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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 46, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Increased osteopontin expression in activated glial cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Park, Suk-jae ; Hwang, In-sun ; Kim, Gyu-beom ; Shin, Tae-kyun ; Jee, Young-heun ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 177~184
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a disease model of multiple sclerosis (MS) that is characterized by remittance and relapse of the disease and autoimmune and demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmune inflammation is maintained by secretion of a large number of protein. Previous studies have suggested that transcripts encoding osteopontin (OPN) are frequently detected in the mRNA population of MS plaques. To elucidate the functional role of OPN in initiation and development of EAE, we examined the expression and localization of OPN in the spinal cord during acute EAE. We demonstrated that OPN significantly increased at the early stage of EAE and slightly declined thereafter by western blot analysis. An immunohistochemical study revealed that OPN was constitutively expressed in some glial cells (microglia, astrocytes) of white matter and neurons in the CNS of control rats. OPN expression was shown to be increased in the same cells at the early and peak stage of EAE. To identity cells expressing OPN by double-immunofluorescence labeling, we labeled rat spinal cord sections for OPN with a monoclonal OPN antibody and with mAbs for astrocyte (GFAP), microglia/macrophage (OX42)-specific markers. The major cell types of OPN-expressing cells were activated astrocytes and microglia in the adjacent inflammatory lesions. Interestingly, OPN was mainly expressed in the end feet of astrocytes around vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressing endothelial cells of CNS blood vessel. These findings suggest that increased levels of OPN in activated glial cell may play an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the CNS parenchyma during EAE.
Efficacy of ELISA for measurement of protective newcastle disease antibody level in broilers
Kim, Jong-Nyeo ; Heo, won ; Mo, In-Pil ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 185~196
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry that can cause severe economic losses throughout the world. Vaccination has been used for a long time and proved as one of the most effective method to reduce the economic loss due to ND virus infection, The measurement of antibody titer such as hamagglutination-inhibition (Hl) test with sera has been used as a useful method to evaluate the immunity leve of host. However, Hl test is gradually being replaced by the enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), To evaluate the efficacy of ELISA in the chickens vaccinated with different procedure, present study has been performed. After SPF chicks and commercial broilers were vaccinated with different kinds of live vaccines such as V4, VG/GA and/or Bl at various time, the antibody level has been measured using both HI test and ELISA. Challenge test with velogenic viscerotropic NDV was also performed to measure the protective level of antibody. In the SPF chickens, the mean ELISA titer after vaccination and survival rate after challenge was increased and correlated with days post inoculation. More than 80% of chickens with higher than 1,000 ELISA titer after vaccination were survived after challenge with velogenic ND virus and had good correlation between survival rate and antibody titier. In commercial broiler chickens, most of them at market age had low level of ELISA titer regardless of the number of vaccination, and had a low correlation between survival rate and ELISA titer. However, the ELISA titer of remaining birds after challenge was increased. This result indicated that ELISA titer had good response against velogenic NOV infection compared to Hl titer.
Descriptive epidemiology of nationwide spread of 2003 classical swine fever epidemic in Korea
Park, Choi-Kyu ; Lee, Eune-Sub ; Yoon, Hachung ; Wee, Sung-Hwan ; Song, Jae-Young ; Moon, Oun-Kyeong ; Choi, Eun-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Soo ; Lee, Joo-Ho ; An, Su-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 197~206
In March 2003, classical swine fever (CSF) infection was reported in a piggery located at Iksan city, Jeollabuk-do in Korea. Subsequently, a total of 72 infected farms were confirmed between March and December, 2003. Based on epidemiological investigation of the earlier confirmed infected farms, the source of infection was shown to be from a breeding farm. Targeted surveillance of 82 piggeries that had acquired pigs from this breeding farm showed 44 piggeries were infected with CSF virus. CSF virus was introduced into this breeding farm by movement of selected breeder pigs from its 12 contracted farms which were located in areas that had been affected by CSF epidemic in late 2002. CSF had then spread through out the country mainly by direct transmission through the sale and movement of pigs from this breeding farm. Consequently, 47 (62%) among 72 CSF affected farms were associated, directly and indirectly, with this breeding farm. This study showed that inadequate control for breeding farms and transport restriction in CSF outbreak areas resulted in the nationwide spread of CSF and the failure of the eradication campaign that has been underway for several years by the Korean animal hygiene authority as well as the fanners. Improvements of control policy through further research of the 2003 CSF epidemic will be needed to reestablish the Korean CSF eradication program in the future.
Evaluation of efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum 6/85 live vaccine
Yoon, Hee-Jun ; Kang, Zheng-Wu ; Jin, Ji-Dong ; Shin, Eun-Kyung ; Jeong, Yong-Hoon ; Jeong, Ji-Hye ; Hahn, Tae-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 207~214
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) continues to persist in many commercial layer farms in Korea,resulting in losses in egg production. Bacterins and live attenuated vaccines have been used for the prevention of losses caused by MG. One of these attenuated vaccines, MG 6/85 vaccine has been reported to be safe and efficacious in layers. However, MG 6/85 vaccine has not been evaluated for its safety and its efficacy in any commercial layer in Korea. Six-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with MG 6/85 vaccine by aerosol and were challenged with virulent MG R strain at 4 weeks after vaccination. The vaccinated group was able to resist challenge into the air sacs because the vaccinated group showed much less air sac lesion compared with the unvaccinated group. Each of two commercial layer farms was divided into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. For each vaccinated gorup, MG 6/85 vaccine were sprayed at 17 week old on farm A and at 15 weeks old on farm B. Hen-day egg production, Hen-housed eggs, egg weight, mortality were evaluated until 50 week after vaccination.Compared with the unvaccinated group in each farm, the vaccinated group showed higher average egg production and egg weight, and higher hen-housed number. Results of this study are in agreement with other previous reports which demonstrated that MG 6/85 vaccine favorable effect on performance in commercial layers.
Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in chicks and its immunoadjuvant activity on Newcastle disease virus vaccines
Yeo, Sang-Geon ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 215~224
In order to search the availability of the lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) as an adjuvant for the avian vaccines, attempts were made to determine toxicity of the lectin in chicks and its immunostimulating activity on the inactivated vaccines against Newcastle disease virus(NDV). For the determination of toxicity, the lectin was injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks(Charles River) of 1-week-old and observed hematologically and pathologically. For the determination of immunostimulating effects, lectin-adjuvanted, inactivated NDV vaccines were injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks in the same age group. Sera of the chicks were examined for the hemagglutination-inhibition(HI) antibodies induced, their HI titers and reaction to the NDV antigens. The data were further compared with those from aluminum hydroxide [
]-adjuvanted vaccines and vaccines without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. There were no significant changes observed in the values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine and total proteins in the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and
body weight, which means the lectin has no effects on blood values and functions of liver and kidney. In histopathologic observation, no lesions were observed in the brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and
body weight. There were inflammatory lesions, such as congestion, hemorrhage, edema, infiltration of macrophages and coagulation necrosis observed in the thigh muscle of chicks administered with lectin of
body weight, whereas no changes were observed in 1.1 and
lectin administered chicks. In chicks immunized with lectin(
of body weight)-adjuvanted B1, LaSota and Ulster 2C vaccines, HI titers in reciprocal values for
were 1.8-2.2 at 1 week after vaccination, which was similar with those of 1.5-2.9 by
-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to 3.9-5.3 at 4 weeks, whereas those by the
-adjuvanted vaccines were more high as 7.3-9.3. Meanwhile, the immunostimulating effects of the lectin were recognized while compared to the HI titers with 2.4-3.7 in chicks immunized with vaccines without adjuvants at 4 weeks after vaccination. The chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines were enough to resist challenges by Kyojeongwon strain, a very virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination as well as chicks immunized with
-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to high level as 8.7-10.3 as those with 8.2-9.6 by the
-adjuvanted vaccines at 6 weeks after vaccination, which may be the booster effects by the challenge virus. Antibodies specific to the HN and F antigens of NDV were observed in the sera of both chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines and
Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in piglets and its effects on the immunogenicity of Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines
Yeo, Sang-Geon ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 225~234
In the present study toxicity and immunostimulating activity of the lectin(KML-C), which was extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) were investigated in swine. To determine the toxicity, lectin was injected into thigh or cervical muscles of 4-week-old piglets(Landrace) and observed clinically and pathologically. For determination of the immnunostimulating activity, lectin(
of body weight)-adjuvanted vaccine of Aujeszky's disease virus(ADV)(NYJ1-87) which was inactivated by 0.2% formalin was injected into the cervical muscle of antibody-negative piglets in the same age group. Subpopulation of the immune cells and serum neutralizing(SN) antibodies in the piglets were examined after vaccination, and resistance of the piglets against challenge by virulent NYJ1-87 was further examined. The results were also compared with those from piglets injected with aluminum hydroxide [
]-adjuvanted vaccine of inactivated NYJ1-87 and NYJ1-87 vaccine without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. By injection of lectin with
of body weight to the thigh muscle, all of 12 piglets died after signs such as dyspnea, fever, systemic erythema and subcutaneous hemorrhages, and lesions pertaining to poisonous hepatitis and dysfunction of kidney were observed. By injection of lectin with
of body weight to the thigh muscle, all of 12 piglets showed signs such as edema and cutaneous hemorrhage in the injected area, lameness and depression, and lesions pertaining to poisonous hepatitis and dysfunction of kidney were observed. By injection of lectin with 1, 3 and
of body weight to the thigh muscle of each one piglet, signs such as congestion, induration and grayish coloration in the injected area, depression and inappetence were observed in all piglets. Toxic changes were also observed in the liver and kidney of piglets by lectin of 3 and
. By injection of lectin with 0.5 and
of body weight to the cervical muscle of each 9 piglets, all piglets were clinically normal and there were no significant changes in blood counts and chemistry values. Whereas, epithelial swelling and vacuolation of convoluted tubules were observed from one piglet injected with lectin of
, and necrosis and fibrosis of muscular fiber were observed in the muscle of one piglet injected with lectin of
. Only population of sIgM+ B lymphocytes increased among immune cells in all of 15 piglets immunized with lectin(
of body weight)-adjuvanted vaccine, while compared to those in
-adjuvanted vaccine and vaccine without adjuvant. No additional stimulation to the immune cells was recognized when lectin was added to
-adjuvanted vaccine. In piglets immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccine, SN titers in reciprocal values for loge were 1.3-4.0 at 1-4 weeks after vaccination, which was similar to those with 1.0-3.3 by vaccine without adjuvant but lower than those with 2.0-5.7 by
-adjuvanted vaccine. Also, no additional increase in the SN titers was recognized when lectin was added to
-adjuvanted vaccine. Piglets immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccine were resistant to challenge by the virulent NYJ1-87 at 4 weeks after vaccination, and the SN titers reached to 5.0 one week after challenge, which was higher than those with 4.0 by vaccine without adjuvant but somewhat lower than those with 7.7 by
Sequence analysis of VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus field isolate and vaccine strains
Jin, Ji-Dong ; Kang, Zheng-Wu ; Kim, Sun-Joong ; Kwon, Hyuk-Moo ; Hahn, Tae-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 235~248
The VP2 full gene of Korean infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) strain, SH/92, three attenuated vaccine strains, Bur706, Bursine-2 and CEV/AC strains, were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced and compared with published VP2 gene sequences of IBDVs. The VP2 nucleotide sequence similarity between SH/92 and three vaccine stains was 95.6~96.5% whereas the nucleic acid similarity among three vaccine strains was 97.5~98.5%. The amino acid sequence similarity of VP2 of SH/92 compared with three vaccine strains was between 94.4 and 97.6% while the amino acid similarity among three vaccine strains was between 97.4 and 98.4%. The amino acid similarity between SH/92 and classical virulent strain, 52/70 and STC strain was 96.4 and 96.5%, respectively. The serine-rich heptapeptide was conserved in CEVAC and Bursine-2 as well as SH/92 but not in Bur706. The phylogenetic tree developed from amino acid sequences showed that SH/92 was categorized with vv IBDVs(HK46, OKYM, KKI, UPM94/273, SH95) in one branch while three vaccine strains were catagorized with STC strain in the other branch.
Effects of formalin on haematology and blood chemistry in crucian carp (Carassius auratus)
Im, Chang-Won ; Park, Se-Chang ; Heo, Gang-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 249~254
To determine the effects of exposure to formalin on the secondary stress indices, changes in haematology and blood chemistry were monitored in healthy crucian carps (Carassius auratus). Fishes were separately exposed in a concentration range of 125 to 500 ppm formalin for 60 min. After exposure, red blood cell (RBC) count and packed cell volume (PCV) were elevated in the 500 ppm formalin exposed group. However, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were decreased significantly in the 500 ppm formalin exposed group. Total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus (IP) and magnesium were significantly increased at a concentration of 500 ppm. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose were increased at a concentration of 500 ppm, but this was not significant. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and calcium were significantly decreased at concentrations of 250 and 500 ppm. AST, ALT, glucose and magnesium were significantly increased in the 250 ppm formalin exposed group. These results suggests that formalin exposure might cause some damage in the liver and kidney of crucian carp.
Optimization of monitoring methods for air-borne bacteria in the environmental conditions of pig facilities
Lee, Deok-Yong ; Seo, Yeon-Soo ; Kang, Sang-Gyun ; Yoo, Han Sang ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 255~261
Experimental animals have been used to biological and medical purposes and the animals must be, for these purposes, healthy and clean to microbial infection. However, the animals can be easily exposed to pathogenic microorganism via several routes. Of the routes, environmental conditions are the most important factors to keep the animals healthy and clean, especially air condition. Monitoring of air-condition has been required to keep the animal healthy and clean. However, any guideline is not available for experimental conditions with pigs. Therefore, the sampling times and points were compared in different conditions to establish an optimal protocol for monitoring of air borne bacteria. Tryptic soy agar(TSA), blood agar containing 5% defibrinated sheep blood and Sabraud dextrose agar(SDA) were used as media to capture total bacteria, pathogenic bacteria and fungi, respectively. Two methods, compulsive capture using an air-sampler and capturing fall-down bacteria were used to capture the microorganisms in the air. The points and time of capturing were different at each experiment. Air borne microorganisms were captured at three and five points in the open and closed equipments, respectively. Air was collected using an air-sampler for 1 min and 5 min and the agar plates as open status were left from 30 min to 2hr. At first, we monitored an experimental laboratory which dealt with several pathogenic bacteria and then, a protocol obtained from the investigation was applied to open or close experimental conditions with pigs. Number of bacteria was high from 10:00 to 15:00, especially on 13:30-15:30 but sharply decreased after 17:00. The tendency of the number of bacteria was similar between two methods even though the absolute number was higher with air sampler. Critical difference in the number of cells was observed at 5 min with air sampler and 2 hr with fall-down capturing method. However, 1 min with air sampler and 1 hr with fall-down capturing were the best condition to identify bacterial species collected from the air. Number of bacteria were different depending on the sampling points in closed condition but not in opened condition. Based on our results, a guide-line was suggested for screening air-borne microorganism in the experimental conditions with pigs.
Liposarcoma in the lung of a poodle dog
Cho, Ho-Seong ; Kim, Ok-Jun ; Park, Nam-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 263~265
A 15-year-old intact female poodle dog was referred to a local animal clinic showing signs of dyspnea. A radiographic examination revealed multiple nodules in the lung. The following day, the animal died and a necropsy examination revealed multiple nodular masses of varying sizes in the lung. Microscopically, the tumor cells were composed of round to polygonal cells resembling adipocytes with little or no collagenous stroma. Most of the cells contained clear cytoplasmic vacuoles with the nucleus at the periphery while the other cells contained varying numbers of smaller vacuoles. The immunohisto-chemical evaluation yielded a positive reaction to S-100 and vimentin. Negative results were obtained for pancytokeratin, smooth muscle actin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen and CD68. This case was diagnosed as a well-differentiated liposarcoma.
Aspiration pneumonia due to grain particle in a tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia
Jo, Ho-Seong ; Park, Nam-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 267~269
A 12-year-old female Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii) died after a 6-day history of depression, anorexia, and coughing. The necropsy revealed pustules of varying sizes on the lung surface from which a pure culture of Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Histopathologically, the pulmonary nodules formed typical granulomatous inflammation. The center of the granulomatous foci consisted of a necrotic center and grain particles with gram positive cocci that were surrounded by eosinophilic club-like bodies containing Splendore-Hoeppli material. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aspiration pneumonia with respiratory botryomycosis as a result of grain inhalation in a Tammar Wallaby.
Paratuberculosis in mouflon (ovis musimon) : A case report
Bae, You-Chan ; Kim, Ha-Young ; Kim, Heui-Jin ; Yoon, Soon-Seek ; Park, Jung-Won ; Jean, Yong-Hwa ; Cho, Kyoung-Oh ; Kang, Mun-Il ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 271~274
A 2-years-old female domesticated mouflon with a clinical history of chronic diarrhea and emaciation was submitted to NVRQS. Grossly, there were severe thickening of small intestine wall and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Microscopically, severe granulomatous inflammation was found in small and large intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and liver. By Ziehl-Neelsen stain, innumerable acid-fast rod bacteria were found in the cytoplasm of epitheloid and Langhans type giant cells present in these organs. By PCR assay with primer pair specific for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis(IS 900) with small intestine sample, strong positive reaction was detected, although the organism was not isolated from this organ. Based on the results of histopathology and PCR, we concluded that the case was a typical paratuberculosis in mouflon. As far as we know, this is the first case report of paratuberculosis in mouflon Korea.
Cutaneous melanocytic tumor in a slaughtered pig
Yang, Hyoung-Seok ; Kang, Sang-Chul ; Bae, Jong-Hee ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 275~278
A 7-month-old brown pig with a discoid and pedunculate mass measuring
on the skin of the right shoulder was noted at the slaughter house in Jeju. The surface of mass approximately
was interfaced with skin. The color of mass with firm consistency was mainly black and partially white on cut surface. Histopathologically, numerous unencapsulated endocrine-like cellular nodules of epithelioid cell type with abundant intracytoplasmic black pigment, melanin, were occupied in dermis and subcutis. Most of nodules in deep dermis were surrounded by lightly pigmented spindle cells and loose fibrous tissues. Mitotic figures were infrequently observed. The overlying epidermis was hyperplastic due to the down-growth of rete peg. Based on the gross and histopathologic findings, this case was diagnosed as cutaneous melanoma. In our best knowledge, this is the first case of swine cutaneous melanoma in Korea.
The antibacterial effect of photo-catalytic titanium dioxide on canine skin
Chang, Hwa-Seok ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Chung, Dai-Jung ; Lee, Jung-Sun ; Choi, Chi-Bong ; Kim, Hwi-Yool ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 279~284
Photo-catalytic products have been widely used at home and hospital to prevent bacteria, virus and fungus. Activities of anti-bacteria, anti-viruses and anti-fungi are based upon direct contact of crystals and particles of titanium dioxide with pathogens, into which titanium is catalyzed by photo. Those antimicrobial activities of the photo-catalytic titanium dioxide have been proved in vitro. However, in vivo tests of those activities have not been carried out on dog skin. Aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of the catalytic titanium dioxide in vivo. Ten beagle dogs were divided into two groups. One group was sprayed with 10ml of titanium dioxide(1 mg/ml) whereas the other was not. The treated dogs were exposed under the sunlight for 120 min. A set of three hairs was taken 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after the exposure and the bacteria contaminated in hairs were amplified in, Muller Hilton broth at
for 3 h. The supernatant of the bacterial culture was diluted 1 : 10 in phosphafe-buffered saline. One milliliter of the diluents was transferred into triphenyltetrazolium medium(TTC) and incubated at
for 2 days. The number of bacteria was counted. The number of bacteria colonies was decreased compared to control group. To further investigate the longevity effect of titanium dioxide, the dogs were kept in indoor without sun light for 6 and 12 h, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 days after exposure of the chemical during each 15, 30, 60 min. The number of bacteria colony in 1ml was counted. The number of bacterial colonies was decreased. Treated group is exposured by sun light during 15 min, the longevity effect of titanium dioxide is continued by 1 week. Treated group is exposured by sun light during 30, 60 min, the longevity effect of titanium dioxide is continued over 2 weeks. These data indicated that the photo-catalytic titanium dioxide may be used for prevent bacteria on dog skin.
A radiographic study of growth plate closure compared with age in the Korean native goat
Choi, Hojung ; Shin, Heejae ; Kang, Sangkyu ; Lee, Heechun ; Cho, Jongki ; Chang, Dongwoo ; Lee, Youngwon ; Jeong, Seong Mok ; Park, Seongjun ; Shin, Sang Tae ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 285~289
This study was performed to assess the growth plate closure time with aging in the Korean native goat. Radiographs of proximal and distal epiphysis of humerus, radius, ulna, femur and tibia were obtained at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 30, 43 and 52 weeks after birth in 30 Korean native goats. The secondary ossification centers were scrutinized and assessed the maturity process on the basis of the criteria(stage 0 to 10). The secondary ossification centers of proximal and distal epiphysis of humerus, radius, femur and tibia and proximal ulna epiphysis appeared immediately after birth. While, that of distal ulna epiphysis appeared during the 1st to 2nd week of life. The fusion of distal humeral epiphysis occurred during the period from 8 to 12 months. The fusion of proximal radial epiphysis and distal tibial epiphysis were found at 1 year. The fusion of proximal and distal epiphysis of ulna and femur, proximal epiphysis of humerus and tibia and distal epiphysis of radius were found at 1 year or more than 1 year. As a result, growth plate closure was highly related to age in the Korean native goat and it is suggested that the estimation of animal's age might be useful by illustration of maturity process of the secondary ossification centers in the Korean native goat.
Application of a solid-phase fluorescence immunoassay to determine ampicillin residues in muscle tissue of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Jung, Won Chul ; Ha, Ji Young ; Chung, Hee Sik ; Heo, Sung Hyeok ; Kim, Suk ; Lee, Hu Jang ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 46, issue 3, 2006, Pages 291~294
, a solid-phase fluorescence immunoassay(SPFIA) developed for antibiotics residue detection in milk, was applied for analysis of fish muscle. The recommended therapeutic dose of ampicillin(100 mg/kg body weight, withdrawal period 7 days) was orally administered to a group of 25 olive flounders(Paralichthys olivaceus) for consecutive five days. Muscle was sampled after drug treatment 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th day. The concentration of ampicillin in muscle, determined by SPFIA, was compared with that of internal standard(10 ppb as ampicillin). The absorbance ratio of sample to internal standard(Bs/Bo) was employed as an index to determine the muscle residue in olive flounder. To investigate the recovery rate, the standard solutions were added to muscle samples to give final concentrations in muscle of 10 and 50 ng/ml. The recovery rates of all spiked samples were > 89% of the spiked value. Ampicillin was detected in muscle of fishes treated until the 3rd day of withdrawal period. The present study showed that the SPFIA can be easily adopted in predicting tissue residues for ampicillin in farmed fishes.