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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Earthquakes and Structures
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Editor in Chief :
Izuru Takewaki / Stavros A. / Anagnostopoulos / Jerome P. Lynch
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Nov 2015
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Oct 2015
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Aug 2015
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jul 2015
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 8, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Seismic response distribution estimation for isolated structures using stochastic response database
Eem, Seung-Hyun ; Jung, Hyung-Jo ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 937~956
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.937
Seismic isolation systems decouple structures from ground motions to protect them from seismic events. Seismic isolation devices have been implemented in many full-scale buildings and bridges because of their simplicity, economic effectiveness, inherent stability, and reliability. It is well known that the most uncertain aspect for obtaining the accurate responses of an isolated structure from seismic events is the seismic loading itself. It is needed to know the seismic response distributions of the isolated structure resulting from the randomness of earthquakes when probabilistic designing or probabilistic evaluating an isolated structure. Earthquake time histories are useful and often an essential element for designing or evaluating isolated structures. However, it is very challenging to gather the design and evaluation information for an isolated structure from many seismic analyses. In order to evaluate the seismic performance of an isolated structure, numerous nonlinear dynamic analyses need to be performed, but this is impractical. In this paper, the concept of the stochastic response database (SRD) is defined to obtain the seismic response distributions of an isolated structure instantaneously, thereby significantly reducing the computational efforts. An equivalent model of the isolated structure is also developed to improve the applicability and practicality of the SRD. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is numerically verified.
Numerical modeling and analysis of RC frames subjected to multiple earthquakes
Abdelnaby, Adel E. ; Elnashai, Amr S. ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 957~981
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.957
Earthquakes occur as a cluster in many regions around the world where complex fault systems exist. The repeated shaking usually induces accumulative damage to affected structures. Damage accumulation in structural systems increases their level of degradation in stiffness and also reduces their strength. Many existing analytical tools of modeling RC structures lack the salient damage features that account for stiffness and strength degradation resulting from repeated earthquake loading. Therefore, these tools are inadequate to study the response of structures in regions prone to multiple earthquakes hazard. The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) develop a tool that contains appropriate damage features for the numerical analysis of RC structures subjected to more than one earthquake; and (b) conduct a parametric study that investigates the effects of multiple earthquakes on the response of RC moment resisting frame systems. For this purpose, macroscopic constitutive models of concrete and steel materials that contain the aforementioned damage features and are capable of accurately capturing materials degrading behavior, are selected and implemented into fiber-based finite element software. Furthermore, finite element models that utilize the implemented concrete and steel stress-strain hysteresis are developed. The models are then subjected to selected sets of earthquake sequences. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the response of degrading structural systems is appreciably influenced by strong-motion sequences in a manner that cannot be predicted from simple analysis. It also confirms that the effects of multiple earthquakes on earthquake safety can be very considerable.
Investigation on site conditions for seismic stations in Romania using H/V spectral ratio
Pavel, Florin ; Vacareanu, Radu ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 983~997
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.983
This research evaluates the soil conditions for seismic stations situated in Romania using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR). The strong ground motion database assembled for this study consists of 179 analogue and digital strong ground motion recordings from four intermediate-depth Vrancea seismic events with
. In the first step of the analysis, the influence of the earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance on the H/V curves is evaluated. Significant influences from both the earthquake magnitude and hypocentral distance are found especially for soil class A sites. Next, a site classification method proposed in the literature is applied for each seismic station and the soil classes are compared with those obtained from borehole data and from the topographic slope method. In addition, the success and error rates of this method are computed and compared with other studies from the literature. A more in-depth analysis of the H/V results is performed using data from seismic stations in Bucharest and a comparison of the free-field and borehole H/V curves is done for three seismic stations. The results show large differences between the free-field and the borehole curves. As a conclusion, the results from this study represent an intermediary step in the evaluation of the soil conditions for seismic stations in Romania and the need to perform more detailed soil classification analysis is highly emphasized.
Parameters affecting the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures
Asteris, Panagiotis G. ; Repapis, Constantinos C. ; Tsaris, Athanasios K. ; Di Trapani, Fabio ; Cavaleri, Liborio ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 999~1028
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.999
Despite the fact that the fundamental period appears to be one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures according to the modal superposition method, the so far available in the literature proposals for its estimation are often conflicting with each other making their use uncertain. Furthermore, the majority of these proposals do not take into account the presence of infills walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period numerical value. Toward this end, this paper presents a detailed and indepth analytical investigation on the parameters that affect the fundamental period of reinforce concrete structure. The calculated values of the fundamental period are compared against those obtained from the seismic code and equations proposed by various researchers in the literature. From the analysis of the results it has been found that the number of storeys, the span length, the stiffness of the infill wall panels, the location of the soft storeys and the soil type are crucial parameters that influence the fundamental period of RC buildings.
Pounding analysis of RC bridge considering spatial variability of ground motion
Han, Qiang ; Dong, Huihui ; Du, Xiuli ; Zhou, Yulong ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1029~1044
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.1029
To investigate the seismic pounding response of long-span bridges with high-piers under strong ground motions, shaking table tests were performed on a 1/10-scaled bridge model consisting of three continuous spans with rigid frames and one simply-supported span. The seismic pounding responses of this bridge model under different earthquake excitations including the uniform excitation and the traveling wave excitations were experimentally studied. The influence of dampers to the seismic pounding effects at the expansion joints was analyzed through nonlinear dynamic analyses in this research. The seismic pounding effects obtained from numerical analyses of the bridge model are in favorable agreement with the experimental results. Seismic pounding effect of bridge superstructures is dependent on the structural dynamic properties of the adjacent spans and characteristics of ground motions. Moreover, supplemental damping can effectively mitigate pounding effects of the bridge superstructures, and reduce the base shear forces of the bridge piers.
Deformation-based seismic design of concrete bridges
Gkatzogias, Konstantinos I. ; Kappos, Andreas J. ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1045~1067
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.1045
A performance-based design (PBD) procedure, initially proposed for the seismic design of buildings, is tailored herein to the structural configurations commonly adopted in bridges. It aims at the efficient design of bridges for multiple performance levels (PLs), achieving control over a broad range of design parameters (i.e., strains, deformations, ductility factors) most of which are directly estimated at the design stage using advanced analysis tools (a special type of inelastic dynamic analysis). To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed design methodology, it is applied to an actual bridge that was previously designed using a different PBD method, namely displacement-based design accounting for higher mode effects, thus enabling comparison of the alternative PBD approaches. Assessment of the proposed method using nonlinear dynamic analysis for a set of spectrum-compatible motions, indicate that it results in satisfactory performance of the bridge. Comparison with the displacement-based method reveals significant cost reduction, albeit at the expense of increased computational effort.
FRP versus traditional strengthening on a typical mid-rise Turkish RC building
Smyrou, Eleni ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1069~1089
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.1069
This paper investigates the limits and efficacies of the Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) material for strengthening mid-rise RC buildings against seismic actions. Turkey, the region of the highest seismic risk in Europe, is chosen as the case-study country, the building stock of which consists in its vast majority of mid-rise RC residential and/or commercial buildings. Strengthening with traditional methods is usually applied in most projects, as ordinary construction materials and no specialized workmanship are required. However, in cases of tight time constraints, architectural limitations, durability issues or higher demand for ductile performance, FRP material is often opted for since the most recent Turkish Earthquake Code allows engineers to employ this advanced-technology product to overcome issues of inadequate ductility or shear capacity of existing RC buildings. The paper compares strengthening of a characteristically typical mid-rise Turkish RC building by two methods, i.e., traditional column jacketing and FRP strengthening, evaluating their effectiveness with respect to the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code. The effect of FRP confinement is explicitly taken into account in the numerical model, unlike the common procedure followed according to which the demand on un-strengthened members is established and then mere section analyses are employed to meet the additional demands.
Evaluation of scalar structure-specific ground motion intensity measures for seismic response prediction of earthquake resistant 3D buildings
Kostinakis, Konstantinos G. ; Athanatopoulou, Asimina M. ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1091~1114
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.1091
The adequacy of a number of advanced earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs) to predict the structural damage of earthquake resistant 3D R/C buildings is investigated in the present paper. To achieve this purpose three symmetric in plan and three asymmetric 5-storey R/C buildings are analyzed by nonlinear time history analysis using 74 bidirectional earthquake records. The two horizontal accelerograms of each ground motion are applied along the structural axes of the buildings and the structural damage is expressed in terms of the maximum and average interstorey drift as well as the overall structural damage index. For each individual pair of accelerograms the values of the aforementioned seismic damage measures are determined. Then, they are correlated with several strong motion scalar IMs that take into account both earthquake and structural characteristics. The research identified certain IMs which exhibit strong correlation with the seismic damage measures of the studied buildings. However, the degree of correlation between IMs and the seismic damage depends on the damage measure adopted. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the widely used spectral acceleration at the fundamental period of the structure is a relatively good IM for medium rise R/C buildings that possess small structural eccentricity.
Optimal input cross-power spectra in shake table testing of asymmetric structures
Ammanagi, S. ; Manohar, C.S. ;
Earthquakes and Structures, volume 9, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1115~1132
DOI : 10.12989/eas.2015.9.5.1115
The study considers earthquake shake table testing of bending-torsion coupled structures under multi-component stationary random earthquake excitations. An experimental procedure to arrive at the optimal excitation cross-power spectral density (psd) functions which maximize/minimize the steady state variance of a chosen response variable is proposed. These optimal functions are shown to be derivable in terms of a set of system frequency response functions which could be measured experimentally without necessitating an idealized mathematical model to be postulated for the structure under study. The relationship between these optimized cross-psd functions to the most favourable/least favourable angle of incidence of seismic waves on the structure is noted. The optimal functions are also shown to be system dependent, mathematically the sharpest, and correspond to neither fully correlated motions nor independent motions. The proposed experimental procedure is demonstrated through shake table studies on two laboratory scale building frame models.