Despite the noteworthy increase in the number of FL anxiety studies, inconsistencies associated with the effects of FL anxiety on language learner performance have been reported in literature. Such conflicting results seem to be attributable in part to unstable conceptualization of the FL anxiety construct and its measure. This paper purported to address the emerging call for a theoretical clarification of the construct at hand as a preface to a clear picture of language anxiety on a conceptual ground. This paper not only covers aspects of general anxiety from psychological perspectives, but examines how FL anxiety and its associated concepts have been conceptualized in the literature. Inconsistent results that pertain to FL learning were also delineated. Given the drawbacks found in the exiting theories of FL anxiety, several points were taken into account for a refinement of the conceptual framework. This attempt will hopefully shed new light on the construct per se and prove conducive to the development of the field of English education.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of English vocabulary learning strategies such as definition-oriented/contextoriented/situated context-oriented vocabulary learning strategy according to the cognitive styles of learners and interaction effect on the achievement test score between the learners' cognitive style and vocabulary learning strategies. The results show that there is no significant difference in the achievement test scores between field-dependent learner group and field-independent learner group. And there is significant difference in the English vocabulary achievement test scores among three experimental treatment groups, definition-oriented, context-oriented, situated context-oriented vocabulary learning strategy groups. Finally, there is an interaction effect on the achievement test score between the learners' cognitive style and vocabulary learning strategies.
This paper has an aim to examine English native speakers' requests, and offer an instructional technique to develop EFL students' pragmatic ability. For this purpose, English-speaking native speakers' requests were collected in six different face-threatening situations, and analyzed in three ways: directness levels, internal modification and sequence of request. The analysis of requests showed that they were realized mainly through conventionally indirect level in most situations, were internally modified frequently through the use of downgraders, and had a certain sequence of utterances realizing a request. On the basis of these findings, two kinds of interactional activities (Jigsaw and pair work) were provided as sample activities to promote EFL students' pragmatic knowledge about the appropriate ways of making requests given the fact that pragmatic errors can be more serious and more problematic than grammatical errors in social interaction.
Eugene O'Neill portrays Puritan values of the Mannon family inherited from their family past. Since Puritan values of the Mannons suppress the normal way of life and love, they retain only rigidity, without the charity which is the core element of the teaching of Christianity. With Puritan repression and its dissociation from the vital spring of life, the Puritan Mannons live in a world drained of life and in a world of hypocrisy between outer beauty and inner ugliness. Ironically, they think more of death itself, neglecting to feel the vitality of life. Working as a fate, Puritan values of the Mannon as 'Force Behind' in O'Neill's own term are the cause of suffering and destruction of the Mannons throughout the whole play. The mask-like house and faces are effectively used as a dramatic technique to express the distorted Puritan values.
Production and perception of second language sounds are typically influenced by second language learners' native language sounds. In this study we investigate how the Korean language influences Korean speakers' production of English alphabets. In the experiment conducted to prepare for this study 16 native speakers of Korean pronounced English alphabets. Then three native speakers of English evaluated the Korean subjects' pronunciation of them. The results show that the Korean subjects' native language (i.e., Korean) influences their production of the English alphabets. When Korean has sounds corresponding to English alphabets, the English subjects rate the Korean subjects' production of them good. For instance, Korean has voiceless stop phonemes, hence their production of English alphabets
was rated good by the English subjects. The Korean subjects' production of English alphabets containing the sounds that do not exist in Korean was rated poor by the English subjects. For instance, Korean does not have voiced fricative phonemes, hence their production of English alphabets was rated poor.
The present study aims to examine how the roles of teacher and learners affect the repair patterns of both teacher's and learner's utterances in English as a second language (ESL) classroom discourse. The study analyzed beginning ESL classroom discourse and found that the structure of repair seems to be greatly influenced by the roles of participants in a second language classroom. The teacher's repair work was mainly characterized by self-repair. In contrast, learners' repair sequences were predominantly characterized by other-repair. More specifically, self-initiation by the learner of the trouble source was cooperatively completed by the teacher and the other learners. Other-initiated and other-completed repair was the most prevalent form in the current classroom data, which was carried out by the teacher in both modulated and unmodulated manners. When the trouble sources were mostly concerned with the learners' problems with linguistic competence and information presented in the textbook, other-repair took place in a modulated manner (i.e., recasting and prompting). On the other hand, when dealing with learners' errors with factual knowledge, other-repair was conducted in an unmodulated way (i.e., 'no' plus correction).
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of remedial instruction on self-efficacy improvement in elementary school students with low self-efficacy, which may have been formed through negative experience with learning such as poor performance and poor grades. Nine 6th grade students with low self-efficacy were selected for the present study. A remedial class was set up and instruction was given once a week for 14 weeks. The purpose of the remedial class was to give the students a positive experience with English learning and have students reflect on their achievement. The contents and class activities were adjusted to the subjects' English abilities and also closely related to those of the regular classes so that students could have more confidence during regular English classes. The data were collected from a test of self-efficacy in English learning, achievement tests given before and after the experiment, achievement tests after each lesson, a general self-efficacy test, a basic questionnaire, interviews, journals, and students' self-evaluation. The results showed that the remedial instruction was very successful in providing students with a sense of achievement and improving students' self-efficacy in English learning. However, this study failed to find significant improvement in general self-efficacy tests and achievement tests given before and after the experiments. A longer period of remedial instruction may have been necessary to obtain more concrete results from the variety of data collected.
This paper tries to follow Toni Morrison's postcolonial courses in her novels. In The Bluest Eye, Morrison examines the situation in which the white's values are the standard for the whole society through two little black girls, Pecola and Claudia. In Song of Solomon she recommends emulating Pilate's love and good attitude towards tradition to shape a positive identity for Afro-Americans, which Milkman comes to accept. In Tar Baby, Morrison suggests that Son's and Jadine's ideas, traditional and modern, should be combined. In Beloved, Morrison illustrates one of the ways in which all blacks can escape from their own trauma through Sethe's process of finding her self-worth. In Paradise Morrison shows that the real de-colonial way to overcome the effects of colonization is to create a new paradigm in which everyone is respected regardless of race. In her works, Morrison insists that by remembering and regretting slavery in America, people can overcome its aftereffects and trauma. Racial oppression still exists today, so Morrison will continue her beautiful, powerful and eye-opening work.
The purpose of this study is to investigate knowledge and use of English collocations in their relation to Korean college students' general English proficiency and writing abilities. Participants in the present study were 203 Korean college students. Their knowledge and use of English collocations were measured by a self-designed collocation test and an essay writing test. The findings were as follows: First, there was a significant difference in students' knowledge of collocations according to their general English proficiency. Students' performance in the collocation test increased as their level of proficiency increased. Second, there was a significant difference in students' knowledge of collocations according to their writing abilities. Students showed better performance in the collocation test as their level of writing abilities increased. Third, there was a significant difference in students' use of collocations according to their writing abilities. Students' collocation use in the writing test increased as their level of writing abilities increased. Fourth, there was a strong relationship between the students' knowledge of collocations and their general English proficiency and between the students' use of collocations and their writing abilities. Pedagogical implications of the study and suggestions for further research were discussed on the basis of the research findings.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching procedure for improving Korean college students' reading comprehension of English text. In particular, this study sought to explore the qualitative features, if any, in students' use of reading comprehension strategies presented in the process of Reciprocal Reading Procedure (RRP). In order to accomplish the goal of the study, transcripts of the students' dialogues, open-ended questionnaires, and researchers' observation notes were examined. The results of the study showed that the participants used different four kinds of reading strategies in the process of RRP (questioning, clarifying, predicting, summarizing). The findings also suggested that the readers with limited knowledge of vocabulary had difficulty in moving on to the next level. Additionally, future research direction and some pedagogical implications are presented for the practical EFL classroom.
Secondary English Education in Korea is implemented according to the 7th National Curriculum. The 7th National English Curriculum pursues to achieve communicative competence considering individual differences. According to the research, using various multimedia in English education enhances English proficiency and allows effective individual-based learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation of applying multimedia in English education within the framework of the 7th National Curriculum. For this purpose, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 2005 with 145 secondary English teachers in Kyunggy Province. The results showed that multimedia was not integrated in English education effectively, and individual based-learning was not implemented effectively, either.
Lately, teaching methods and instruments have become student-centered and are directed towards developing a communicative competence of learners. However, compared with that of other countries, the level of our students English is not very good. I guess the reason is that our English education is focused on the uniformal teaching methods regardless of the differences of intelligence, affective domains and study time. I tried to find the relationship between these factors and the students' English accomplishments. So I divided the students into 2 groups of superior and inferior students by the standard of intelligence, affective domain and study time and compared the scores between the groups in the fields of reading comprehension, grammar, pronunciation, accent, vocabulary, and listening. These were the results that followed: First, intelligence has a great influence students' English accomplishment in all fields. Second, affective domains such as motivation, anxiety, attitude, confidence, and studying time also have some influence on the students' English accomplishments. Third, the sequence of these factors according to their influence force are as follows: study time, anxiety, intelligence, motivation, attitude, and confidence. So we can conclude that we should teach English according to our students' ability in the field of intelligence and affective domains and should not ignore the individual differences they have.
Since Air and Correspondence High School (ACHS) in Korea was established in 1974, it has been serving many people who couldn't take the opportunities for learning in the regular high school due to several reasons. Regardless of the rapid change in technologies and educational needs during the past 31 years, however, ACHS hasn't changed much. Concerns have been recently made about the validity of the unchanged school system and many issues have been discussed relating to the innovation of the school system. Focusing on the teaching and learning contents, one of the important issues with respect to the school system, this paper examines the 7th English Curriculum for ACHS. The paper also investigates the textbooks used in ACHS to see how closely they align with the students' English proficiency and ACHS' instructional method by employing McDonough and Shaw's(1993) framework for textbook analysis. The results revealed that the current curriculum does not sufficiently reflect ACHS's characteristics, which leads to the adoption and development of inappropriate textbooks in terms of overall coherence, proficiency level, etc. The results suggest that the development of the curriculum and textbooks for ACHS should be based upon the students' needs and their level of proficiency rather than depending on the national curriculum and government-authorized textbooks intended for the relatively homogeneous school-age learners.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching English through the techniques of storytelling with dramatization upon children's competence of English speaking and listening. These techniques are considered to enable children to have ample opportunity of use in and exposure to English, as well as interest. This study is sequenced as selecting stories by way of consulting literatures, developing a teaching model for practising classes through storytelling with dramatization, and analyzing the data resulting from the pre- and post-listening/speaking tests using the SPSS program. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: the experimental group shows better significance than the control one in the listening and speaking post-test. Therefore, literary units also need to be incorporated into English textbooks in order to improve children's aural-oral competence through the storytelling with dramatization.
One of the most important features in the 7th National Curriculum of English is the introduction of the middle school multi-purpose English classes. Despite the importance of the classes, there doesn't seem to be enough studies of developing learning materials for them. The purpose of the current study is, therefore, to develop English learning materials for the multi-purpose English classes based on the Task-Based Learning framework. To do so, various tasks were collected and adapted for the classes, and different teaching techniques suitable for the tasks were designed. It is hoped that this research will help teachers prepare for teaching materials for the classes, and students recognize their interests in English and to improve their English abilities.
The purpose of this study is to present the task model that is the most effective in English language methodology based on the investigation of task-based performance in Korean EFL classroom practice. The subjects were 538 high school students and 126 high school teachers, each of whom had common experiences using the materials of task-based activities for more than one year. To analyze the data, the program SPSS WIN 11.0 including frequency distribution and chi-square analysis was used. The results of the questionnaire analysis showed that both teachers and students had a comparatively high level of satisfaction in task rationale, but that they had some mixed responses in the fields of input data, settings, and activity types. To conclude, a few suggestions are made to provide some meaningful considerations for the EFL teachers and material developers: a) task goals and rationale that encourage the learner's positive motivation; b) authenticity of input data based on the real-world context; c) collaborative learning environment that enhances communicative interaction; d) proportional representation of the creative problem-solving activities related to discussions and decision-making processes; e) systematic introduction of integrated language skills. It also suggests that the multi-lateral task model, which has some positive assets compared to previous task models, be newly introduced and applied to the second language learning classrooms.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of culture teaching and using web sites as a method of culture teaching in college English education. To achieve these purposes, a web-based culture teaching-learning model was developed and applied in English classes. Then, the effects were compared with those of a culture teaching method which were based on the traditional verbal explanation. As the tools for this study, two test sheets were used to measure language proficiency and American cultural knowledge. Focusing on the study results, the conclusions were summed up as follows: First, for enhancing the American cultural knowledge, using the web was found to be more effective than traditional verbal explanations. Second, for English language enhancement through web-based culture teaching, it is necessary to do it for each level of English proficiency or develop web sites which fit well with students' interests or levels.
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