1st bottom side wall unusually.
Influence of steel fiber contents on corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement
Kim, Seong-Do ; Moon, Do-Young ; Lee, Gyu-Phil ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 283~293
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.283
In order to evaluate corrosion resistance of steel fiber-reinforced concrete, accelerated chloride migration and surface resistivity tests were conducted. In addition air content of fresh concrete, compressive strength and water absorption were measured for investigating fundamental characteristics of concrete. Two different water-cement ratios(0.44, 0.5) and three steel fiber contents(0.25%, 0.5%, 1%) were considered as variables. Note that all specimens cast with same compaction work. As a results, corrosion resistance decreased as steel fiber contents increased regardless of water-cement ratio when the concrete was compacted with same amount of work done. However, for concrete with same steel fiber content, the lower water-cement ratio showed the better corrosion resistance. It is found that enhancement of fluidity and enough compaction should be done for corrosion resistance of SFRC.
Model testing of leakage effect due to multi-cell inflater of rapid protection system in subsea tunnel
Yoo, Kwang-San ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Yeon-Deok ; Kim, Sang-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 295~303
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.295
This paper presents the study of leakage effect due to multi-cell inflater of rapid protection system to protect the possibilities of tunnel damages by flooding threats and unusual leakage to be occurred during and after subsea tunnel construction. Particularly, this protect system should be necessary in subsea tunnel. This research concentrates the physical model tests due to several multi-cell inflater to study protection capacity of leakage between the inflater and tunnel liner. A 27:1 small scale model are used in the model tests. The leakage rate, water pressure and axial displacement of inflater are measured during the model tests. According to the results, the minium leakage rate clearly shows in the case of two-cell inflater compared with in other cases. It is concluded that the results of this research will be very useful to understand the fundamental information of inflater structure design and development the technology of tunnel protection structures in the future.
A study on key factors of ground surface settlement due to shield TBM excavation using 3-dimension numerical analysis
Jun, Gy-Chan ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 305~317
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.305
This paper is to perform 3-dimensional numerical analysis considering face pressure, backfill pressure, excavation length, soil model and element size for selecting key factors of ground surface settlement due to shield TBM advancement. According to the numerical analysis results, backfill pressure and soil model are governing factors inducing ground surface settlement. To complement this study, the ground conditions and characteristics of the boring machine will be considered using numerical analysis.
A comparative study of field measurements of the pressure wave with analytical aerodynamic model for the high speed train in tunnels
Kim, Hyo-Gyu ; Choi, Pan-Gyu ; Hong, Yoo-Jung ; Yoo, Ji-Oh ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 319~332
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.319
The pressure wave formed by the piston effects of the train proceeds within the tunnel when a train enters the tunnel with a high speed. Depending on the condition of tunnel exit, the compression waves reflect at a open end, change to the expansion waves, transfer to tunnel entrance back. Due to interference in the pressure waves and running train, passengers experience severe pressure fluctuations. And these pressure waves result in energy loss, noise, vibration, as well as in the passengers` ears. In this study, we performed comparison between numerical analysis and field experiments about the characteristics of the pressure waves transport in tunnel that appears when the train enter a tunnel and the variation of pressure penetrating into the train staterooms according to blockage ratio of train. In addition, a comparative study was carried out with the ThermoTun program to examine the applicability of the compressible 1-D model(based on the Method of Characteristics). Furthermore examination for the adequacy of the governing equations analysis based on compressible 1-D numerical model by Baron was examined.
Numerical simulation for surface settlement considering face vibration of TBM tunnelling in mixed-face condition
Kwak, Chang-Won ; Park, Inn-Joon ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 333~339
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.333
In this paper, the surface settlement resulted from the shallow TBM tunnelling has been numerically simulated. TBM tunnelling is especially used in urban area to avoid serious vibration and noise caused by explosion in NATM. Surface settlement is one of the most important problems encountered in all tunnelling and critical in urban areas. In this study, face vibration of TBM excavation is considered to estimate surface settlement trend according to TBM extrusion. The dynamic excavation forces are calculated by total torque on the TBM cutterhead in mixed-face of soil and weathered rock condition with shallow depth. A 3-dimensional FDM code is employed to simulate TBM tunnelling and mechanical-dynamic coupling analysis is performed. The 3D numerical analysis results showed that dynamic settlement histories and trend of surface settlement successfully. The maximum settlement occurred at the excavation point located at 2.5D behind the face, and the effect of face vibration on the surface settlement was verified in this study.
A numerical study on the ventilation characteristics of rainfall in road tunnel
Lee, Ho-Hyung ; Lee, Seung-Chul ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 341~351
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.341
When rainfall occurred on road tunnel, that is likely to have influence upon ventilation force in the tunnels but the tunnels ventilation system did not consider factors of rainfall. Thus, this study investigated effects of rainfall upon ventilation force in the tunnels at no rainfall and changing of rainfall by 3 dimensional numerical method. Flow rate into road tunnels decreased as many as 52.34% at rainfall of 150 mm/hr, and pressure drop of road tunnel between entrance and exit decreased as many as 22.22%, so that rainfall had influence upon ventilation force in the tunnel. The number of necessary jet fan in road tunnels is 12 at no rainfall but, when rainfall of 80 mm/hr on road tunnels, the number of necessary jet fan in road tunnels is 16, when rainfall of 150 mm/hr on road tunnels, the number of necessary jet fan in road tunnels is 17. So, factor of rainfall should be considered at estimation of ventilation system of road tunnel.
A study on the improvement of the air exhaust system at the PSD installed subway station
Kwon, Soon-Bark ; Song, Ji-Han ; Ryu, Ju-Hwan ; Jo, Seung-Won ; Oh, Tae-Suk ; Bae, Sung-Joon ; Kim, Hyo-Gyu ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 353~362
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.353
Platform screen door (PSD) installed at underground subway station has reduced the safety accident, but it may cause poor air ventilation condition due to the isolated exhaust duct in the subway tunnel area. In this study, the additional ventilation system was suggested, which can be installed at a void space (i.e., storage room under stairs) of platform in order to improve efficiency of air ventilation rate. Exhausted air from platform was directed to underneath of platform and joined with existing ventilation duct of train exhaust system (TES). One subway station in Seoul city was selected to predict the effectiveness of the suggested lower exhaust system by using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The predicted mean age of air was decreased by 16.5% which proves the improvement of air ventilation efficiency when the suggested lower exhaust system was applied.
A study on the member forces of segmental linings considering key segments
Woo, Seungjoo ; Yoo, Chungsik ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 363~382
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.363
This paper presents a numerical study on the effect of segment assembly characteristics on the TBM segmental lining member section forces. Analyses have been carried out through the two-ring beam finite element model by Midas civil 2012+. TBM segment lining member forces are determined by various joint characteristics. In this study, the segmental member forces were investigated with various joint number and orientation at fixed values of joint stiffness, ground spring parameters. The numerical results were used to identify trends of the member forces in the tunnel lining with the segment assembly characteristics.
Utilization of induced polarization for predicting ground condition ahead of tunnel face in subsea tunnelling: laboratory test
Park, Jinho ; Lee, Kang-Hyun ; Lee, Seong-Won ; Ryu, Young-Moo ; Lee, In-Mo ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 383~392
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.383
In subsea tunnelling, prediction of the fractured zone (or water bearing zone) ahead of tunnel face saturated by seawater with high water pressure has been a key factor for safe construction. This study verified the feasibility of utilizing induced polarization (IP) survey at tunnel face for predicting the ground condition ahead of the subsea tunnel face. A pore model was proposed to compute chargeability in granular material, and the relationship correlating chargeability with the variables affecting the chargeability was derived from the model. Parametric study has been performed on the variables to figure out the most influential factors affecting the chargeability. The results of the parametric study show that the size of narrow pores (
) and the salinity of pore water are the most influential factors on chargeability. Laboratory tests were conducted on various types of ground condition by changing the salinity of pore water, the thickness of the fracture zone and the existence of gouge (weathered granite) within the joints of the fractured zone to figure out the effect of the ground characteristics on the IP phenomenon. Test results show that the chargeability of the fractured zone saturated by seawater increases if the joints in the fractured zone are filled with gouge since the infilled gouge will decrease the size of narrow pores (
Development for prediction system of TBM tunnel face ahead using probe drilling equipment and drilled hole imaging equipment
Kim, Ki-Seog ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Jeong, Lae-Chul ; Lee, In-Mo ; Cho, Gye-Chun ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 393~401
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.393
In the construction of a TBM tunnel, it is very important to acquire accurate information of the excavated rock mass for an efficient and safe work. In this study, we developed the prediction system of TBM tunnel face ahead using probe drilling equipment and drilled hole imaging equipment to predict rock mass conditions of the tunnel face ahead. The prediction system consists of the probe drilling equipment, drilled hole imaging equipment and analysis software. The probe drilling equipment has been developed to be applicable to both non-coring and coring. Also the probe drilling equipment can obtain the drilling parameters such as feed pressure, torque pressure, rotation speed, drilling speed and so on. The drilling index is converted to the drilling index RMR through the correlation between a drilling index and core RMR. The developed system verification was carried out through a slope and tunnel field application. From the field application result, the non-coring is four times faster than a coring and the drilling index RMR and core RMR are similar in the distribution range. This system is expected to predict the rock mass conditions of the TBM tunnel face ahead very quickly and efficiently.
A study on the damage of cutter bit due to the rotation speed of shield TBM cutter head in mixed ground
Kang, Eun-Mo ; Kim, Yong-Min ; Hwang, In-Jun ; Kim, Sang-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association, volume 17, issue 3, 2015, Pages 403~413
DOI : 10.9711/KTAJ.2015.17.3.403
This paper presents the cutter bit damage due to the rotation speed of shield TBM cutter head in the mixed ground. The efficient of cutter bits and disk cutter are very important for tunnelling in mixed ground. In particular, this research is focused on the performance of cutter bits during excavation in mixed ground which is consist of the weathered soil and rock formation. In order to carry out this research, the experimental works are prepared performed by using the scaled shield TBM cutter bits evaluation machine developed. The mixed ground is prepared considering with a scale effect of tunnel size. Three different rotation speeds of shield TBM cutter head (i.e. 2, 3, 4 rpm) are applied in the experimental work. The drag forces acting on the cutter bits are measured at each cutter bit during rotation of cutter head. It is also analysed the variation of drag forces due to the rotation speed of shield TBM cutter head. The results of this research are clearly shown that the drag forces acting on the cutter bits are jumped up at the boundary between weathered soil and rock. It is also indicated that the jamping drag forces are increased with increasing the rotation speed of the cutter head. It is found from the research that the higher rotation speed of shield TBM cutter head will be high risk in the mixed ground. It is, therefore, suggested that the use of lower rotation speed of shield TBM cutter head is recommended for reducing the cutter bit damage in practice.