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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 56, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 56, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Physiological understanding of host-microbial pathogen interactions in the gut
Lee, Sei-Jung ; Choi, Sang Ho ; Han, Ho Jae ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 57~66
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.57
The gut epithelial barrier, which is composed of the mucosal layer and the intestinal epithelium, has multiple defense mechanisms and interconnected regulatory mechanisms against enteric microbial pathogens. However, many bacterial pathogens have highly evolved infectious stratagems that manipulate mucin production, epithelial cell-cell junctions, cell death, and cell turnover to promote their replication and pathogenicity in the gut epithelial barrier. In this review, we focus on current knowledge about how bacterial pathogens regulate mucin levels to circumvent the epithelial mucus barrier and target cell-cell junctions to invade deeper tissues and increase their colonization. We also describe how bacterial pathogens manipulate various modes of epithelial cell death to facilitate bacterial dissemination and virulence effects. Finally, we discuss recent investigating how bacterial pathogens regulate epithelial cell turnover and intestinal stem cell populations to modulate intestinal epithelium homeostasis.
Water soluble tomato concentrate regulates platelet function via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway
Jeong, Dahye ; Irfan, Muhammad ; Saba, Evelyn ; Kim, Sung-Dae ; Kim, Seung-Hyung ; Rhee, Man Hee ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.67
Tomato extract has been shown to exert antiplatelet activity in vitro and to change platelet function ex vivo, but with limitations. In this study, antiplatelet activity of water soluble tomato concentrate (Fruitflow I) and dry water soluble tomato concentrate (Fruitflow II) was investigated using rat platelets. Aggregation was induced by collagen and adenosine diphosphate and granule-secretion,
, thromboxane B2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were examined. The activation of integrin
and phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/Akt, were investigated by flow cytometry and immunoblotting, respectively. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were examined. Moreover, in vivo thrombus weight was tested by an arteriovenous shunt model. Fruitflow I and Fruitflow II significantly inhibited agonist induced platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate and serotonin release,
, and thromboxane B2 concentration, while having no effect on cAMP and cGMP levels. Integrin
activation was also significantly decreased. Moreover, both concentrates reduced phosphorylation of MAPK pathway factors such as ERK, JNK, P38, and PI3K/Akt. In vivo thrombus formation was also inhibited. Taken together, these concentrates have the potential for ethnomedicinal applications to prevent cardiovascular ailments and can be used as functional foods.
Characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri BCLR-42 and Lactobacillus plantarum BCLP-51 as novel dog probiotics with innate immune enhancing properties
Kim, Eun Jin ; Kang, Yeong Im ; Bang, Tae Il ; Lee, Myoung Han ; Lee, Sang Won ; Choi, In Soo ; Song, Chang Seon ; Lee, Joong Bok ; Park, Seung Yong ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 75~84
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.75
Probiotics that are able to provide beneficial effects on animal health have become important ingredients of dog foods. This study was conducted to characterize the probiotic potentials of two strains, Lactobacillus reuteri BCLR-42 and Lactobacillus plantarum BCLP-51, that were derived from feces of healthy dogs and evaluated based on tolerance to low pH and bile acid, antimicrobial activities, enzyme profiles, sensitivity to antibiotics, and innate immune enhancing potentials. Both strains showed survival of more than 90% at pH 3 and 0.2% bile acid and exhibited broad antimicrobial activities against indicator bacteria. Moreover, both strains showed high sensitivity to antibiotics, except vancomycin, metronidazole, and gentamicin. The alkaline phosphatase was negligible (score 0), whereas they showed strong beta galactosidase activity (score range 5 or 3, respectively). The phagocytosis and oxidative burst activities of canine granulocytes were significantly enhanced in response to both strains. These results show that both strains have the capability to act as probiotics and the potential for application as ingredients in dog foods.
Is optimal cutting temperature compound essential embedding solution treatment to cryo-sectioning of brain tissue?
Baek, Hye Kyung ; Song, Ji Ae ; Yi, Sun Shin ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 85~89
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.85
We tested a set of conditions for obtaining optimal tissue quality in preparation for histology in samples of mouse brain. C57BL/6J mice were sacrificed and perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde, after which the brains were removed and dehydrated in 30% sucrose solution. The brains were then divided into four groups according to freezing temperature and usage of optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound. Next, we stained the sectioned brain tissues with Harris hematoxylin and eosin Y and immunohistochemistry was performed for doublecortin. The best quality tissue was obtained at
and by not embedding with the OCT compound. When frozen at
, the embedded tissue was significantly damaged by crystals, while at
there were no meaningful differences between qualities of embedded- and non-embedded tissues. Overall, we identified a set of conditions to obtain quality frozen brain sections. Our developed protocol will help resolve matters associated with damage caused to sectioned brain tissue by crystal formation during freezing.
Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli isolated from ducks in Korea
Kim, Hyobi ; Lee, Jiyoung ; Jang, Yangho ; Chang, Byungjoon ; Kim, Aeran ; Choe, Nonghoon ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 91~95
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.91
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia (E.) coli isolated from ducks in Korea. A total of 400 cecal content samples were collected from 40 duck farms in Korea. Isolated Salmonella spp. and E. coli strains were 83 and 364 of the 400 cecal samples, respectively. The most prevalent serotype among the 83 Salmonella isolates was Salmonella Typhimurium (51 isolates: 61.45%). Resistance to the tested antimicrobial agents by Salmonella isolates was low except for erythromycin, while the resistance of the E. coli isolates to the other tested antimicrobial agents was high and 90.9% (331/364) of E. coli isolates showed multi-antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance in duck zoonotic pathogens should be of concern to the Korean duck industry, as these pathogens exhibit a high rate of antimicrobial resistance and pose a potential hazard to public health.
Hair growth promoting effects of emodin in telogenic C57BL/6 mice
Yon, Jung-Min ; Park, Seul Gi ; Lin, Chunmei ; Gwon, Lee Wha ; Lee, Jong-Geol ; Baek, In-Jeoung ; Lee, Beom Jun ; Yun, Young Won ; Nam, Sang-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 97~101
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.97
Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative from the roots of Rheum officinale Baill that possesses a variety of biological activities, including inhibition of
-reductase and prostaglandin D2. In this study, we investigated whether emodin promotes hair growth. After emodin was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the hair growth rate and morphological analysis were evaluated in dorsal skin for 15 days. After 13 days of treatment, minoxidil or emodin (0.01% or 0.1%)-treated groups showed remarkable regrowth of hairs relative to the vehicle control group. Scoring of the hair growth and rate of hair growth area for 15 days revealed that groups treated with minoxidil and 0.1% emodin were significantly higher than the vehicle control group. Histological examination revealed the emodin and minoxidil groups markedly recovered the number and morphology of hair follicles, including the subcutis depth, relative to the vehicle group. These results suggest that emodin has an excellent promoting effect in hair growth similar to that of minoxidil and might be useful for treatment of baldness or alopecia.
Evaluation of antibacterial and therapeutic effects of egg-white lysozyme against Salmonella Typhimurium in ICR mice infected with Salmonella Typhimurium
Kim, Hee-Gyu ; Hwang, Jae-Seung ; Jae, Woo-Young ; Son, Song-Ee ; Lee, Hu-Jang ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 103~108
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.103
Salmonellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis that causes self-limited enteritis in animals and foodborne disease and typhoid fever in humans. Recently, multi-drug-resistant strains of Salmonella spp. have increased and caused more serious problems in public health. The present study investigated the antibacterial effects of egg-white lysozyme (EWL) against Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and the therapeutic effects of EWL for murine salmonellosis. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of EWL against S. Typhimurium revealed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EWL of 6.25 and
, respectively. In the bacterial growth inhibition test, EWL at 300 (p < 0.05) and
(p < 0.01) significantly inhibited the growth of S. Typhimurium at 4 h post-incubation. EWL administration at MIC (LYS-1), MBC (LYS-2) and
(LYS-3) for 14 days resulted in mortality of mice infected with S. Typhimurium of 70, 40 and 10%, respectively, while that of control mice (CON) was 90%. Counts of S. Typhimurium in murine spleens were significantly lower in LYS-2 and LYS-3 than CON (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that EWL has the potential for treatment of ICR mice infected with S. Typhimurium.
In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of field isolates of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis from Korea
Jang, Jisung ; Kim, Kiju ; Park, Soyeon ; Park, Bokyoung ; Um, Hyungmin ; Coulier, Marc ; Hahn, Tae-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 109~111
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.109
The present study was conducted to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities of local Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) filed isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Mhp and Mhr field isolates (twelve each) obtained from enzootic pneumonia-like lung lesions during 2009-2011 from Korea were determined using the broth microdilution method. Tylvalosin showed the highest activity against Mhp and Mhr field isolates, with
, respectively. Therefore, Korean Mhp and Mhr isolates are highly susceptible to tylvalosin.
Surgical treatment of spinal cord compression in client owned dogs with different grades of neurological dysfunction
Kuricova, Maria ; Ledecky, Valent ; Liptak, Tomas ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 113~116
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.113
Our retrospective study reports the clinical findings and population characteristics of 81 surgically treated dogs for spinal cord compression. We compared the outcome of dogs with different grades of neurological dysfunction due to spinal cord compression and focused on the long-term outcome of surgical treatment, for which there are only a few recent records. We recorded a 13.6% recurrence, regardless of the degree of dysfunction. However, the degree of dysfunction negatively affected the recovery length.
Appearance of osteoporosis in rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Ahn, Meejung ; Kang, Sohi ; Park, Channam ; Kim, Jeongtae ; Jung, Kyungsook ; Yang, Miyoung ; Kim, Sung-Ho ; Moon, Changjong ; Shin, Taekyun ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 117~120
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.117
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats is characterized by transient paralysis followed by recovery. To evaluate whether transient paralysis in EAE affects bone density, tibiae of EAE rats were morphologically investigated using micro-computed tomography and histology. The parameters of bone health were significantly reduced at the peak stage of EAE rats relative to those of controls (p < 0.05). The reduction of bone density was found to remain unchanged, even in the recovery stage. Collectively, the present data suggest that osteoporosis occurs in paralytic rats with monophasic EAE, possibly through the disuse of hindlimbs and/or autoimmune inflammation.
Acquired myasthenia gravis in a domestic shorthair cat with cranial mediastinal mass
Song, Doo-Won ; Kang, Min-Hee ; Park, Hee-Myung ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 121~123
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.121
A 7-year-old castrated male domestic short-hair cat presented with anorexia, constipation, depression, and voice alteration. Physical and neurological examinations revealed hyperthermia (
), ventroflexion of the neck, reduced responses to external stimuli, generalized muscle weakness, and exercise intolerance. Thoracic radiographs revealed the presence of a cranial mediastinal mass. The history, clinical signs, and other examination results were compatible with acquired myasthenia gravis (MG). Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody titers were determined to confirm MG and the serum AChR antibody concentration was 1.24 nmol/L (reference interval, < 0.3 nmol/L). This is the first diagnosis of acquired MG in a cat in Korea.
Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio harveyi from the look down fish (Selene vomer)
Jun, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Young-Ran ; Giri, Sib Sankar ; Kim, Hyoun-Joong ; Yun, Sae-Kil ; Chi, Cheng ; Kim, Sang-Guen ; Koh, Jeong-Rack ; Jung, Ji-Yun ; Lee, Byeong-Chun ; Park, Se-Chang ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 125~127
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.125
Gradual mortality of look down fish (Selene vomer) was observed in a private aquarium in Seoul, showing abnormal swimming behavior and lethargy. A bacterial pathogen from kidney was cultured, identified, and confirmed as Vibrio harveyi using Vitek System 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A predominant bacterial strain, SNUVh-LW2 was proved to be most closely related to isolates from China by phylogenetic analysis with minimum evolution method. Also, tetracycline was considered as the most sensitive antibiotic agent via antibiotic susceptibility test. The group of fish was treated according to the diagnostic result and no more mortality was observed.
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica infections in eastern great egrets (Ardea alba modesta)
Jeong, Hansol ; Shin, Geewook ; Yi, Seungwon ; Kim, Eunju ; Lee, Haebeom ; Yang, Myeon-Sik ; Lim, Chae-Woong ; Kim, Bumseok ;
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, volume 56, issue 2, 2016, Pages 129~131
DOI : 10.14405/kjvr.2016.56.2.129
Five eastern great egrets with a history of ataxia, wry neck, and wet feathers were submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Center for pathologic examination. Slightly enlarged livers with diffuse white-grayish nodules were observed. Microscopically, the hepatic and lung parenchyma contained granulomatous lesions consisting of central necrosis. Some hearts showed myofiber necrosis with infiltration of histiocytes and heterophils. Partial 16SrRNA and gyrB gene sequences of all isolates showed high similarities (99-100%) to those of Salmonella (S.) enterica subsp. enterica. Based on pathological and molecular biological results, S. enterica subsp. enterica systemic infections were diagnosed in eastern great egrets of Korea.