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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Earthquakes and Structures
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Editor in Chief :
Izuru Takewaki / Stavros A. / Anagnostopoulos / Jerome P. Lynch
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Nov 2015
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Oct 2015
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Aug 2015
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jul 2015
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 8, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Direct displacement-based design accuracy prediction for single-column RC bridge bents
Tecchio, Giovanni ; Dona, Marco ; Modena, Claudio ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 455~480
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.455
In the last decade, displacement-based (DB) methods have become established design procedures for reinforced concrete (RC) structures. They use strain and displacement measures as seismic performance control parameters. As for other simplified seismic design methods, it is of great interest to prove if they are usually conservative in respect to more refined, nonlinear, time history analyses, and can estimate design parameters with acceptable accuracy. In this paper, the current Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) procedure is evaluated for designing simple single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with specific reference to simply supported RC bridge piers. Using different formulations proposed in literature for the equivalent viscous damping and spectrum reduction factor, a parametric study is carried out on a comprehensive set of SDOF systems, and an average error chart of the method is derived allowing prediction of the expected error for an ample range of design cases. Following the chart, it can be observed that, for the design of actual RC bridge piers, underestimation errors of the DDBD method are very low, while the overestimation range of the simplified displacement-based procedure is strongly dependent on design ductility.
Effective stiffness in regular R/C frames subjected to seismic loads
Micelli, Francesco ; Candido, Leandro ; Leone, Marianovella ; Aiello, Maria Antonietta ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 481~501
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.481
Current design codes and technical recommendations often provide rough indications on how to assess effective stiffness of Reinforced Concrete (R/C) frames subjected to seismic loads, which is a key factor when a linear analysis is performed. The Italian design code (NTC-2008), Eurocode 8 and ACI 318 do not take into account all the structural parameters affecting the effective stiffness and this may not be on the safe side when second-order
effects may occur. This paper presents a study on the factors influencing the effective stiffness of R/C beams, columns and walls under seismic forces. Five different approaches are adopted and analyzed in order to evaluate the effective stiffness of R/C members, in accordance with the scientific literature and the international design codes. Furthermore, the paper discusses the outcomes of a parametric analysis performed on an actual R/C building and analyses the main variables, namely reinforcement ratio, axial load ratio, concrete compressive strength, and type of shallow beams. The second-order effects are investigated and the resulting displacements related to the Damage Limit State (DLS) under seismic loads are discussed. Although the effective stiffness increases with steel ratio, the analytical results show that the limit of 50% of the initial stiffness turns out to be the upper bound for small values of axial-load ratio, rather than a lower bound as indicated by both Italian NTC-2008 and EC8. As a result, in some cases the current Italian and European provisions tend to underestimate second-order
effects, when the DLS is investigated under seismic loading.
Hardening slip model for reinforcing steel bars
Braga, Franco ; Caprili, Silvia ; Gigliotti, Rosario ; Salvatore, Walter ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 503~539
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.503
A new constitutive model for the representation of the seismic behaviour of steel bars including hardening phenomena is presented. The model takes into account relative slip between bars and concrete, necessary for the estimation of the structural behaviour of r.c. elements and of the level of strain induced by earthquakes on bars. The present work provides the analytical formulation of the post-yielding behaviour of reinforcements, resulting in a continuous axial stress-slip relationship to be implemented in engineering software. The efficacy of the model is proved through the application to a cantilever column, for whose bars the constitutive law is derived.
Cyclic shear test on a dowel beam-to-column connection of precast buildings
Magliulo, Gennaro ; Ercolino, Marianna ; Cimmino, Maddalena ; Capozzi, Vittorio ; Manfredi, Gaetano ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 541~562
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.541
This paper aims at developing the knowledge on the seismic behavior of dowel beam-to-column connections, typically employed in precast buildings in Europe. Despite the large diffusion of the industrial buildings, a high seismic vulnerability was exhibited by these structures, mostly due to the connection systems deficiencies, during some recent earthquakes (Emilia 2012, Turkey 2011). An experimental campaign was conducted on a typical dowel connection between an external column and a roof beam. In this paper, the performed cyclic shear test is described. According to the experimental results, the seismic response of the system is evaluated in terms of strength, stiffness and failure mechanism. Moreover, the complete damage pattern of the test is described by means of the instrumentations records. The connection failure occurred due to the concrete cover failure in the column (splitting failure). Such a mechanism corresponds to a negligible energy dissipation capacity of the connection, compared to the overall seismic response of the structure. The experimental results are also compared with the results of a similar monotonic shear test, as well as with some literature relationships for predicting the strength of dowel connections under horizontal (seismic) loads.
Effect of MDOF structures' optimal dampers on seismic fragility of piping
Jung, Woo Young ; Ju, Bu Seog ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 563~576
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.563
Over the past few decades, seismic retrofitting of structural systems has been significantly improved by the adoption of various methods such as FRP composite wraps, base isolation systems, and passive/active damper control systems. In parallel with this trend, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for structural and nonstructural components has become necessary for risk mitigation and the achievement of reliable designs in performance-based earthquake engineering. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect on piping fragility at T-joints due to seismic retrofitting of structural systems with passive energy-dissipation devices (i.e., linear viscous dampers). Three mid-rise building types were considered: without any seismic retrofitting; with distributed damper systems; with optimal placement of dampers. The results showed that the probability of piping system failure was considerably reduced in a Multi Degree of Freedom (MDOF) building retrofitted with optimal passive damper systems at lower floor levels. This effect of damper systems on piping fragility became insignificant as the floor level increased.
Reflection and refraction of magneto-thermoelastic plane wave at the pre-stressed liquid-solid interface in generalized thermoelasticity under three theories
Kakar, Rajneesh ; Kakar, Shikha ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 577~601
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.577
The thermomagnetic effect on plane wave propagation at the liquid-solid interface with nonclassical thermoelasticity is investigated. It is assumed that liquid-solid half-space is under initial stress. Numerical computations are performed for the developed amplitude ratios of P, SV and thermal waves under Cattaneo-Lord-Shulman theory, Green-Lindsay theory and classical thermoelasticity. The system of developed equations is solved by the application of the MATLAB software at different angles of incidence for Green and Lindsay model. The effect of initial stress and magnetic field in the lower half-space are discussed and comparison is made in LS, GL and CT models of thermoelasticity. In the absence of magnetic field, the obtained results are in agreement with the same results obtained by the relevant authors. This study would be useful for magneto-thermoelastic acoustic device field.
Retrofitting of vulnerable RC structures by base isolation technique
Islam, A.B.M. Saiful ; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin ; Ahmmad, Rasel ; Darain, Kh. Mahfuz ud ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 603~623
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.603
The scale and nature of the recent earthquakes in the world and the related earthquake disaster index coerce the concerned community to become anxious about it. Therefore, it is crucial that seismic lateral load effect will be appropriately considered in structural design. Application of seismic isolation system stands as a consistent alternative against this hazard. The objective of the study is to evaluate the structural and economic feasibility of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with base isolation located in medium risk seismic region. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses as well as linear static analysis under site-specific bi-directional seismic excitation have been carried out for both fixed based (FB) and base isolated (BI) buildings in the present study. The superstructure and base of buildings are modeled in a 3D finite element model by consistent mass approach having six degrees of freedom at each node. The floor slabs are simulated as rigid diaphragms. Lead rubber bearing (LRB) and High damping rubber bearing (HDRB) are used as isolation device. Change of structural behaviors and savings in construction costing are evaluated. The study shows that for low to medium rise buildings, isolators can reduce muscular amount of base shears, base moments and floor accelerations for building at soft to medium stiff soil. Allowable higher horizontal displacement induces structural flexibility. Though incorporating isolator increases the outlay, overall structural cost may be reduced. The application of base isolation system confirms a potential to be used as a viable solution in economic building design.
The effect of the vertical excitation on horizontal response of structures
Ghaffarzadeh, Hosein ; Nazeri, Ali ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 625~637
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.625
It is usual in design and assessment of structures to isolate the effects of vertical and horizontal excitations by ignoring their coupling effects. In this situation, total structural response is obtained by employing the well-known combination rules whereby independent assumed response components of earthquakes are combined. In fact, the effects of the simultaneity of the ground motion components are ignored. In this paper, the effect of vertical excitation on horizontal response of structures, the coupling of vertical and horizontal responses, has been evaluated. A computer program is prepared to perform nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the derived governing equations of coupled motions. In the case of simultaneous excitation the results show significant increases in spectral displacement in some periods of vibration in comparison to only horizontally excited systems. Moreover, whenever ratio of the vertical peak ground acceleration to horizontal one become larger, the significant increase in horizontal spectral displacements are observed.
Effect of base isolation systems on increasing the resistance of structures subjected to progressive collapse
Tavakoli, Hamid R. ; Naghavi, Fahime ; Goltabar, Ali R. ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 639~656
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.639
Seismic isolation devices are commonly used to mitigate damages caused by seismic responses of structures. More damages are created due to progressive collapse in structures. Therefore, evaluating the impact of the isolation systems to enhance progressive collapse-resisting capacity is very important. In this study, the effect of lead rubber bearing isolation system to increase the resistance of structures against progressive collapse was evaluated. Concrete moment resisting frames were used in both the fixed and base-isolated model structures. Then, progressive collapse-resisting capacity of frames was investigated using the push down nonlinear static analysis under gravity loads that specified in GSA guideline. Nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed to consider dynamic effects column removal under earthquake. The results of the push down analysis are highly dependent on location of removal column and floor number of buildings. Also, seismic isolation system does not play an effective role in increasing the progressive collapse-resisting capacities of structures under gravity loads. Base isolation helps to localize failures and prevented from spreading it to intact span under seismic loads.
Comparing the dynamic behavior of a hospital-type structure with fixed and isolated base
Nasery, Mohammad Manzoor ; Ergun, Mustafa ; Ates, Sevket ; Husem, Metin ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 657~671
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.657
The level of ductility is determined by depending on the intended use of the building, the region's seismic characteristics and the type of structural system when buildings are planned by engineers. Major portion of seismic energy is intended to be consumed in the plastic zone in structural systems of high ductility, so the occurrence of damages in load bearing and non-load bearing structural elements is accepted in planning stage under severe earthquakes. However, these damages must be limited among specific values in order not to endanger buildings in terms of the bearing capacity. Isolators placed between the basement and upper structure make buildings behave elastically by reducing the effects of seismic loads and improving seismic performance of building significantly. Thus, damages can be limited among desired values. In this study, the effectiveness of seismic isolation is investigated on both fixed based and seismic isolated models of a hospital building with high ductility level with regard to lateral displacements, internal forces, structural periods and cost of the building. Layered rubber bearings are interposed between the base of the structure and foundation. Earthquake analysis of the building are performed using earthquake records in time domain (Kocaeli, Loma Prieta and Landers). Results obtained from three-dimensional finite element models are presented by graphs and tables in detail. That seismic isolation reduces significantly the destructive effects of earthquakes on structures is seen from the results obtained by seismic analysis.
On the improvement of inelastic displacement demands for near-fault ground motions considering various faulting mechanisms
Esfahanian, A. ; Aghakouchak, A.A. ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 3, 2015, Pages 673~698
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.3.673
This paper investigates inelastic seismic demands of the normal component of near-fault pulse-like ground motions, which differ considerably from those of far-fault ground motions and also parallel component of near-fault ones. The results are utilized to improve the nonlinear static procedure (NSP) called Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM). 96 near-fault and 20 far-fault ground motions and the responses of various single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems constitute the dataset. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (NDA) is utilized as the benchmark for comparison with nonlinear static analysis results. Considerable influences of different faulting mechanisms are observed on inelastic seismic demands. The demands are functions of the strength ratio and also the pulse period to structural period ratio. Simple mathematical expressions are developed to consider the effects of near-fault motion and fault type on nonlinear responses. Modifications are presented for the DCM by introducing a near-fault modification factor,
. In locations, where the fault type is known, the modifications proposed in this paper help to obtain a more precise estimate of seismic demands in structures.