유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
Korean Society for Fluid machinery
 Annual
Domain
 Machinery ＞ Energy/Environment Machine System
2006.08

As the computing environment is rapidly improved, the interests of CFD are gradually focused on largescale computation over complex geometry. Keeping pace with the trend, essential computational tools to obtain solutions of complex aerospace flow analysis and design problems are examined. An accurate and efficient flow analysis and design codes for largescale aerospace problem are presented in this work. With regard to original numerical schemes for flow analysis, highfidelity flux schemes such as RoeM, AUSMPW+ and higher order interpolation schemes such as MLP (Multidimensional Limiting Process) are presented. Concerning the grid representation method, a generalpurpose basis code which can handle multiblock system and overset grid system simultaneously is constructed. In respect to design optimization, the importance of turbulent sensitivity is investigated. And design tools to predict highly turbulent flows and its sensitivity accurately by fully differentiating turbulent transport equations are presented. Especially, a new sensitivity analysis treatment and geometric representation method to resolve the basic flow characteristics are presented. Exploiting these tools, the capability of the proposed approach to handle complex aerospace simulation and design problems is tested by computing several flow analysis and design problems.

Wind tunnel testings to develope tiltrotor Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) were intensively performed. Small wind tunnel was used to find and evaluate design parameters and to fix general layout of configuration. The application of large tunnel with 40% scaled model is to collect performance and stability related aerodynamic data. During large scale model test wind tunnel is used as a tool to compare Flaperon types, to improve lift characteristics by using different height vortex generators and to alleviate nacelle separated flow effects on the wing.

In the field of launch vehicle development, aerodynamic design means an overall management about external appearances. At least, related to outer figures of the launch vehicle, aerodynamic design has the initiative activities. For that reason, in this report, aerodynamic design techniques and application methods will be introduced.

Usual LEO satellite for earth observation use a blowdown hydrazine monopropellant propulsion system for attitude hold and orbit maintenance. For precision control, thruster valve has very short closing time, but this can cause water hammering and pressure surge. Since water hammering and pressure surge can cause damage of propulsion system and ununiform thrust, Thruster valve closing is one of the special concern during satellite propulsion system design. In this paper, an analysis for propellant feed system is conducted using the method of characteristics. The results represent water hammer effect is negligible even at the worst case and pressure surge can be decreased effectively with a trim orifice.

should be in English, A make out an economical, reliable and easy to adoptable instrument in turbine discharge measurement was restricted from lots of it's foundational condition. Not with standing the brilliant progress in new technology of these day, useful instrument for flow measurement in turbine is still ongoing. Nowaday, the increasing importance of renewable energy makes it more important that the measuring turbine efficiency as a decision making index of old turbines' replacement. In Turbine performance diagnosis, Kwater(Korea Water Corporation) got an enough ability and decent reputation for who has invested lots of time and effort for buildup and development. In Korea as a public corporation who should take a crucial roll in Turbine business, Kwater has introduced some developed new technology for other domestic concerned one. With this writing, I'd like to introduce ASFM system as a newly developed instrument that can cope with lots restriction in discharge measurement in turbine. Kwater adopted the system in 2005, and performed 2 times of trial test. The test result was good enough to use the system as a reference test method.

The hydraulic performances of a Francis turbine which had been designed and tested by IMHEF were calculated with a commercial code and compared with the IMHEF test results. The nondimensional specific speed of the turbine is 0.5, the runner exit diameter 0.4m and maximum efficiency 93.1% respectively. To make the calculation of the turbine more exact, the stay vanes, the guide vane, the runner and the draft tube were calculated simultaneously. The calculation results gave a quite good agreement with the IMHEF test data, and therefore it is expected that the present calculation technique will be utilized for the hydraulic design of efficient Francis turbines.

The purpose of this study is to explain the importance of Vibration Monitoring Device by introducing an example of Predictive Maintenance System using Condition Monitoring System of Hydroturbine generator. Confirming vibration of generation equipment is commissioning procedure during equipment completion for checking guaranteed items. Data from Generator output range are used to determine output band to continue the performance of equipment. The Vibration Monitoring System is not absolute method of maintenance, but if it is used well with expert, it will be visible, dataanalyzed, scientific maintenance more than others. And also, Condition Monitoring System is very important for remote controlled small hydropower plant although most of it is installed in Large hydropower plant.

Recently the development of small hydropower generation with using water pipes is revitalized by the water works facilities. However, when the tubine generator is in case of emergency stop by the internal and external accidents, it causes water hammer in water pipes and suspension of water supply. To prevent these problems of small hydropower generator, we has analyzed water supply patterns, installation position and water pipe systems.

Many LNG ships will be constructed in Korea and the demand of safety valves is increasing. The most important performance of the developed safety relief valves for LNG ship is flow capacity. Flow capacity tests for 8 sizes of developed safety valves were conducted in the high pressure gas flow standard system in KRISS. The initial spring force adjustment was important for setting pressure of the safety valve. The procedure of data reduction and evaluation of the safety valve performance are suggested. This procedure was approved by French Bureau Veritas and Lloyd's Register.

This study aims at verifying characteristics of torsional fluctuating moment coefficient and power spectral density, which is needed to estimate torsional response of tall buildings. In order to estimate characteristics, the wind tunnel tests have been conducted on 52 types aeroelastic model of the rectangular prisms with various aspects ratios, side ratios and surface roughness in turbulent boundary layer flows. In this paper, characteristics of torsional fluctuating wind force are briefly discussed and then these results were mainly analyzed as a function of the aspects ratios and side ratios of buildings.

should be in This paper presents review on human comfort criteria in major codes and standards for tall buildings. In general, human comfort criteria of tall buildings have been used by magnitude of windinduced acceleration response. Two different indexes in determination of the magnitude have been used: the peak value which occurs during a period of time and the rms value averaged over this same period. These distinctive acceleration indexes are discussed in detail and each criterium was reviewed and compared. The distinctions arisen because of the different wave forms, or acceleration signatures were addressed. It is described that which index of acceleration should be adopted in establishment of Korean human comfort criteria. In addition, some arguments from a technical standpoint that favor the use of each index are presented.

Recently, when we conducted meteorological observations, complicated land or building around weather station has influenced on the wind distribution. So, we should understand the effect of geometry to get more accurate data. In this study, we analyze the ideal geometry whose shape is hemisphere using CFD method. And then we apply this method to real geometry. And we investigate the velocity at the location of weather station. As the results, we could find out an important relationship between geometry and flow field.

In this paper, the fairing effects on the aerodynamics stability of basic plategirder sections are investigated trough wind tunnel tests. As basis sections, two types of
$\pi$ type shape sections with aspect ratios(D/B) of 1/5 and 1/10 are employed as the basic sections. And three types of triangular fairings are applied such as rightangled triangle(F1), inverted rightangled triangle(F2) and regular triangle(F3). The effects of attack angle on the dynamic response of each section are also investigated. As the results of experiments, fairings F2 is most effective to suppress flutter phenomenon or vortex induced vibration among three types of fairings. 
Recently, the nextgeneration advanced flow visualization techniques such as holographic PIV, dynamic PIV, echoPIV, micro/nanoPIV, and Xray PIV have been introduced. These advanced measurement techniques have a big potential as the core technology for analyzing outmost thermofluid flows in future. These would be indispensable in solving complicated thermofluid flow problems not only in the industrial fields such as automotive, space, electronics, aero and hydrodynamics, steel, and information engineering, but also in the research fields of medical science, biomedical engineering, environmental and energy engineering etc. Especially, NT (Nano Technology) and BT (Bio Technology) strongly demand these advanced measurement techniques, because it is impossible for conventional measurement methods to observe most complicated nano and biofluidic phenomena. In this presentation, the basic principle of these hightech flow visualization techniques and their practical applications which cannot be resolved by conventional methods, such as blood flows in a microtube, in vivo analysis of microcirculation, and flow around a living body will be introduced as a blue ocean strategy.

A new class of heat transfer fluid with higher thermal conductivity, called nanofluids has been developed by Dr. S. Choi about decade ago. Many exciting experimental and theoretical results have been reported worldwide to predict the thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids, however, they sometimes show excessive large discrepancies between each other. This kind of disagreements in thermal conductivity data is partly ascribable to the accuracy of the measuring apparatus, that is, mostly used THM(transient hotwire method). New thermal conductivity measuring method whose principle is different from that of conventional THM is proposed in this article and measurements and uncertainty analysis were made for the three nanofluid samples with different particle concentration of pure, 2% and 4% of AlN nanofluids.

A turbine stage consists of a stator and rotor. A stator provides the required inlet flow conditions so that a rotor can produce the necessary power. Passing wakes generated at the trailing edge of a stator make an interaction with a rotor. In the present study, this interaction flow mechanism is investigated using the numerical analysis. In case of the large gap distance between the stator and rotor, the stator and rotor flow analysis can be separated. First, only the stator flow field is solved. Second, the rotor flow field is solved including the passing wake information from the stator analysis. The passing wake experiences the shearing as it approaches to the rotor leading edge. And it is chopped when it strikes the rotor body. After that, the chopped wakes becomes the prolongation as it goes downstream. Also, the aerodynamic characteristics with the variation of the gap distance between a stator and rotor was investigated. Pressure jumps due to the passing wakes result in the pressure and lift loss and it gets stronger with the closer gap distance. This unsteady effect proves to be directly related to the fatigue and noise in turbomachinery and this study would be helpful to investigate such fields.

A turboexpander is developed for the regeneration in the expansion process. The turboexpander operates in the partial admission and supersonic flow, and an axialtype single stage turbine is applied to the turboexpander. Its outer diameter is 82mm and the operating gas is R134a. A 15kW reciprocating compressor is applied in this experiment and the turboexpander is installed in the expansion process instead of the commonly using expansion valve. Two supersonic nozzles are applied for the expansion process. The high speed of R 134a after passing the supersonic nozzles gives the impulse force to the turboexpander and some powers are generated on this process. A generator is installed at the end of the turboexpander shaft. The generating output power from the turboexpander is controlled by the power controller. Pressures and temperatures are measured on the lines for the performance investigation. More than 600W/(kg/sec) are generated in this experiment.

Threedimensional flow and aerodynamic loss in the tipleakage flow region of a highturning firststage turbine rotor blade with a squealer tip have been measured with a straight miniature fivehole probe for the tip gaptochord ratio, h/e, of 2,0%. This squealer tip has a indenttochord ratio,
$h_{st}/c$ , of 5.5%. The results are compared with those for a plane tip ($h_{st}/c\;=\;0.0%$ ). The squealer tip tends to reduce the mass flow through the tip gap and to suppress the development of the tipleakage vortex. Therefore, it delivers lower aerodynamic loss in the neartip region than the plane tip does. At the midspan, however, the aerodynamic loss has nearly the same value for the two different tips. 
Due to the distinct advantages of comfort, drive ability and fuel economy standard, the variable displacement swash plate type compressor which can control the compressor displacement by increasing of reducing the swash plate angle has developed for automotive airconditioning system. That can be obtained constant temperature of car room on the variation cooling capacities of engine speeds. In this paper we investigated the improvement of internally controlled variable displacement swash plate compressor on noise.

When two particles close to each other are in electrophoretic motion, each particle is under the influence of the nonuniform electric field generated by the other particle. Two particles may attract or repel each other due to the dielectric force depending on their positions in the nonuniform electric field. It is shown analytically that two adjusting rigid particles can form an aggregate due to the dielectric interaction. To verify the validity of the theoretical prediction, an experiment is carried out by using a microchannel. In the experiment, AC electric field is used to eliminate cumbersome electroosmotic flow. The experimental result shows that the particles form a chainlike structure, which is typically observed in electrorheological fluid, due to the dielectric interaction.

Electrowetting is prevailing for its various applicability on laponachip, and MEMS devices, such as a pump, lens, microactuator in the microTAS technology. In the usual electrowetting, an AC power is preferred to DC practically. The AC electric field delays the contact anglesaturation, decreases the hysterisis, and is more stable in the view point of dielectric strength. But researches for AC electric field on electrowetting have not been reported very much yet. The different effect of AC on the electrowetting system, especially the effect of a frequency needs to be understood more concretely. In this work, the usual system for electrowetting, water droplet on the dielectric coated electrode (EWOD) is analyzed. Experimental study on the response of contact angles on input frequencies is performed. The simple circuitmodel for EWOD system is considered to explain the experimental results. For more concrete understanding, the system is analyzed numerically, where simple ACconduction model is used. Wetting tensions are analyzed under various input frequency to excavate the experimental results for the responses of the system on input frequencies.

Digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry (HPTV) is developed by single highspeed camera and single continuous laser with long coherent length. This system can directly capture 4000 hologram fringe images for 1 second through a camera computer memory. The 3D particle location is made of the reconstruction by using a computer hologram algorithm. This system can successfully be applied to instantaneous 3D velocity measurement in the water flow inside a microtube. The average of 100 instantaneous velocity vectors is obtained by reconstruction and tracking with the time of evolution of recorded fringes images. In the near future, we will apply this technique to measure 3D flow information inside various micro structures.

Surface roughness is present in most of the microfluidic devices due to the microfabrication techniques. This paper presents lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) results for laminar flow in a microchannel with surface roughness. The surface roughness is modeled by an array of rectangular modules placed on top and bottom side of a parallelplate channel. In this study, LBGK D2Q9 code in lattice Boltzmann Method is used to simulate flow field for low Reynolds number in a microchannel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, roughness size and the results are presented in the form of the product of friction factor and Reynolds number. Finally, a significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected as the surface roughness is considered, while the effect of roughness on the microflow field depends on the surface roughness.

In the present study, effects of treestream turbulence and surface trip wire on the flow past a sphere at
$Re\;=\;0.4\;{\times}\;10^5\;{\sim}\;2.8\;{\times}\;10^5$ are investigated through wind tunnel experiments. Various types of grids are installed upstream of the sphere in order to change the treestream turbulence intensity. In the case of surface trip wire, 0.5mm and 2mm trip wires are attached from$20^{\circ}\;{\sim}\;90^{\circ}$ at$10^{\circ}$ interval along the streamwise direction. To investigate the flow around a sphere, drag measurement using a load cell, surfacepressure measurement, surface visualization using oilflow pattern and nearwall velocity measurement using an Itype hotwire probe are conducted. In the variation of freestream turbulence, the critical Reynolds number decreases and drag crisis occurs earlier with increasing turbulence intensity. With increasing Reynolds number, the laminar separation point moves downstream, but the reattachment point after laminar separation and the main separation point are fixed, resulting in constant drag coefficient at each freestream turbulence intensity. At the supercritical regime, as Reynolds number is further increased, the separation bubble is regressed but the reattachment and the main separation points are fixed. In the case of surface trip wire directly disturbing the boundary layer flow, the critical Reynolds number decreases further with trip wire located more downstream. However, the drag coefficient after drag crisis remains constant irrespective of the trip location. 
In this paper, we present a detailed mechanism of drag reduction by dimples and roughness on a sphere by measuring the streamwise velocity above the dimpled and roughened surfaces, respectively. Dimples cause local flow separation and trigger the shear layer instability along the separating shear layer, resulting in generation of large turbulence intensity. With this increased turbulence, the flow reattaches to the sphere surface with high momentum near the wall and overcomes strong adverse pressure gradient formed in the rear sphere surface. As a result, dimples delay main separation and reduce drag significantly. The present study suggests that generation of a separation bubble, i.e. a closedloop streamline consisting of separation and reattachment, on a body surface is an important flowcontrol strategy for drag reduction on a bluff body such as the sphere and cylinder. In the case of roughened sphere, the boundary layer flow is directly triggered by roughness and changes to a turbulent flow. Due to this change, the drag significantly decreases. As the Reynolds number further increases, transition to turbulence occurs earlier on the sphere surface. Because of faster growth of turbulent boundary layer by roughness, earlier transition thickens the boundary layer, resulting in earlier separation and drag increase with increasing Reynolds number

The possibility of skin friction reduction in laminar channel flow is investigated when the flow is subjected to stationary distributed surface blowing and suction. Blowing and suction provided at the channel walls is steady in time but varies as a sine function along the streamwise direction. The skin friction changes depending on the wavelength and amplitude of the actuation. Especially, the skin friction is reduced below that of fully developed laminar flow as the wavelength decreases and amplitude increases. The optimal wavelength of producing minimum skin friction is
$\pi/2{\delta}$ , where$\delta$ is the channel halfheight It is observed that the distributed blowing and suction induces strong negative Reynolds shear stress in the nearwall region at the end of the suction part. 
The objective of this study is to propose methods of controlling the wake behind a sphere for drag reduction using the suboptimal control theory and surrogate management framework, respectively. The Reynolds numbers considered is 300 at which the base flow is unsteady planar symmetric. Given the cost function defined as the square of the difference between the target pressure (potentialflow pressure) and real flow pressure on the sphere surface, the suboptimal control makes the flow steady axisymmetric and produces drag reduction. Based on the actuation profile from the suboptimal control, the optimal wavy actuation profile is obtained using the surrogate management framework and produces drag reduction.

This paper proposes a new computational aeroacoustics method for an axial fan analysis. The major aeroacoustic noise source of an outdoor airconditioner is the axial fan. It was revealed that the dominant noise source is the aerodynamic interactions between the rotating blade and stationary orifice. Many researches were focused on the fan only case. However, it does not fit to a real outdoor unit of airconditioner. Especially, the inlet part of the axial fan of real system case is complex and not uniform. So, in order to identify the dominant noise source of axial fan, full outdoor unit analysis is important. Transient CFD analysis of full system was performed by commercial CFD code  SC/Tetra. Dominant noise source of the system was calculated by commercial CFN code  FlowNoise. The results show that not only BPF peaks but also broadband noise are similar to the measured data.

Insect and birds in nature flap their wings to generate fluid dynamic forces that are required for the locomotion. Most of the previous published papers discussed mainly on the effect of flapping parameters such as flapping frequency and amplitude on the thrust at a fixed Reynolds number. However, it is not much known on the values of the flapping parameters that the flapping wing requires to generate the thrust at the low Reynolds number flow. In this paper, the onset of the thrust generation is investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method. The wake patterns and velocity profiles behind a flat plate in heaving oscillation are investigated for the heaving amplitude of 0.5C. The timeaveraged thrust coefficient value is investigated by changing the reduced frequency from 0.125 to 3.0 for three values of heaving amplitude (h/C=0.25, 0.325, 0.50). It is also found that the critical Strouhal number over which the flat plate starts to produce the thrust is around 0.1 and the thrust is an exponential function of the Strouhal number.

This paper was a study about noise reduction through flow stabilization in duct using experimental method and numerical analysis at the same time. To determine the fan's type three kinds of fans(axial fan, centrifugal fan, and axial fan with centrifugal type blades) was examined to investigate the suitability for inline duct. As a result, under the equal number of rotation 2000 RPM, performance of an axial fan with centrifugal type blades was the most superior by 55dBA at 4.3CMM among other fans. After this, analyzed the results of the numerical analysis to find out the optimum design of pitch angle such as
$0^{\circ}$ ,$10^{\circ}$ ,$15^{\circ}$ and$20^{\circ}$ . The intensity of turbulence was low when pitch angle was$15^{\circ}$ and air volume became peak by 5.08 CMM. It was observed that axis component of velocity increased gradually when pitch angle increased from$0^{\circ}$ to$20^{\circ}$ , and embodied noise reduction and improvement of air flow rate through flow stabilization. 
The lift and drag forces produced by a wing of a given crosssectional profile are dependent on the wing planform and the angle of attack. Aspect ratio is the ratio of the wing span to the average chord. For conventional fixed wing aircrafts, high aspect ratio wings produce a higher lift to drag ratio than low ones for flight at subsonic speeds. Therefore, high aspect ratio wings are used on aircraft intended for long endurance. However, birds and insects flap their wings to fly in the air and they can change their wing motions. Their wing motions are made up of translation and rotation. Therefore, we tested flapping motions with parameters which affect rotational motion such as the angle of attack and the wing beat frequency. The half elliptic shaped wings were designed with the variation of aspect ratio from 4 to 11. The flapping device was operated in the water to reduce the wing beat frequency according to Reynolds similarity. In this study, the aerodynamic forces, the timeaveraged force coefficients and the lift to drag ratio were measured at Reynolds number 15,000 to explore the aerodynamic characteristics with the variation of aspect ratio. The maximum lift coefficient was turned up at AR=8. The mean drag coefficients were almost same values at angle of attack from
$10^{\circ}$ to$40^{\circ}$ regardless of aspect ratio, and the mean drag coefficients above angle of attack$50^{\circ}$ were decreased according to the increase of aspect ratio. For flapping motion the maximum mean lift to drag ratio appeared at AR=8. 
Computational Study of a sphere subjected to free stream flow and simultaneously subjected to spinning motion is carried out. Three dimensional compressible NavierStokes equations are solved using fully implicit finite volume scheme. SST(Shear Stress Transport)
$k{\omega}$ turbulence model is used. Aerodynamic characteristics being affected are studied. Validation of the numerical process is done for the no spin condition. Variation of drag coefficient and shock wave strength with increase in spinning rate is reported. Changes in the wake region of the sphere with respect to spinning speed are also observed. 
The method of mass flow rate measurement using a critical nozzle is well established in the flow satisfying ideal gas law. However, in the case of measuring highpressure gas flow, the current method shows invalid discharge coefficient because the flow does not follow ideal gas law. Therefore an appropriate equation of state considering real gas effects should be applied into the method. The present computational study has been performed to give an understanding of the physics of a critical nozzle flow for highpressure hydrogen gas and find a way for the exact mass flow prediction. The twodimensional, axisymmetric, compressible NavierStokes equations are computed using a fully implicit finite volume method. The real gas effects are considered in the calculation of discharge coefficient as well as in the computation. The computational results are compared with the previous experimental data and predict well the measured mass flow rates. It has been found that the discharge coefficient for highpressure hydrogen gas can be corrected properly adopting the real gas effects.

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Transition Prediction of Flatplate and Cone Boundary Layers in Supersonic Region Using
$e^N$ MethodThis paper is about the code that realizes the$e^N$ Method for boundarylayer transition prediction. The$e^N$ Method based on the linear stability theory is applied to predicting boundarylayer transition frequently. This paper deals with the construction of code, stability analysis and the calculation of Nfactor. The results of transition prediction using the$e^N$ Method for flat plate/cone compressible boundarylayers are presented. 
The analysis of propellant feeding subsystem is performed using a commercial code SINDA/FLUINT, the comprehensive finitedifference, onedimensional, lumped parameter tool. With the code, cryogenic helium supply system, liquid oxygen supply system, helium injection cooling system are evaluated. The code gave satisfactory estimation scheme for propulsion system characterized by cryogenic temperature and high pressure, two phase flow. This paper focuses on presenting calculation scheme of propulsion subsystem using onedimensional code like SINDA/FLUINT.

Hybrid propulsion systems provide many advantages in terms of stable operation and safety. However, classical hybrid rocket motors have lower fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency compared to solid propellant rocket motor. Accordingly, the recent research efforts are focused on the improvement of engine efficiency and regression rate in the hybrid rocket engine. The present study has numerically investigated the combustion processes in the hybrid rocket engine. The turbulent combustion is represented by the flamelet model and Low Reynolds number
$k{\varepsilon}$ turbulent model is employed to reduce the uncertainties for convective heat transfer near solid fuel surface having strong blowing effect. Based on numerical results, the detailed discussions have been made for the effects of oxygen injection methods and oxygen injection flow rate on flame structure and regression rate in the vortex hybrid rocket engines 
We conducted the experiment to analyze characteristics of micronozzle using different cold gas under two different nozzle expansion ratios in low vacuum condition. We measured thrust and chamber pressure and mass flow rate under low vacuum condition, and then compared them with those in ambient pressure.

Most heater being used in vehicles has been used to a cabin heating by being supplied from a heat loss of the engine coolant for heat source efficiency. Recently, the heat loss is reduced by high efficiency in the engine. It becomes to require the combustion heater that directly bums the heater used in vehicles to provide heat source of the heater. The purpose of this study is to research a burner which will applicate combustion heater by the numerical analysis. There are the 5 different types of burners, which is designed by differently each design of the swirler. NDODECANE by used the burner fuel is performed by numerical analysis in every 5 burner. The burner's efficiency testing is evaluated on the basis of the Exhaust gas temperature.

This paper introduces the process of reducing the automobile wind noise by using acoustic holography. First, a microphone array scans a side or plane under an automible stepbystep. Second, a pressure on a source plane is calculated. Third process is to analyze how much individual sources contribute to interior noise. Fourth process is to control important noise sources determined by the contribution analysis. This paper deals with the entire process, theoretical and experimental problems.

In this study, the threshold wind speed that causes physical damage on Kiwi fruit plant was investigated through wind tunnel experiments. Total 30 samples of Kiwi fruit branches were tested. On average, the wind speeds for tearing leaves and breaking side branch from the main branch were about 20m/s and 21.7m/s, respectively. For the cases of broken branches, the average length and diameter of the branches were 587.5mm and 7.2mm, respectively. The discoloration and dehydration of Kiwi plant were also observed by photographing leaves and branches after 24 hour later of the wind damage. In addition, the shelter effect of porous wind fences which have been used at agricultural districts was examined with varying several parameters.

In this paper, the research background and objectives of the wind mapping project of the Korean Peninsula, which has been carrying out as a part of "Investigation of newrenewable energy resources and establishment of comprehensive management system" funded by Korea Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, are introduced together with the intermediate result of the project so far. The Korean wind map is to be established by numerical wind simulation based on terrain model MEDEM and landuse model MELUM with the spatial resolution of 10km.

The heat and smoke which generated by subway under fire is one of the most harmful factor in air tighten underground station. To prevent this, Trackway Exhaust System(TES) can be used. The heat released from the train running in the tunnel raises the temperature at the platform and the trackway, and thus proper ventilation system is required for comfortable underground environment. When the fire is occurred, TES is operated as smoke exhaust mode from normal ventilation mode. In the present study, the subway station which is one of the line number 9 in Seoul subway is modeled, and fired situation is simulated with several ventilation mode of ventilation system in trackway. For this simulation whole station is modeled. Non steady state 3D simulation which considered train under fire is entering to the station is performed. Temperature and smoke distribution in platform and trackway are compared. To represent heat by fire, heat flux was given to the fired carriage, also to describe smoke by fire, concentration of CO is represented. As the result of present study, temperature and smoke distribution is different as the method of ventilation in trackway and platform is changed. In over side of trackway, the fan must be operated as exhaust mode for efficient elimination of heat and smoke, and supply mode of fan operation in under side shows better distribution of heat and smoke. The ventilation system which is changed from ventilation mode to exhaust mode can be applied to control heat and smoke under fire.

A steam turbine is one of propulsion systems of a LNG carrier, which consists of high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbines. In order to obtain high power, each one has the form of a multistage turbine. Especially, the first stage of a HP turbine is Curtis stage and uses partial admission considering the turbine efficiency. The performance of a HP turbine can be predicted by a meanline analysis method, because the relatively large value of hubtip ratio makes the threedimensional losses small. In this study, a performance analysis method is developed for a multistage HP turbine using Chen's loss model developed for the transonic steam turbines. To consider the feature of partial admission, different partial admission models are reviewed, This analysis method can be used in partial load conditions as well as full load condition. The calculation results are also compared with the CFD results about some simple cases to check the accuracy of the program. Performance of two HP turbine models are calculated, and the calculation results are compared with the designed data. The comparison shows the qualitative performance analysis result.

Upon a turbopump's running, cavitation may occur at the inlet of the LOx pump by pressure drop and heat transfer along the LOx feeding line. Since the cavitation can cause serious damage to the pump or to stop running, the absence of the cavitation at the inlet of a turbopump should be confirmed before the using the turbopump. In the present study, the calculation of the volume fraction of LOx gas phase at the inlet of the pump are performed with different temperatures of LOx in the tank, pressure drops and heat transfers along the feeding line. This calculation method can be applied to define the limits of thermal and hydraulic characteristics during the design of a LOx feeding system.

This paper presents a numerical study on the overall performance and local flow characteristics of the sirocco fan. The effects of impeller and volute shape distribution on the performance of the sirocco fan were numerically studied using a commercial CFD code and a DOE (design of experiments) software. At present, our attention was focused on the relation of the results of DOE and the performance of the sirocco fan. As a main result of the optimization, the performance of the sirocco fan was successfully improved. Also, detailed effects of geometric parameter of impeller and volute in the sirocco fan were discussed.

Orbiter mechanism has been applied to vacuum pump design for small oxygen generator where low vacuum of about 200mmHg is required. Performance of the designed vacuum pump has been numerically investigated: calculated volumetric and adiabatic efficiencies were 69.7% and 83.9%, respectively for leakage clearance of
$10{\mu}m$ . Total efficiency of the orbiter vacuum pump was 77.5%. At the shaft speed of 1700 rpm suction displacement volume of 6.3cc provided discharge flow at the rate of 2.3 liter/min with power consumption of 10.1Watt. Torque variation of the orbiter pump was only about 20% of that of diaphragm pump. 
Exhaust system of steam turbines consists of an annular diffuser and a collector and connects the last stage turbine and the condenser. The system is used to transfer the turbine leaving kinetic energy to potential energy while guiding the flow from turbine exit plane to the downstream condenser. In the steam turbine exhaust system, distorted pressure profile is arisen by the nonaxisymmetric collector structure at the diffuser outlet, and this distorted pressure is propagated to the last stage LP turbine exit plane through the diffuser, then the last stage LP turbine experiences asymmetric back pressure. It is known that the pressure recovery performance of diffuser is strongly influenced by diffuser inflow condition. In this study, the effect of exhaust system due to the changing of inlet flow condition is observed by using CFD, and the interaction of last stage LP turbine and exhaust system is investigated by using actuator disk model as modeling of turbine blade row of exhaust hood inlet.

This article discusses about the droplet movement on the superhydrophobic surface by the electrowetting on dielectric and the effect of particles on the contact angle as well as the movement is investigated. The movement of droplet, driven by the principle of electrowetting on dielectric, and the effect of particles are experimentally verified according to the driving voltage and different particles concentrations (fluorescent, charged particles). To increase the contact angle, the superhydrophobic surface is fabricated and applied to the dielectric layer for the EWOD device. Then its performance is verified and discussed.

This paper presents a review of the important recent literature available in the area of microchannel flow analysis and mixing. The topics covered include the physics of flows in microchannels and integrated simulation of microchannel flows. Also the flow control models and electrokinetically driven microchannel flows are explained. A comparison of various mixing principles in microchannels are provided in sufficient detail.

For controlling microflows inside a LOC (labonachip) a syringe pump or an electronic device for EOF(electroosmotic flow) have been used in general. However, these devices are so large and heavy that they are burdensome in the development of a portable microTAS (total analysis system). In this study, a new flow control system employing pressure chambers, digital switches and speed controllers was developed. This system could effectively control the microscale flows inside a LOC without any mechanical actuators or electronic devices We also checked the feasibility of this new control system by applying it to a LOC of micromixer type. Performance tests show that the developed control system has very good performance. Because the flow rate in LOC is controlled easily by throttling the speed controller, the flows in complicate microchannels network can be also controlled precisely.

Effective mixing is an important problem in microfluidics for chemical and biomechanical applications. In this study, the influences of the Reynolds number and the oscillating frequency on mixing characteristics of microstirrer are studied in a microchannel with single stirrer. The influence of fluid inertial effects in an active mixer is first discussed. It is found that the stirring effects by stirrer oscillation are promptly attenuated at low Reynolds number, which makes greatly difficult the rapid mixing. As the inertial effects are increased, the chaotic advection is generated and then developed. The mixing phase is finally developed some mushroom shaped structure. And the mixing efficiency is also studied as a function of the oscillating frequency. We found that the mixing efficiency does not always increase with higher oscillating frequency of stirrer. Consequently, we found the functional relation between the optimal frequency of a stirrer and the Reynolds number.

As Decentralized Generation(DG) becomes more reliable and economically feasible, it is expected that a higher application of DG units would be interconnected to the existing grids. This new market penetration of DG technologies is linked to a large number of factors like technologies costs and performances, interconnection issues, safety, market regulations, environmental issues or grid connection constrains. Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has researched performance characteristics of the 60k W class 1) basic startup & shutdown operation analysis 2) interconnection test 3) MGT absorption chillerheater system in the local condition. Variations of heat recovery from exhaust gas has measured according to micro gas turbine output of 15, 30, 45, 60kW. From those results, the performance of the MGTabsorption chiller/heater system has been evaluated. The suggested strategy and experience for the evaluation of the distributed generation will be used for the introduction of other distributed generation technologies into the grid in the future.

The flow characteristics around a floating cylinder in a swirling flow field in a vertical pipe with a length of 600mm and an inner diameter of 100mm is investigated by the use of the StereoscopicPIV system. The measurement system consists of two cameras, a NdYag laser and a host computer. Optical sensors(LEDs) were used to detect the location of the floating cylinder and to activate the StereoscopicPIV system. A conditional sampling StereoscopicPIV system was developed in which the flow fields around the floating cylinder are measured at the events of the activations. It has been verified that the motion of the floating cylinder becomes stable when the azimuthal velocity component of the swirl flow is maintained at stable states.

Numerical solutions for spinup problem of a thermally stratified fluid in a cylinder with an insulating sidewall and timedependent rotation rate are presented. Detailed results are given for aspect ratio of O(1), fixed Ekman number
$10^{4}$ , Rossby number 0.05 and Prandtl number O(1). Angular velocity of a cylinder wall changes with following formula,$\Omega_f=\Omega_i+\Delta\Omega[1\exp(t/t_c)]$ . Here, this$t_c$ , value, which is very significant in present study, represents that how fast/slow the angular velocity of the cylinder wall reaches final angular velocity. The normalized azimuthal velocity and meridional flow plots for several tc value which cover ranges of the stratification parameter S(1 ~ 10) are presented. The role of viscousdiffusion and Coriolis term in present study is examined by diagnostic analysis of the azimuthal velocity equation. 
Numerical Analysis on Effects of Radius Ratio in a Concentric Annulus with a Rotating Inner CylinderThis paper represents the numerical analysis on effects of radius ratio in a concentric annulus with a rotating inner cylinder. The numerical model consisted of two cylinder which inner cylinder is rotating and outer cylinder is fix, and the axial direction is used the cyclic condition because of the length for axial direction is assumed infinite. The diameter of inner cylinder is assumed 86.8mm, the numerical parameters are angular velocity and radius ratio. Also, the whole walls of numerical model have noslip and the working fluid is used water at
$20^{\circ}C$ . The numerical analysis is assumed the transient state to observe the flow variations by time and the 3D cylindrical coordinate system. The calculation grid adopted a nonconstant grid for dense arrangement near the wall side of cylinder, the standard$k{\omega}$ high Reynolds number model to consider the effect of turbulence flow and wall, the fully implicit method for time term and the quick scheme for momentum equation. The numerical method is compared with the experimental results by Wereley and Lueptow, and the results are very good agreement. As the results, TVF isn't appeared when Re is small because of the initial flow instability is disappear by effect of the centrifugal force and viscosity. The vortex size is from 0.8 to 1.1 for TVF at various$\eta$ , and the traveling distance for wavy vortex have the critical traveling distance for each case. 
Air foil bearings have been attempted for application to industrial turbo machines, since they have several advantages over oil bearings in terms of endurance, simplicity, environmentfriendliness, efficiency, sound and vibration, and small turbo machines with air foil bearings are in the market as the result. Recently, researches on widening the application spectrum of air foil bearings are in progress worldwide. In this paper, a 300 HP class turbo blower using air foil bearings is introduced. The turbo blower has a high speed PMSM(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) driving a compressor, and air flow rate is designed to be
$180\;m^3/min$ at pressure ratio of 1.6. The maximum rotational speed is set to 17,000 RPM to maximize the total efficiency with the result that the weight of rotor assembly is 26kg, which is expected to be the largest turbo machine with air foil bearings ever developed in the world. 
A Numerical study of the cavitation within a centrifugal pump is carried out using CFD commercial code, FLUENT. The objective of this study is to predict the onset of cavitation within the pump blade and the degradation in the pressure rise due to the generation and transport of vapor. A pump designed for the study is a six bladed, onecircular arc impeller design suggested by A.J. Stepanoff et al. The Steadystate calculations are performed for a wide range of flow rate without the cavitation to investigate the pump performance. The design head and efficiency show a very good agreement with the numerical results at the design flow rate. After the validation with the numerical results, the pump performance and the onset of cavitation within the blade is predicted by changing NPSH at the design flow rate.

In this analytical study on the engine coolant flow of a heavyduty diesel engine with 4 valves and lineartype 8 liter 6 cylinders, the characteristics of pressure drop and engine cooling performance with the additional coolant passages between cylinder blocks have been investigated. Since the most part of pressure drop is caused by the coolant flow passages inside a cylinder head and cylinder blocks for this type of heavyduty diesel engines, the advantage of pressure drop is just 2.6% and the characteristics of heat transfer and the distribution of coolant velocities in the head part show little differences in case of additional coolant passages. Thus the coolant flow passages between cylinder blocks make little contribution on the cooling performance of heavyduty diesel engines

In sheet metal forming process using press and draw die some defect can be made because of the high pressure of air pocket between draw die and the product. The purpose of this study is to develop a program to decide an optimal combination of air vent hole size and number to prevent those defect on product. The air inside air pocket is considered as ideal gas and the compression and expansion is assumed as isentropic process. The mass flow is computed in two flow condition: unchocked and chocked condition. The present computation obtains required crosssectional area of air vent hole for not exceeding the user specified pressure such as the pressure for yielding strength of the product or the pressure for unchocked flow. To validate the program the present results are compared with the results of other researchers and commercial CFD code.

The conventional segregated finite element formulation produces a small and simple matrix at each step than in an integrated formulation. And the memory and cost requirements of computations are significantly reduced because the pressure equation for the mass conservation of the NavierStokes equations is constructed only once if the mesh is fixed. However, segregated finite element formulation solves Poisson equation of elliptic type so that it always needs a pressure boundary condition along a boundary even when physical information on pressure is not provided. On the other hand, the conventional integrated finite element formulation in which the governing equations are simultaneously treated has an advantage over a segregated formulation in the sense that it can give a more robust convergence behavior because all variables are implicitly combined. Further it needs a very small number of iterations to achieve convergence. However, the saddlepainttype matrix (SPTM) in the integrated formulation is assembled and preconditioned every time step, so that it needs a large memory and computing time. Therefore, we newly proposed the P2PI semisegregation formulation. In order to utilize the fact that the pressure equation is assembled and preconditioned only once in the segregated finite element formulation, a fixed symmetric SPTM has been obtained for the continuity constraint of the present semisegregation finite element formulation. The momentum equation in the semisegregation finite element formulation will be separated from the continuity equation so that the saddlepointtype matrix is assembled and preconditioned only once during the whole computation as long as the mesh does not change. For a comparison of the CPU time, accuracy and condition number between the two methods, they have been applied to the wellknown benchmark problem. It is shown that the newly proposed semisegregation finite element formulation performs better than the conventional integrated finite element formulation in terms of the computation time.

A set of solutions of the NavierStokes equation for the gas inside a spherical bubble with heat transfer through the bubble wall permits to predict correctly behavior of an ultrasonically driven bubble in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid. Calculation results of the minimum velocity of bubble wall and the peak temperature and pressure are in excellent agreement with the observed ones. Further the calculated bubble radiustime curve displays alternating pattern of bubble motion as observed in experiment.

In the present study, the air jet flow characteristics of the dryer in the automatic car wash machine were numerically predicted by commercial CFD code. The effects of the dryer shape and the nozzle width variations on the performance of the automatic car wash machine were discussed. To optimize the geometric parameters, the response surface method(RSM) with CFD was used. Predicted jet velocity distributions for the optimized geometry were compared with experimental data and the comparisons show generally good agreements. Also, the performance of the dryer was improved with the optimized results.

Various kinds of ships(Cargo ship, Passenger ship, Training ship, Special ship etc.) are operated to transport cargo or passengers at sea in the world. Most of the important auxiliary machinery which is installed are fluid machinery in those ships. A large percentage of fluid machinery is pumps which are classified turbo and nonturbo type. While much previous research has focused on pumps for shore use, very little is known about ship's pump. In order to develop an understanding of ship's pump, we introduce common pumps used in every ship and special pumps based on ship's type. This exploratory study lays the groundwork for further investigation of ship's pumps

Performances of multiple surrogate models are evaluated in a turbomachinery blade shape optimization. The basic models, i.e., Response Surface Approximation, Kriging and Radial Basis Neural Network models as well as weighted average models are tested for shape optimization. Global data based errors for each surrogates are used to calculate the weights. These weights are multiplied with the respective surrogates to get the final weighted average models. The design points are selected using three level fractional factorial Doptimal designs. The present approach can help address the multiobjective design on a rational basis with quantifiable costbenefit analysis.

The objective of this study is to determine the influence of freestream turbulent intensity on the threedimensional turbulent flow in a linear turbine cascade. The range of freestream turbulence intensity considered is 0.7~10%. This study was performed numerically. The results show that the mass averaged loss coefficient increased according to the increase of freestream turbulence intensity due to increased value of the mass averaged total pressure loss coefficient which was higher than the decreased value of the mass averaged secondary flow loss coefficient. The loss coefficient distribution was changed suddenly at a freestream turbulence intensity of 10% while the loss coefficient distribution was rarely changed at a lower freestream turbulence intensity of 5%.

Turbulent structure of a boundarylayer over a flat plate coated with micro riblet film(MRF) has been investigated experimentally. The turbulent structure was visualized using a dynamic particle image velocimetry (Dynamic PIV) system. We identified the vortex structures from 2D velocity field data by applying the complex eigenvalue definition. The velocity field images acquired by using the complex eigenvalue definition showed the whole 2D vortex structures clearly. In addition, the spatial distributions of smallscale vortices as well as largescale vortices were obtained with high accuracy. The difference of vortex structures between the MRF coated flat plate and the smooth flat plate was analysed in detail. With varying upstream flow speed, the characteristics of vortex structure over the MRF coated flate plate was compared with those over the smooth flat plate.

We are investigating the effect of particle on electrowetting, and this paper reports the experimental results obtained until now. The experiment was performed for different particle sizes, electrolyte concentration, and AC frequencies. The problem is quite complicated by various factors, such as the existence of surfactant in suspension and sedimentation of particles. We could not draw a concrete conclusion on the effect of particles, and it needs further investigations. We also report interesting phenomena observed during the experiment. It includes the droplet generation at the edge of a droplet, pseudobistability of electrowetting, flow generation inside a droplet, and the chain formation of particles inside a droplet.

In this study, we propose a new fast algorithm for calculating short range forces in molecular dynamics, This algorithm uses a new hierarchical tree data structure which has a high adaptiveness to the particle distribution. It can divide a parent cell into k daughter cells and the tree structure is independent of the coordinate system and particle distribution. We investigated the characteristics and the performance of the tree structure according to k. For parallel computation, we used orthogonal recursive bisection method for domain decomposition to distribute particles to each processor, and the numerical experiments were performed on a 32node Linux cluster. We compared the performance of the octtree and developed new algorithm according to the particle distributions, problem sizes and the number of processors. The comparison was performed sing treeindependent method and the results are independent of computing platform, parallelization, or programming language. It was found that the new algorithm can reduce computing cost for a large problem which has a short search range compared to the computational domain. But there are only small differences in wallclock time because the proposed algorithm requires much time to construct tree structure than the octtree and he performance gain is small compared to the time for single time step calculation.

Numerical study has been conducted in two dimensions about a NACA0012 airfoil with an oscillating microflap on the surface. We show that this microflap is effective in controlling the unsteady stall at high angles of attack. We solve the compressible NavierStokes equations for the Reynolds numbers with an extensible chimera grid fitted to the oscillatory microflap. For turbulent calculation, we adopt the SST
$k{\omega}$ model. We investigate the parametric effect of angle of attacks, Reynolds number, and the location where the microflap is installed. 
In this paper, the thermal lattice Boltzmann method(TLBM) proposed by Guo et al.(2002) is applied to analyze the forced convective flow and heat transfer of 2D micro channel. Nonequilibrium extrapolation boundary condition is adopted to simulate the velocity and temperature behavior at wall boundaries. Numerical results obtained by the present study give a good prediction of the micro fluidic characteristics with thermal effects.

In this study, we experimentally investigate the possibility of skinfriction drag reduction by series of transverse cavities in a turbulent boundary layer flow. The effects of cavity depth (d), cavity length (l) and cavity spacing (s) on the skin friction drag are examined in the range of
$Re_{\theta}\;=\;4030\;{\sim}\;7360$ ,$d/{\theta}_0\;=\;0.13\;{\sim}1.03$ , l/d = 1 ~ 4 and s/d = 5 ~ 20. We perform experiments for twenty different cavity geometries and directly measure total drag force using inhouse force measurement system. In most cases, the skin friction drag is increased. At several cases, however, small drag reduction is obtained. The variation of the skin ftiction drag is more sensitive to the cavity length than to the cavity depth or cavity spacing, and drag is reduced at$s/l\;{\geq}\;10$ and$l/{\theta}_0\;{\leq}\;0.26$ irrespective of the cavity depth. At$l/\bar{\theta}_0\;=\;0.13$ and s/l = 10, maximum 2% drag reduction is achieved. When the skin friction drag is reduced, there is little interaction between the flows inside and outside cavity, and the flow changed by the cavity is rapidly recovered at the following crest. A stable vortex is formed inside a cavity in the case of drag reduction. This vortex generates negative skin friction drag at the cavity bottom wall. Although there is form drag due to the cavity itself, total drag is reduced due to the negative skin friction drag. 
The turbulent flow around a sphere was investigated using two experimental techniques: smokewire flow visualization in wind tunnel at Re=5300, 11000 and PIV measurements in a circulating water channel. The smokewire visualization shows flow separation points near an azimuthal angle of
$90^{\circ}$ , recirculating flow, transition from laminar to turbulent shear layer, evolving vortex rollup and fully turbulent eddies in the sphere wake. The mean velocity field measured using a PIV technique in xy center plane demonstrates the detailed nearwake structure such as nearly symmetric recirculation region, two toroidal vortices, laminar separation, transition and turbulent eddies. The PIV measurements of turbulent wake in yz planes show that a recirculating vortex pair dominates the nearwake region. 
A new medical Xray PIV technique was developed using a conventional medical Xray tube. To acquire images of microscale particles, the Xray PIV system consists of an xray CCD camera with high spatial resolution, and a Xray tube with small a focal spot. A new Xray exposure control device was developed using a rotating disc shutter to make double pulses which are essential for PIV application. Synchronization methodology was also developed to apply the PIV technique to a conventional medical Xray tube. In order to check the performance and usefulness of the developed Xray PIV technique, it was applied to a glycerin flow in an opaque silicon tube. Tungsten particles which have high Xray absorption coefficient were used as tracer particles. Through this preliminary test, the spatial resolution was found to be higher than ultrafast MRI techniques, and the temporal resolution was higher than conventional Xray PIV techniques. By improving its performance further and developing more suitable tracers, this medical Xray PIV technique will have strong potential in the fields of medical imaging or nondestructive inspection as well as diagnosis of practical thermofluid flows.

Passenger safety is one of the most important considerations in the purchase of an automobile. A curtaintype air bag is increasingly adapted in deluxe cars for protecting passengers from the danger of side clash. Inflator housing is a main part of the curtaintype air bag system for supplying highpressure gases to pump up the air bagcurtain. Although the inflator housing is fundamental in designing a curtaintype air bag system, flow information on the inflator housing is very limited. In this study, we measured instantaneous velocity fields of a highspeed flow ejecting from the inflator housing using a dynamic PIV system. From the velocity field data measured at a high framerate, we evaluated the variation of the mass flow rate with time. From the instantaneous velocity fields of flow ejecting from the airbag inflator housing in the initial stage, we can see a flow pattern of broken shock wave front and its downward propagation. The flow ejecting from the inflator housing was found to have large velocity fluctuations and the maximum velocity was about 700m/s. The velocity of highspeed flow was decreased rapidly and the duration of highspeed flow over 400m/s was maintained only to 30ms. After 100ms, there was no perceptible flow.

풍력 발전기의 블레이드는 다른 회전기와는 달리 항상 지면의 경계층, 요에러에 의한 어긋난 유입류, 타워와의 간섭효과의 환경에서 운영된다. 따라서 정상운전상태에서도 이와 같은 환경에서 겪게 되는 공력하중의 해석이 블레이드의 설계에서 중요하게 요구된다. 본 연구에서는 이의 비정상 공력하중해석을 위하여 자유후류기법을 이용한 방법을 연구하였다. 특히, 타워와의 간섭해석을 위하여 FVE라 명명한 후류 모델을 개발하여 적용하였다.

The unsteady flow calculation around the proprotor of Smart UAV was conducted. Using the flight scenario of SUAV which composed of hover, transition, and airplane mode, the aerodynamic analysis of proprotor were performed for the variation of collective pitch, rpm, forward speed, and tilt angle. The unsteady compressible NavierStokes equations were used for the calculation and the dynamic overset grid technique was applied for the rotating proprotor. The aerodynamic performance of proprotor calculated in this way were validated by comparing with the performance data obtained from the blade element momentum method.

An analysis is made of flow and rocket motion during a supersonic separation stage of airlaunching rocket(ALR) from the mother plane. Threedimensional compressible NavierStokes equations is numerically solved to analyze the steady/unsteady flow field around the rocket which is being separated from the mother plane configuration(F4E Phantom). The simulation results clearly demonstrate the effect of shockexpansion wave interaction between the rocket and the mother plane. To predict the behavior of the ALR according to the change of the C.G., three cases of numerical analysis are performed. As a result, a designguideline of supersonic airlaunching rocket for the safe separation is proposed.

The ground effect on tiltrotor UAV is analyzed by simulating the hovering UAV for various altitudes. Ground effect increases pressure beneath the UAV body and generates additional lifting force. The ground effect diminishes at altitude 3m and hovering UAV generates constant lifting force above 3m.

In this study we perform Lagrangian stochastic model simulation for heavy particle. Reynolds(2002) construct simple LSM for heavy particle, which lack in detailed parameter study and statistics of turbulent flow within his paper. we investigate more simple but important turbulent statistics such as autocorrelation for velocity and acceleration, Lagrangian structure function and dispersion statistics parameterized by using DNS.

Particle suspension is frequently observed in many natural flows such as in the atmosphere and the ocean as well as in various engineering flows. Recently, airborne micro or nanoscale particles in atmosphere attract much attention from environmental society since small particle cause serious environmental problems in the industrialized areas. Also, the characteristics of such heavy particles' behavior is quite different from its fluid particles because the inertia force and buoyance force acting on the heavy particles are different than those acting on fluid particles. Therefore, our studies is to investigate the characteristics of the behavior of heavy particles considering the inertia effect with or without gravity effect, but do not consider modification of turbulence by the particles, that is oneway interaction. We carried out direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence with particles under the Stokes drag assumption for a spherical particle. These results can be used in the development of a stochastic model for predicting particle's behavior.

Helicity in isotropic turbulence was well known to have intermittent fashion in their statistics. But its exact explanation about the onset of intermittency of helicity in turbulence did not give clearly yet. Most probable causes comes from the vortical motion of the fluids. Distribution of the angle between fluid velocity and vorticity have alignment tendency. This may be a clue to investigate intermittency of helicity. In this study, we aim to review and establish approaches to reveal the mechanism and the origin of intermittency of helicity in the isotropic turbulence. To do those work, we look for some quantities like helicity, enstrophy, acceleration and its flatness. And also correlations among them are sought.

The effects of surface roughness on a spatiallydeveloping turbulent boundary layer (TBL) were investigated by performing direct numerical simulations of TBLs over rough and smooth walls. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness was varied in the range
$Re_{\theta}=300{\sim}1400$ . The roughness elements used were periodically arranged twodimensional spanwise rods, and the roughness height was$k=1.5{\theta}_{in}$ , which corresponds to$k/{\delta}=0.045{\sim}0.125$ . To avoid generating a rough wall inflow, which is prohibitively difficult, a step change from smooth to rough was placed$80{\theta}_{in}$ downstream from the inlet. The spatiallydeveloping characteristics of the roughwall TBL were examined. Along the streamwise direction, the friction velocity approached a constant value and a selfpreserving form of the turbulent stress was obtained. Introduction of the roughness elements affected the turbulent stress not only in the roughness sublayer but also in the outer layer. Despite the roughnessinduced increase of the turbulent stress in the outer layer, the roughness had only a relatively small effect on the anisotropic Reynolds stress tensor in the outer layer. Inspection of the triple products of the velocity fluctuations revealed that introducing the roughness elements onto the smooth wall had a marked effect on vertical turbulent transport across the whole TBL. By contrast, good surface similarity in the outer layer was obtained for the thirdorder moments of the velocity fluctuations. 
This paper describes the results of cold flow test and hot firing tests of an unielement coaxial swirl injector and hot firing tests of a subscale combustor, as to the development effort of coaxial swirl injector for high performance liquid rocket engine combustor. A major design parameter for coaxial swirl injector is the recess number of a biswirl injector. The results of hot firing tests of the unielement injector combustor and the subscale combustor are analyzed to investigate the effect of the recess number influencing on the combustion performance and pressure fluctuation. The test results of a cold flow test of the unielement combustor shows that it was shown that the change in recess number has significant effect on mixing characteristics and efficiency, while the effect of recess number on atomization characteristic is not The results of a series of firing tests using unielement and subscale combustor show that the recess length significantly affects the hydraulic characteristics, the combustion efficiency, and the dynamics of the liquid oxygen/kerosene biswirl injector. As a point of combustion performance, combustion efficiencies are 90% for unielement combustor and 95% for subscale combustor. The difference in the characteristic velocities between the unielement combustor and the subscale combustor may be caused by the difference in thermal loss to the combustor wall and the relative lengths of the combustion chamber. For a mixed type coaxial swirl combustor, the pressure drop across the injector increases as recess number becomes larger. The low frequency pressure fluctuation observed in unielement combustor can be related to the propellant mixing characteristics of the coaxial biswirl injector. The effect of the recess number on the pressure fluctuation inside the combustion chamber is more significant in un ielement combustor than the subscale combustor, of which the phenomena are also observed in time domain and frequency domain.

This study has numerically modelled the combustion processes of the turbulent swirling premixed lifted flames in the lowswirl burner (LSB). In these turbulent swirling premixed flames, the four tangentially injected air jets induce the turbulent swirling flow which plays the crucial role to stabilize the turbulent lifted flame. In the present approach, the turbulencechemistry interaction is represented by the levelset based flame let model. Twodimensional and threedimensional computations are made for the various swirl numbers and nozzle length. In terms of the centerline velocity profiles and flame liftoff heights, numerical results are compared with experimental data The threedimensional approach yields the much better conformity with agreements with measurements without any analytic assumptions on the inlet swirl profiles, compared to the twodimensional approach. Numerical clearly results indicate that the present levelset based flamelet approach has realistically simulated the structure and stabilization mechanism of the turbulent swirling stoichiometric and leanpremixed lifted flames in the lowswirl burner.

In this study, the characteristic of a vane pump of an automative power steering system is numerically analyzed. The vane pump changes the energy level of operation fluid by converting mechanical input power to hydraulic output. To simulate this mechanism, moving mesh technique is adopted. As a result, the flow rate and pressure are obtained by numerical analysis. The flow rate agrees well with the experimental data. Moreover, the variation and oscillation of the pressure around the rotating vane are confirmed. The difference of pressure appears in the vane tip as a result of the flow characteristics. Furthermore, the back flow into the rotor was observed.

An experimental investigation is carried out to study 2phase vertically upward hydraulic transport of solid particles by water and nonNewtonian fluids in a slim hole concentric annulus with rotation of the inner cylinder. Rheology of particulate suspensions in viscoelastic fluids is of importance in many applications such as particle removal from surfaces, transport of proppants in fractured reservoir and cleaning of drilling holes, etc. In this study a clear acrylic pipe was used in order to observe the movement of solid particles. Annular fluid velocities varied from 0.2 m/s to 3.0 m/s. Pressure drops and average flow rate and particle rising velocity are measured. For both water and 0.2% CMC solutions, the higher the concentration of the solid particles is, the larger the pressure gradients become.

The Mixer is apparatus that help precipitation or an inhomogeneous distribution of various phases to be mixed and that user makes necessary material mixing one or the other. Mainly the mixer which is used from chemical and food industry is very important system in engineering that mixes the material. The inside flow of the mixer under the actual states which put a basis in flow of the fluid is formed rotation of the impeller. The inside flow of impeller will be caused by various reasons change with shape of impeller, number of rotation, mixing material and flow pattern of free surface etc. Also mixer study depended in singlephase flow and experimental research. So the numerical analysis of flow mixing solidfluid particle is simulated. It is become known, that the case where agitator inside working fluid includes the solid particle the sinkage reverse which the solid particle has decreases an agitation efficiency. From the research which it sees the hazard solid which examines the effect where the change of the sinkage territory which it follows agitation number of revolution and diameter of the particle goes mad to an agitator inside flow distribution  numerical analysis the inside flow distribution of liquid state with Eulerian TwoPhase Method.

In electrical impedance tomography (EIT) an array of electrodes is attached on the boundary of an object and small alternating currents are injected through these electrodes, and then the resulting voltages are measured. An estimation for the crosssectional resistivity distribution in the object is obtained by using these current and voltage data in a nondestructive manner. In this paper, the electrical impedance imaging of twophase flows undergoing rapid transient is considered with a special emphasis on the effect of the current pattern on the image reconstruction. The trigonometric current pattern, which is commonly used in the conventional static electrical impedance imaging, shows poor performance in case of the dynamic imaging considered in this work. Extensive numerical experiments are conducted with various kinds of current patterns and their effects on the image reconstruction performance are examined.

A Study on the Manufacturing Technology for the Development of Heat Pipes with a Sintered Metal WickChoi, JeeHoon;Kim, SungDae;Sung, ByungHo;Roo, SeongRyou;Park, HyungKi;Kim, ChulJu;Ko, HanSeo 479
The most the electronic industry has recently accelerated the modularization, the miniaturization and the high integrated trend of electronics fields such as electronics components, appliances and etc., the most increasingly the heat generation problem rises. Even though the conventional cooling technologies are widely used in order to reduce the heat loads, the technologies are not easy to meet the present trends due to the fact that most of many conventional methods are relative to external form environments such as size, design and so on. With regardless of those environments, however, a heat pipe is one of the most efficient systems to improve the heat transfer performance. And then the performance of the heat pipe depends on a wick structure. Of various wick structures, sintered metal wick is known so that it has some advantages such as smaller pore size, increasing porosity as well as high reliability. In this study sintered metal wicks, thickness 0.7 mm, 0.8 mm and 0.9 mm, were manufactured as of$100{\mu}m$ copper powder to obtain the manufacturing technology of heat pipes mounted with a sintered metal wick. Furthermore, experiments for the operational performance factors such as capillary limit, thermal resistance were not only performed but also compared with a theoretical model simultaneously. Experimental results agreed with the theoretical model, and then it seems to be required to study various development processes of sintered metal wicks for the high performance of a heat pipe system. 
Choi, JeeHoon;Ryoo, SeongRyoul;Sung, ByungHo;Lee, JungHwan;Kim, JongMan;Chun, JiHwan;Suh, MyungWon;Kim, ChulJu 483
The fan is widely used to cool high heat flux generated as of the electronic communication device consoles. It, however, makes a lot of noises that interfere considerably with the operation environment. This study was conducted to obtain the cooling design technology of the consoles through being equipped with the Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers (HPHE) together with low revolution fans in place of existing fans for the cooling technology of the forced convection. Not only the sealed type consoles but the HPHE were also designed so as to cool effectively the heat generated from the inside of the console. The simulation was conducted by computational numerical analysis along with its experiments. The results of the numerical analysis and experiments were compared in order to improve the cooling technology of the consoles mounted with the HPHE. Consequently, instead of loud fan noise generated as of existing forced convection methods, the cooling technology of HPHE can remarkably improve many problems such as the operation environment, indoor dust, malfunction caused by pollution sources and so on. 
In these days, demand of a LCD monitor is remarkably increasing with development of the LCD technology. However, there are thermal problems for improvement of efficiency for the LCD monitor. Thus, this research analyzed thermal problems such as convection and conduction heat transfer characteristics in the LCD monitor using an infrared (IR) camera. Also, the results of the outer side of the front LCD panel using the IR camera have been compared with the results of the inner side of the front panel using Ttype thermocouples. The equations have been derived for the temperature distribution of the inner side of the front LCD panel by a multiple regression method including variables for ambient temperature, humidity and temperature differences between the front and back panels of the LCD monitor.

The present work was performed to investigate the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of flow inside the plain and turbulator flat tubes for the automobile application. The pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient at laminar, transition and turbulent regimes were studied experimentally and numerically. The flow transition was confirmed by flow visualization and quantitative data. It is proposed equations for the friction and heat transfer coefficient in the fully developed laminar flow inside rectangular tube as function of aspect ratio.

Rarefied gas flows through twodimensional micro channels are studied numerically for the performance optimization of a nanomembranebased Knudsen compressor. The effects of the wall temperature distributions on the thermal transpiration flow patterns are examined. The flow has a pumping effect, and the mass flow rates through the channel are calculated. The results show that a steady oneway flow is induced for a wide range of the Knudsen number. The DSMC(direct simulation Monte Carlo) method with VHS(variable hard sphere) model and NTC(no time counter) techniques has been applied in this work to obtain numerical solutions.

An theoretical analysis on the electroosmotic flow in a 2dimensional slit, that is induced by an external electric field acting on the electrical double layers near the slit wall, was performed. Especially, although there were many studies on the interacting electrical double layers, it was found in this study that they have several physical or mathematical fallacies. To resolve these, the general solution on the chargeregulating slit with the height as a parameter was obtained. The results of this work can provide the electrokinetic solution of nanoscale slit with the electrical double layer interaction as well as that of microscale slit without the interaction and can be used as the benchmark of a numerical analysis and the reference of electrokinetic flow path design.

The estimation of the work of heart can be treated as one of the most important parameters for determining the amount of circulating blood needed for harmonious metabolism in the human body. By monitoring the work of heart, one can detect increased work load of heart and start the treatment at the early stage of CHF. Thus it is necessary to estimate the work of heart. The contractility of the left ventricle, the second important parameter for representing the motion of heart, can be estimated through information on the work of heart. In this study, the modified Windkessel model, which has been used for a measure of vascular hemodynamic impedance parameters, was adapted to estimate the work of heart.

An electrostatic ink jet head can be used for manufacturing processes of large display systems and printed circuit boards (PCB) as well as inkjet printers because an electrostatic field provides an external force which can be manipulated to control sizes of droplets. The existing printing methods such as thermal bubble and piezo inkjet heads have shown difficulties to control the ejection of the droplets for printing applications. Thus, the new inkjet head using the electrostatic force has been proposed in this study. In order to prove the theory of the developed electrostatic ink jet head, the applicable and basic theory has been studied using distilled water and water with sodium dodecyl surfate (SDS). Also, a numerical analysis has been performed to calculate the intensity of the electrostatic field using the Maxwell's equation. Furthermore, experiments have been carried out using a downward glass capillary with outside diameter of
$500{\mu}m$ . The gravity, surface tension, and electrostatic force have been analyzed with high voltages of 0 to 5kV. It has been observed that the droplet size decreases and the frequency of the droplet formation and the velocity of the droplet ejection increase with increasing the intensity of the electrostatic field. The results of the experiments have shown good agreement with those of numerical analysis. 
The propellant mixture ratio of gas generator changes when thrust control valve operate to change LRE thrust level. The mixture ratio change of gas generator result in gas temperature change and failure of turbine blade or deterioration of LRE specific impulse. The mixture ratio stabilizer has been developed to maintain propellant mixture ratio of gas generator. This article deals with design and static/dynamic characteristic of stabilizer. Also gas generator system simulation test has shown that the stabilizer can maintain propellant mixture ratio effectively within tolerable range.

A CFD analysis for a thermal mixing experiment during steam jet discharge was performed to develop the analysis methodology for the thermal mixing between steam and subcooled water and to find the optimized numerical method. In the CFD analysis, the steam condensation phenomena by a direct contact was modelled by the socalled condensation region model. The comparison of the CFD results with the test data showed a good agreement as a whole, but a small temperature difference was locally found at some locations. However, the commercial CFD code of CFX4.4 together with the condensation region model can simulate the thermal mixing behaviour reasonably well when a sufficient number of mesh distribution and a proper numerical method are adopted

Internal and inlet flows of a crossflow fan have been visualized using a particle image velocimetry(PIV) to analyze a relationship with a performance of a room air conditioner(RAC). A test model which has a geometric similarity with the real RAC has been manufactured for the experiment and the flow characteristics have been analyzed with various flow rates and inlet grill angles for the crossflow fan. The experimental results using the PIV technique have been compared with the existing numerical results. Also, a location and movement of an eccentric vortex which can affect the performance and noise of the RAC has been investigated by the PIV with various flow rates and inlet grill angles.

Transient and asymmetric density distributions have been investigated by threedimensional digital speckle tomography with a novel integration method. Multiple CCD images captured movements of speckles in three angles of view simultaneously because the flows were asymmetric and unsteady. The speckle movements which have been formed by a ground glass between no flow and downward butane flow from a circular half opening have been calculated by a crosscorrelation tracking method so that those distances can be transferred to deflection angles of laser rays for density gradients. A novel integration method has been developed to obtain projection data from the deflection angles for the speckle tomography.'The threedimensional density fields have been reconstructed from the accurate projection values by a realtime multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) with the developed integration method.

Experimental and computational studies on an turbopump inducer with and without a bearing strut were performed to evaluate the effects of a strut on the performance of an inducer. Global performance data such as head rise and efficiency, and detailed flow characteristics such as surface static pressures were measured and compared with computational results. Generally a good agreement is observed between experimental and computational results, but some discrepancies are observed due to complex flow features such as backflows at the inlet and strut/inducer interactions. For the flow rates where the backflow region is large, installing a strut enhanced the hydraulic performance of the inducer by diminishing the size of the backflows. The results also show that the strut has negligible effect on the suction performance of the inducer.

A series of hydraulic and cavitation tests are performed in water environment in order to verify the hydraulic and cavitation performance of three types of LOX pumps. All the performances of the pumps are found to be satisfied with each design requirement. In the hydraulic tests, the head and efficiency are increased as the gap between floating ring seals and the impeller shoulder is decreased. In the cavitation tests, some pumps show decrease in the cavitation performance as the flowrate of the pump is decreased.

In the present work, characteristics of the flow in the cage of a steam turbine bypass control valve for thermal power plant are investigated. Experimental measurement for wall static pressure has been carried out to validate numerical solutions. And, the flowfield is analyzed by solving steady threedimensional Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes equations. Shear stress transport (SST) model is used as turbulence closure. The effects of the flow area between stages of the cage on the pressure drop are also found.

250kw급 MFFC용 연료전지 발전시스템에 적용 가능한 BOP 중에서 터보제너레이터 사이클을 구성하는 구심터빈의 공력설계에 관한 연구를 수행하였다. 기본적인 치수는 평균반경에서의 해석 뿐만 아니라 구심터빈에서 반경 반향으로 변화가 크게 발생하므로 출구측에서 반경반향의 변화를 고려하여 결정하였다. 기본공력설계 과정에서 결정된 구심터빈 임펠러의 자오면 기본형상과 입출구 날개각 등의 기본설계 자료를 바탕으로 임펠러의 기하학적 3차원 형상을 결정하였다. 구심터빈 임펠러의 3차원 블레이드 형상이 결정되면 일련의 CFD를 통한 원심펌프 임펠러 내부의 유동현상을 고찰함으로써 기하학적 형상의 타당성을 검토하는 반복 설계 과정을 수행하였다. 또한, 여러 회전수에 대하여 정익에서와 동익에서의 유량이 일치할 수 있도록 동익 출구의 압력을 조절하여 작동유체의 각 위치에서의 값들을 구하고 각각의 위치에 따라 적절한 손실모델을 적용하여 탈설계점에서의 성능곡선을 구하였다. CFD 해석결과, MCFC 발전시스템에 마이크로 터보제너레이터를 적용시킬 경우에 폐열을 이용하여 16kW 정도의 전력을 추가로 생산할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다.

The Objective of this study is to document the threedimensional flow in a turbine cascade with Contoured endwall in terms of Stanton number distribution to proposes an appropriate contraction ratio of endwall contouring which show the best performance. This study was numerically performed. The results show that heat transfer coefficient on the contoured endwall which has the height of 15% of the axial chord showed best performance. The numerical method and results in this study can be applied to the design of gas turbine cascade with high performance.

A volute (or scroll) of a centrifugal compressor collects the flows from impeller or diffuser, and passes it to a pipe at the exit. This flow still contains some kinetic energy which is not converted into pressure at diffuser, thus volute designer must concern the way to minimize losses. This study defines some variables which determine the shape of volute, and carry out computational analysis based on Design of Experiment to optimize the performance of volute.

Shape optimization of a transonic axial compressor rotor operating at the design flow condition has been performed using threedimensional NavierStokes analysis and three different surrogate models: i.e.., Response Surface Method(RSM), Kriging Method, and Radial Basis Function(RBF). Three design variables of blade sweep, lean and skew are introduced to optimize the threedimensional stacking line of the rotor blade. The object function of the shape optimization is selected as an adiabatic efficiency. Throughout the shape optimization of the rotor blade, the adiabatic efficiency is increased for the three different surrogate models. Detailed flow characteristics at the optimal blade shape obtained by different optimization method are drawn and discussed.

A problem of oil supply for a reciprocating compressor is very significant for an evaluation of reliability. Since a rotational motion of a crank shaft for the reciprocating compressor with small capacity is used for a power source of oil supply, a centrifugal force of the rotational shaft provides a stroke of oil inside the shaft like a centrifugal pump. The pumped oil rises following an inner wall and provided to a bearing passed through an oil supply hole at the side of the shaft for lubrication of the bearing. In this study, the amount of oil supply has been investigated by a numerical analysis for various conditions such as a shape of a groove, rpm of the compressor, and a shape of a flow channel. Also, a method of increasing oil supply for a low rpm has been studied so that the function can be improved for a variable condition.

An analysis method is developed for the prediction of venting in multiple compartments which are connected in series or parallel through multiple ports. The existing method by the authors is modified to remove the limitation in number of ports and compartments, and the more general polytropic relation or solution of the additional energy equation replaces the previous isentropic relation allowing the prediction of pressure rise in addition to pressure drop. The accuracy of the method is verified by comparison with the results by NASA Flap code for the problem of pressure drop in a payload in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. It is expected that this method will be a useful tool in prediction of the pressure variation in a payload or payload capsule without mentioning the payload fairing itself.

Inhibition of propellant temperature rising in liquid propulsion rocket using cryogenic fluid as a propellant is very important. Especially propellant temperature rising during standby after filling and prepressurization can bring into cavitation in turbopump. One of the method preventing propellant temperature rising in cryogenic feeding system is recirculating propellant through the loop composed of propellant tank, feed pipe, and recirculation pipe. The circulation of propellant is promoted through gaslift effect by gas injection to lower position of recirculation pipe. In this experiment liquid oxygen and gas helium is used as propellant and injection gas. Under atmospheric and pressurized tank ullage condition, helium injection flowrate is varied to observe the variation of recirculating flowrate and propellant temperature in the feed pipe. There is appropriate helium injection flowrate for gaslift recirculation system.

An experimental performance test has been carried out to improve a new blade with higher performance. Most of blades of the fan are designed to be a seamless and simple type, and the flow momentum can generally be evaluated to be comparatively low. Because some portions of the blowing winds can easily be passed through the seamless sharp edge of the blade, and several results studied on these problems have been reported: on the simple blade with edgeline seam, on the simple blade with guide seam. However the results do not show the remarkable increasement of performance of the blades. In this experimental performance test of the blades the design techniques of the blades with double seams (stem seam and edge seam) and comparison tests have been focused. As a first step the comparisons of velocity distributions and flowrates depending upon the blade are presented in this paper.

The contact angle of a meniscus and a droplet can be controlled by using electrowetting phenomena. We investigated the dynamic aspect of electrowetting for an oilelectrolyte interface formed inside a closed glass tube. A step input voltage is applied and the subsequent motion of the interface is recorded by a highspeed camera. A kind of capillary instability is observed near the threephase contact line, which could degrade the reliability of device utilizing electrowetting such as electrowetting liquid lens. The dynamics of interface motion for different input voltages and the fluid viscosities are analyzed and discussed based on the experimental results.

Because of new requirements related to the employment of SMT(Surface Mounting Technology) manufacturing and the diversity of components on high density PCB(printed circuit boards), Thermal control of the reflow process is required in oder to achieve acceptable yields and reliability of SMT assemblies. Accurate control of the temperature distribution during the reflow process is one of the major requirements, especially in leadfree assembly. This study has been performed for reflow process using the commercial CFD tool(Fluent) for predicting flow and temperature distributions. There was flow recirculation region that had a weak point in the temperature uniformity. Porous plate was installed to prevent and minimize flow recirculation region for acquiring uniform temperature in oven. This paper provided design concept from CFD results of the steady state temperature distribution and flow field inside a reflow oven.

This paper achieved dynamic characteristics with test to use solenoid valve for flight model that have present. Designed pressure control virtual system which PWM solenoid valve to use test result. Examination compared solenoid valve dynamic characteristics in atmosphere and cryogenic fluid and presented technique and valuation method that measured upstream and down stream pressure of solenoid valve, as well as, temperature, excitation voltage etc. These test results could confirm solenoid valve response time and maximum using frequency characteristic at use in atmosphere and cryogenic temperature and this derived design variables pressure control system from those bases.

In present study, the influence of changing combustor pressure on flame stabilization and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emission in the swirl flame with secondary fuel injection was investigated. The combustor pressure was controlled by suction at combustor exit. Pressure index (
$P^*=Pabs/Patm$ ), where Pabs and Patm indicated the absolute pressure and atmosphere pressure, was controlled in the range of 0.7~1.15 for each equivalence ratio conditions. It could be observed that flame stable region became narrower with decreasing equivalence ratio and pressure index. In this combustion system, stable flames were formed until$P^*=\;0.7$ . Emission index decreased with decreasing pressure index for overall equivalence ratio conditions and NOx reduction rates were almost identical for$P^* < 1$ regardless of equivalence ratio though EINOx values showed different level with change of equivalence ratio for$P^*{\geq}1$ . It is also observed that EINOx decreased with increasing secondary fuel injection ratio. Emission index of nitric oxide was controllable by adjusting the changing combustor pressure and injecting secondary fuel and this NOx reduction technology is applicable to industrial furnaces and air conditioning system. 
This research deals with the wave transmission and dissipation problems for two dimensional regular waves and s vertical circular cylindersr. Using the unsteady mild slope equation, a numerical model has been developed to calculate the reflection and transmission of regular waves from a multiplerow vertical circular cylinders. In addition hydraulic model experiments have been conducted with different values of properties between the cylinders and opening ratio (distances) between the rows of the cylinders. It is found that the transmission coefficients decrease with decreasing the opening ratio and increasing the rows of vertical cylinders. Comparison between hydralic and numerical experiments results shows resonable agreement.

In designing smokecontrol system of rescue station in train tunnel, a purpose is to prevent a disaster by proposing the jet fan operation together with smokecontrol curtain in tunnel fire. This study has investigated the relationship of the Heat Release Rate(HRR) and a adequate ventilation velocity to control the fire propagation in tunnel fire, and has improved the effect of the smokecontrol curtain on preventing the flow of pollutants. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) simulations with ST ARCD(ver 3.24) were carried out on predicting the fire spreading and the flow of pollutants, considering jet fan operations and effect of smokecontrol curtain. Our simulation domain is the full scale model of the 'DAEGWALLYEONG' 1st tunnel. The results represent that ventilation operation can control the fire spreading and pollutants effectively to prevent a disaster.