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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Earthquakes and Structures
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Editor in Chief :
Izuru Takewaki / Stavros A. / Anagnostopoulos / Jerome P. Lynch
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 7, Issue 5 - Nov 2014
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Oct 2014
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Aug 2014
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Jul 2014
Volume 6, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 6, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
The need for upgrading the seismic performance objectives
Kutanis, Mustafa ; Boru, Elif Orak ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 401~414
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.401
The economic consequences of large earthquakes require a revolutionary change in the seismic performance objective of residential and commercial buildings. The majority of total construction costs consist of non-structural and architectural costs. Therefore, the aim of this research is to upgrade current Life Safety performance objectives and to offset adverse effects on country`s economy after an occurrence of large earthquakes. However, such a proposal cannot easily prove the feasibility of cost-benefit analysis in structural design. In this paper, six generic reinforced concrete frames and dual system structures designed based on Turkish Seismic Code were used in cost analysis. The study reveals that load bearing structural systems with Immediate Occupancy performance level in seismic zones can be achieved with negligible costs.
Seismic behavior of suspended building structures with semi-rigid connections
Liu, Yuxin ; Lu, Zhitao ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 415~448
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.415
A method is presented in this paper to analyze the dynamic response behavior of suspended building structures. The effect of semi-rigid connections that link suspended floors with their supporting structure on structural performance is investigated. The connections, like the restrains in non-structural suspended components, are designed as semi-rigid to avoid pounding and as energy dissipation components to reduce structural response. Parametric study is conducted to assess the dynamic characteristics of suspended building structures with varying connection stiffness and suspended mass ratios. Modal analysis is applied to identify the two distinct sets of vibration modes, pendulum and bearing, of a suspended building structure. The cumulative modal mass is discussed to ensure the accuracy in applying the method of response spectrum analysis by SRSS or CQC modal combination. Case studies indicate that a suspended building having semi-rigid connections and proper suspended mass ratios can avoid local pounding failure and reduce seismic response.
Remote monitoring of urban and infrastructural areas
Bortoluzzi, Daniele ; Casciati, Fabio ; Elia, Lorenzo ; Faravelli, Lucia ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 449~462
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.449
Seismically induced structural damage, as well as any damage caused by a natural catastrophic event, covers a wide area. This suggests to supervise the event consequences by vision tools. This paper reports the evolution from the results obtained by the project RADATT (RApid Damage Assessment Telematics Tool) funded by the European Commission within FP4. The aim was to supply a rapid and reliable damage detector/estimator for an area where a catastrophic event had occurred. Here, a general open-source methodology for the detection and the estimation of the damage caused by natural catastrophes is developed. The suitable available hazard and vulnerability data and satellite pictures covering the area of interest represent the required bits of information for updated telematics tools able to manage it. As a result the global damage is detected by the simple use of open source software. A case-study to a highly dense agglomerate of buildings is discussed in order to provide the main details of the proposed methodology.
Experimental investigations of the seismic performance of bridge piers with rounded rectangular cross-sections
Shao, Guangqiang ; Jiang, Lizhong ; Chouw, Nawawi ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 463~484
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.463
Solid piers with a rounded rectangular cross-section are widely used in railway bridges for high-speed trains in China. Compared to highway bridge piers, these railway bridge piers have a larger crosssection and less steel reinforcement. Existing material models cannot accurately predict the seismic behavior of this kind of railway bridge piers. This is because only a few parameters, such as axial load, longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, are taken into account. To enable a better understanding of the seismic behavior of this type of bridge pier, a simultaneous influence of the various parameters, i.e. ratio of height to thickness, axial load to concrete compressive strength ratio and longitudinal to transverse reinforcements, on the failure characteristics, hysteresis, skeleton curves, and displacement ductility were investigated. In total, nine model piers were tested under cyclic loading. The hysteretic response obtained from the experiments is compared with that obtained from numerical studies using existing material models. The experimental data shows that the hysteresis curves have significantly pinched characteristics that are associated with small longitudinal reinforcement ratios. The displacement ductility reduces with an increase in ratio of axial load to concrete compressive strength and longitudinal reinforcement ratio. The experimental results are largely in agreement with the numerical results obtained using Chang-Mander concrete model.
Proposal of new ground-motion prediction equations for elastic input energy spectra
Cheng, Yin ; Lucchini, Andrea ; Mollaioli, Fabrizio ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 485~510
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.485
In performance-based seismic design procedures Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and pseudo-Spectral acceleration (
) are commonly used to predict the response of structures to earthquake. Recently, research has been carried out to evaluate the predictive capability of these standard Intensity Measures (IMs) with respect to different types of structures and Engineering Demand Parameter (EDP) commonly used to measure damage. Efforts have been also spent to propose alternative IMs that are able to improve the results of the response predictions. However, most of these IMs are not usually employed in probabilistic seismic demand analyses because of the lack of reliable Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). In order to define seismic hazard and thus to calculate demand hazard curves it is essential, in fact, to establish a GMPE for the earthquake intensity. In the light of this need, new GMPEs are proposed here for the elastic input energy spectra, energy-based intensity measures that have been shown to be good predictors of both structural and non-structural damage for many types of structures. The proposed GMPEs are developed using mixed-effects models by empirical regressions on a large number of strong-motions selected from the NGA database. Parametric analyses are carried out to show the effect of some properties variation, such as fault mechanism, type of soil, earthquake magnitude and distance, on the considered IMs. Results of comparisons between the proposed GMPEs and other from the literature are finally shown.
Comparison of the dynamic responses of
Highway Bridge using single and triple concave friction pendulums
Yurdakul, Muhammet ; Ates, Sevket ; Altunisik, Ahmet Can ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 511~525
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.511
The main object of this study is to determine and compare the structural behavior of base isolated long span highway bridge,
Highway Bridge, using single concave friction pendulum (SCFP) and triple concave friction pendulum (TCFP). The bridge is seismically isolated in the design phase to increase the main period and reduce the horizontal forces with moments using SCFP bearings. In the content of the paper, firstly three dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the bridge is constituted using project drawings by SAP2000 software. The dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies and periods, and the structural response such as displacements, axial forces, shear forces and torsional moments are attained from the modal and dynamic analyses. After, FEM of the bridge is updated using TCFP and the analyses are performed. At the end of the study, the dynamic characteristics and internal forces are compared with each other to extract the TCFP effect. To emphasize the base isolation effect, the non-isolated structural analysis results are added to graphics. The predominant frequencies of bridge non-isolated, isolated with SCFP and isolated with TCFP conditions decreased from 0.849Hz to 0.497Hz and 0.338Hz, respectively. The maximum vertical displacements are obtained as 57cm, 54cm and 44cm for non-isolated, isolated with SCFP and isolated with TCFP conditions, respectively. The maximum vertical displacement reduction between isolated with TCFP bearing and isolated with SCFP bearing bridge is %23. Maximum axial forces are obtained as 60619kN, 18728kN and 7382kN, maximum shear forces are obtained as 23408kN, 17913kN and 16249kN and maximum torsional moments are obtained as 24020kNm, 7619kNm and 3840kNm for non-isolated, isolated with SCFP and isolated with TCFP conditions, respectively.
Experimental and theoretical studies of confined HSCFST columns under uni-axial compression
Lai, M.H. ; Ho, J.C.M. ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 527~552
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.527
The development of modern concrete technology makes it much easier to produce high-strength concrete (HSC) or ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC) with high workability. However, the application of this concrete is limited in practical construction of traditional reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to low-ductility performance. To further push up the limit of the design concrete strength, concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) columns have been recommended considering its superior strength and ductility performance. However, the beneficial composite action cannot be fully developed at early elastic stage as steel dilates more than concrete and thereby reducing the elastic strength and stiffness of the CFST columns. To resolve this problem, external confinement in the form of steel rings is proposed in this study to restrict the lateral dilation of concrete and steel. In this paper, a total of 29 high-strength CFST (HSCFST) columns of various dimensions cast with concrete strength of 75 to 120 MPa concrete and installed with external steel rings were tested under uni-axial compression. From the results, it can be concluded that the proposed ring installation can further improve both strength and ductility of HSCFST columns by restricting the column dilation. Lastly, an analytical model calculating the uni-axial strength of ring-confined HSCFST columns is proposed and verified based on the Von-Mises and Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria for steel tube and in-filled concrete, respectively.
Structural behavior of conventional and buckling restrained braced frames subjected to near-field ground motions
Guneyisi, Esra Mete ; Ameen, Nali ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 553~570
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.553
In this study, nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed in order to evaluate and compare the structural response of different type of moment resisting frame buildings equipped with conventional braces (CBs) and buckling restrained braces (BRBs) subjected to near-field ground motions. For this, the case study frames, namely, ordinary moment-resisting frame (OMRF) and special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) having two equal bays of 6 m and a total height of 20 m were utilized. Then, CBs and BRBs were inserted in the bays of the existing frames. As a brace pattern, diagonal type with different configurations were used for the braced frame structures. For the earthquake excitation, artificial pulses equivalent to Northridge and Kobe earthquake records were taken into account. The results in terms of the inter-story drift index, global damage index, base shear, top shear, damage index, and plastification were discussed. The analysis of the results indicated a considerable improvement in the structural performance of the existing frames with the inclusion of conventional and especially buckling-restrained braces.
Experimental and numerical investigations on seismic performance of a super tall steel tower
He, Minjuan ; Li, Zheng ; Ma, Renle ; Liang, Feng ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 571~586
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.571
This paper presents experimental and numerical study on seismic performance of a super tall steel tower structure. The steel tower, with a height of 388 meters, employs a steel space truss with spiral steel columns to serve as its main lateral load resisting system. Moreover, this space truss was surrounded by the spiral steel columns to form a steel mega system in order to support a 12-story platform building which is located from the height of 230 meters to 263 meters. A 1/40 scaled model for this tower structure was made and tested on shake table under a series of one- and two-dimensional earthquake excitations with gradually increasing acceleration amplitudes. The test model performed elastically up to the seismic excitations representing the earthquakes with a return period of 475 years, and the test model also survived with limited damages under the seismic excitations representing the earthquakes with a return period 2475 years. A finite element model for the prototype structure was further developed and verified. It was noted that the model predictions on dynamic properties and displacement responses agreed reasonably well with test results. The maximum inter-story drift of the tower structure was obtained, and the stress in the steel members was investigated. Results indicated that larger displacement responses were observed for the section from the height of 50 meters to 100 meters in the tower structure. For structural design, applicable measures should be adopted to increase the stiffness and ductility for this section in order to avoid excessive deformations, and to improve the serviceability of the prototype structure.
Improved capacity spectrum method with inelastic displacement ratio considering higher mode effects
Han, Sang Whan ; Ha, Sung Jin ; Moon, Ki Hoon ; Shin, Myoungsu ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 7, issue 4, 2014, Pages 587~607
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2014.7.4.587
Progressive collapse, which is referred to as the collapse of the entire building under local damages, is a common failure mode happened by earthquakes. The collapse process highly depends on the whole structural system. Since, asymmetry of the building plan leads to the local damage concentration; it may intensify the progressive collapse mechanism of asymmetric buildings. In this research the progressive collapse of regular and irregular 6-story RC ordinary moment resisting frame buildings are studied in the presence of the earthquake loads. Collapse process and collapse propagation are investigated using nonlinear time history analyses (NLTHA) in buildings with 5%, 15% and 25% mass asymmetry with respect to the number of collapsed hinges and story drifts criteria. Results show that increasing the value of mass eccentricity makes the asymmetric buildings become unstable earlier and in the early stages with lower number of the collapsed hinges. So, with increasing the mass eccentricity in building, instability and collapse of the entire building occurs earlier, with lower potential of the progressive collapse. It is also demonstrated that with increasing the mass asymmetry the decreasing trend of the number of collapsed beam and column hinges is approximately similar to the decreasing trend in the average story drifts of the mass centers and stiff edges. So, as an alternative to a much difficult-to-calculate local response parameter of the number of collapsed hinges, the story drift, as a global response parameter, measures the potential of progressive collapse more easily.