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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Earthquakes and Structures
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Editor in Chief :
Izuru Takewaki / Stavros A. / Anagnostopoulos / Jerome P. Lynch
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Sep 2016
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Aug 2016
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jul 2016
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 10, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of seismic performance factors for steel DIAGRID structural system design
Lee, Dongkyu ; Shin, Soomi ; Ju, Youngkyu ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 735~755
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.735
This article presents a proposed analytical methodology to determine seismic force-resisting system R-values for steel diagrid framed systems. As current model building codes do not explicitly address the seismic design performance factors for this new and emerging structural system, the purpose of this study is to provide a sound and reliable basis for defining such seismic design parameters. An approach and methodology for the reliable determination of seismic performance factors for use in the design of steel diagrid framed structural systems is proposed. The recommended methodology is based on current state-of-the-art and state-of-the practice methods including structural nonlinear dynamic analysis techniques, testing data requirements, building code design procedures and earthquake ground motion characterization. In determining appropriate seismic performance factors (R,
) for new archetypical building structural systems, the methodology defines acceptably low values of probability against collapse under maximum considered earthquake ground shaking.
Effect of near field earthquake on the monuments adjacent to underground tunnels using hybrid FEA-ANN technique
Jafarnia, Mohsen ; Varzaghani, Mehdi Imani ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 757~768
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.757
In the past decades, effect of near field earthquake on the historical monuments has attracted the attention of researchers. So, many analyses in this regard have been presented. Tunnels as vital arteries play an important role in management after the earthquake crisis. However, digging tunnels and seismic effects of earthquake on the historical monuments have always been a challenge between engineers and historical supporters. So, in a case study, effect of near field earthquake on the historical monument was investigated. For this research, Finite Element Analysis (FEM) in soil environment and soil-structure interaction was used. In Plaxis 2D software, different accelerograms of near field earthquake were applied to the geometric definition. Analysis validations were performed based on the previous numerical studies. Creating a nonlinear relationship with space parameter, time, angular and numerical model outputs was of practical and critical importance. Hence, artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used and two linear layers and Tansig function were considered. Accuracy of the results was approved by the appropriate statistical test. Results of the study showed that buildings near and far from the tunnel had a special seismic behavior. Scattering of seismic waves on the underground tunnels on the adjacent buildings was influenced by their distance from the tunnel. Finally, a static test expressed optimal convergence of neural network and Plaxis.
Influence of special plaster on the out-of-plane behavior of masonry walls
Donduren, Mahmut Sami ; Kanit, Recep ; Kalkan, Ilker ; Gencel, Osman ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 769~788
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.769
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of a special plaster on the out-of-plane behavior of masonry walls. A reference specimen, plastered with conventional plaster, and a specimen plastered with a special plastered were tested under reversed cyclic lateral loading. The specimens were identical in dimensions and material properties. The special plaster contained an additive, which increased the adherence strength of the plaster to the wall. The amount of the additive in the mortar was adjusted based on the preliminary material tests. The influence of the plaster on the wall behavior was evaluated according to the initial cracking load, type of failure, energy absorption capacity (modulus of toughness), and crack pattern of the wall. Despite having limited contribution to the ductility, the special plaster increased the ultimate load capacity of the wall about 25%. The failure mode of the wall with special plaster resembled the plastic failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete slab in the formation of yielding lines along the wall. The deflection at failure and the modulus of toughness of the wall with special plaster were measured to be in order of 60% and 75% of the corresponding values of the reference wall.
Seismic fragility performance of skewed and curved bridges in low-to-moderate seismic region
Chen, Luke ; Chen, Suren ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 789~810
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.789
Reinforced concrete (RC) bridges with both skew and curvature are pretty common in areas with complex terrains. Existing studies have shown skewed and/or curved bridges exhibit more complicated seismic performance than straight bridges, and yet related seismic risk studies are still rare. These bridges deserve more studies in low-to-moderate seismic regions than those in seismic-prone areas. This is because for bridges with irregular and complex geometric designs, comprehensive seismic analysis is not always required and little knowledge about actual seismic risks for these bridges in low-to-moderate regions is available. To provide more insightful understanding of the seismic risks and the impact from the geometric configurations, analytical fragility studies are carried out on four typical bridge designs with different geometric configurations (i.e., straight, curved, skewed, skewed and curved) in the mountain west region of the United States. The results show the curved and skewed geometries can considerably affect the bridge seismic fragility in a complex manner, underscoring the importance of conducting detailed seismic risk assessment of skewed and curved bridges in low-to-moderate seismic regions.
Nonlinear analysis of RC structure with massive infill wall exposed to shake table
Onat, Onur ; Lourenco, Paulo B. ; Kocak, Ali ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 811~828
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.811
This study aims to present nonlinear time history analysis results of double leaf cavity wall (DLCW) reinforced concrete structure exposed to shake table tests. Simulation of the model was done by a Finite Element (FE) program. Shake table experiment was performed at the National Civil Engineering Laboratory in Lisbon, Portugal. The results of the experiment were compared with numeric DLCW model and numeric model of reinforced concrete structure with unreinforced masonry wall (URM). Both DLCW and URM models have two bays and two stories. Dimensions of the tested structure and finite element models are 1:1.5 scaled according to Cauchy Froude similitude law. The URM model has no experimental results but the purpose is to compare their performance level with the DLCW model. Results of the analysis were compared with experimental response and were evaluated according to ASCE/SEI 41-06 code.
Seismic base isolation for structures using river sand
Patil, S.J. ; Reddy, G.R. ; Shivshankar, R. ; Babu, Ramesh ; Jayalekshmi, B.R. ; Kumar, Binu ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 829~847
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.829
Generally seismic isolation is achieved by supporting the structure on laminated rubber bearings, friction pendulum bearings, roller bearings etc. Very little work has been performed using soil as a base isolation media. Experiments and analytical work has been performed on a structural model with isolated footing and found encouraging results. Details of this work are presented in this paper.
Upgrading equivalent static method of seismic designs to performance-based procedure
Allahvirdizadeh, Reza ; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 849~865
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.849
Beside the invaluable advancements in constructing more secure buildings, the post-earthquake inspections have reported considerable damages. In other words, the modern buildings satisfactorily decrease fatalities but the monetary impacts still mostly remain an unsolved concern of the stakeholders, the insurance companies and society together. Therefore, the fundamental target of the researches shifted from current force-based seismic design regulations to the Performance-Based earthquake engineering (PBEE). At the moment, some probabilistic approaches, such as PEER framework have been developed to predict the performance of building at any desired hazard levels. These procedures are so time-consuming, to which many details are needed to be assigned. It causes their usage to be limited. On that account, developing more straightforward methods seems indispensable. The main objective of the present paper is to adapt an equivalent static method in different damage states. Consequently, constant damage spectrums corresponding to different limit states, soil types, ductility and fundamental periods are plotted and tri-linear formulas are proposed for further applications. Moreover, the sensitivity of outcomes to the employed hysteresis model, ductility, viscous damping and site soil type is investigated. Finally, a case study building with moment-resisting R.C. frame is evaluated based on the both of new and current methods to ensure applicability of the proposed method.
Fire-after-earthquake resistance of steel structures using rotational capacity limits
Pantousa, Daphne ; Mistakidis, Euripidis ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 867~891
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.867
This paper addresses numerically the behavior of steel structures under Fire-after-Earthquake (FAE) loading. The study is focused on a four-storey library building and takes into account the damage that is induced in structural members due to earthquake. The basic objective is the assessment of both the fire-behavior and the fire-resistance of the structure in the case where the structure is damaged due to earthquake. The combined FAE scenarios involve two different stages: during the first stage, the structure is subjected to the ground motion record, while in the second stage the fire occurs. Different time-acceleration records are examined, each scaled to multiple levels of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in order to represent more severe earthquakes with lower probability of occurrence. In order to study in a systematic manner the behavior of the structure for the various FAE scenarios, a two-dimensional beam finite element model is developed, using the non-linear finite element analysis code MSC-MARC. The fire resistance of the structure is determined using rotational limits based on the ductility of structural members that are subjected to fire. These limits are temperature dependent and take into account the level of the structural damage at the end of the earthquake and the effect of geometric initial imperfections of structural members.
Influence of modified intended use on the seismic behavior of historical himis structures
Cakir, Ferit ; Ergen, Yasar B. ; Uysal, Habib ; Dogangun, Adem ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 893~911
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.893
There are some modifications in the usage purpose of historical structures due to varying needs and changing conditions. However, those modifications can damage the structural system and the system stability. This study focuses on the investigation of the functional effects and usage modifications on the system stability. In this study, three different finite element models of the Hayati
Mansion in Turkey are developed and the seismic responses of the models are investigated. Results of the analyses show that usage modifications might be considered as risky in terms of creating problems for seismic performance.
Seismic evaluation of RC stepped building frames using improved pushover analysis
Sarkar, Pradip ; Prasad, A. Meher ; Menon, Devdas ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 913~938
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.913
`Stepped building` frames, with vertical geometric irregularity, are now increasingly encountered in modern urban constructions. This paper proposes a new approach to determine the lateral load pattern, considering the contributions from the higher modes, suitable for pushover analysis of stepped buildings. Also, a modification to the displacement coefficient method of ASCE/SEI 41-13 is proposed, based on nonlinear time history analysis of 78 stepped frames. When the newly proposed load pattern is combined with the modified displacement coefficient method, the target displacement for the stepped building frame is found to match consistently the displacement demand given by the time history analysis.
Seismic vulnerability of reinforced concrete building structures founded on an XPS layer
Koren, David ; Kilar, Vojko ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 939~963
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.939
According to the new directives about the rational and efficient use of energy, thermal bridges in buildings have to be avoided, and the thermal insulation (TI) layer should run without interruptions all around the building - even under its foundations. The paper deals with the seismic response of multi-storeyed reinforced concrete (RC) frame building structures founded on an extruded polystyrene (XPS) layer placed beneath the foundation slab. The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the problem of buildings founded on a TI layer from the seismic resistance point of view, to assess the seismic behaviour of such buildings, and to search for the critical parameters which can affect the structural and XPS layer response. Nonlinear dynamic and static analyses were performed, and the seismic response of fixed-base (FB) and thermally insulated (TI) variants of nonlinear RC building models were compared. Soil-structure interaction was also taken into account for different types of soil. The results showed that the use of a TI layer beneath the foundation slab of a superstructure generally induces a higher peak response compared to that of a corresponding system without TI beneath the foundation slab. In the case of stiff structures located on firm soil, amplification of the response might be substantial and could result in exceedance of the superstructure`s moment-rotation plastic hinge capacities or allowable lateral roof and interstorey drift displacements. In the case of heavier, slenderer, and higher buildings subjected to stronger seismic excitations, the overall response is governed by the rocking mode of oscillation, and as a consequence the compressive strength of the XPS could be insufficient. On the other hand, in the case of low-rise and light-weight buildings, the friction capacity between the layers of the applied TI foundation set might be exceeded so that sliding could occur.
Seismic performance of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings with underground stories
Saad, George ; Najjar, Shadi ; Saddik, Freddy ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 10, issue 4, 2016, Pages 965~988
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.965
This paper investigates the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings with multiple underground stories. A base-case where the buildings are modeled with a fixed condition at ground level is adopted, and then the number of basements is incrementally increased to evaluate changes in performance. Two subsurface site conditions, corresponding to very dense sands and medium dense sands, are used for the analysis. In addition, three ground shaking levels are used in the study. Results of the study indicated that while the common design practice of cropping the structure at the ground surface leads to conservative estimation of the base shear for taller and less rigid structures; it results in unpredicted and nonconservative trends for shorter and stiffer structures.