Although Korean university students' primary concern is academic success in their higher degrees in the UK, they highly desire to develop English communicative competence through a number of opportunities to speak with natives speakers. The paper aims at examining to what extent they are able to be socialised into a new environment while they are studying at UK universities. The in-depth, longitudinal interviews with the targeted group of six Korean masters' students at the University of York was undertaken to observe the pace of their progress in developing social skills. Reluctance and hesitance to contact and interact with their supervisors and other academic staff persisted for most of them to the final term caused by cultural reasons such as face and hierarchy rather than language problems. Despite the six participants' variation in their patterns of social interaction, they struggled with pressures towards monoculture-biased interaction with Korean people, which was quite extreme for the five participants. This passivity can be explained by several reasons such as the students' lack of communicative competence and other situational factors on one-year course. It is important to note that students' failure to develop network with native speakers is strongly associated with experience of cultural withdrawal and frustration with developing communicative competence in English.
Taking the issues of inequity and power between NES and NNES teachers as a starting point, this qualitative study explores the way the widespread belief of the native speaker fallacy manifests itself in one NNES teacher's teaching life and is linked to the teacher's understanding of herself as an English teacher. Guided by critical applied linguistics (Pennycook, 2001) and using Bourdieu's (1991) theorization of symbolic violence, I conducted an instrumental case study (Stake, 1995) in an ESL writing class at a US university. I collected data through classroom observations and interviews over a nine-month period and analyzed the data using the constant comparison method (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). The findings illustrate the ways the dominant ideology of the native speaker fallacy works to maintain and reproduce the status quo unequal relation between NES and NNES teachers by making all parties involved believe in the artificial sociocultural arrangements that favor NES teachers as legitimate. The findings direct our attention to the importance of critical teacher education that will enable future TESOL professionals to engage in critical reflection on diverse issues and envision transformative change. The findings, in particular, point to the need for language support for NNES teachers in TESOL teacher education.
The primary goal of this paper was to develop a critical point of view to critical pedagogy when applied to EFL contexts. Critical pedagogy is more concerned about how language can affect personal and social change of teachers and students than it is with how to teach language effectively or in ways that encourage critical thinking on the part of teacher and students. For this goal, this paper introduces the definition, emergence and major constructs of critical pedagogy in a broad way at first. Then, this paper presents how critical pedagogy has an impact on ELT, focusing on how critical pedagogy is applied in ELT contexts and why the application of critical pedagogy in EFL can be criticized, through the review of empirical studies. Reflection of Korean English teaching situation and applicational difficulties of critical pedagogy in Korean ELT are followed.
This study examined whether self-correction or metalinguistic explanation might make a difference in the ability to accurately write two English grammatical structures when learners received indirect teacher feedback in the form of underlining target errors in a Korean EFL college classroom. With the goal of helping low-proficiency students improve their ability to accurately write sentences including nonfinite present participial relative clauses and present participial constructions, four groups were formed: a group which received indirect feedback, a group which received indirect feedback and metalinguistic explanation, a group which received indirect feedback and self-corrected errors, and a group which received indirect feedback and self-corrected errors after receiving metalinguistic explanation. The results showed that the effects of either metalinguistic explanation or self-correction integrated with indirect feedback on learners' ability to accurately write the target structures were not meaningful, while the combined effects of metalinguistic explanation and self-correction were statistically significant.
This study investigates effective models of team teaching in Korean middle school classrooms based upon a questionnaire survey and two English listening tests. The data from 349 first year middle school students from 3 different middle schools were collected and compared between team teaching (TT) types in terms of participants' background language learning methods and their opinions about TT. The findings of the present study indicate that students appear to have different opinions about TT according to the TT types. Also the results of the English listening tests between students who took TT and those who didn't take TT show significant differences between TT groups. This study gives both native English teachers (NETs) and Korean English teachers (KETs) the perspectives about effective TT type and the opportunities that both types of teachers could reconsider their TT in order to develop students' English communicative competence more successfully.
This paper attempts to examine the effect of children's English stories on the development of Korean EFL primary school learners' listening and speaking competences and their motivation to learn English. This paper also discusses factors of English children's stories that make EFL learners' language learning efficient. Participants were 120 primary school students who attend one of the elementary schools in Chungnam province. They were randomly chosen and divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. In order to collect data, students' listening and speaking proficiency pre- and post-tests and the pre- and post-questionnaires regarding the participants' motivation to learn English were administered. The data were analyzed by ANOVA. The results indicate that the application of English children's stories to EFL learning settings can be an efficient way to improve EFL learners' listening and speaking competences and motivation to learn their target language. The findings of this study suggest that English children's stories provide language learners with interest, meaningful and authentic contexts and enjoyment. The pedagogical suggestion and implications are provided for EFL educators and teachers.
Recently speech texts have been increasingly used for English education because of their various advantages as language teaching and learning materials. The purpose of this paper is to analyze speech texts in a corpus-based lexical approach, and suggest some productive methods which utilize English speaking or writing as the main resource for the course, along with introducing the actual classroom adaptations. First, this study shows that a speech corpus has some unique features such as different selections of pronouns, nouns, and lexical chunks in comparison to a general corpus. Next, from a collocational perspective, the study demonstrates that the speech corpus consists of a wide variety of collocations and lexical chunks which a number of linguists describe (Lewis, 1997; McCarthy, 1990; Willis, 1990). In other words, the speech corpus suggests that speech texts not only have considerable lexical potential that could be exploited to facilitate chunk-learning, but also that learners are not very likely to unlock this potential autonomously. Based on this result, teachers can develop a learners' corpus and use it by chunking the speech text. This new approach of adapting speech samples as important materials for college students' speaking or writing ability should be implemented as shown in samplers. Finally, to foster learner's productive skills more communicatively, a few practical suggestions are made such as chunking and windowing chunks of speech and presentation, and the pedagogical implications are discussed.
The current study explored a pedagogical possibility of utilizing magic as a source of communicative tasks for young learners in developing their English speaking proficiency. Fifteen primary school students participated in the study, which consisted of a 17-week period of task-based English instruction and data collection. The participants were instructed to accomplish various types of magic task through collaborative group interaction. The data collected for the study pertained to the students' linguistic outputs, interactions in group and attitudes to English learning. They were analyzed for how magic tasks affect the students' English proficiency developments and group interactions. The study results suggested the significant improvement in the students' English speaking proficiencies. They revealed that magic tasks contributed to a) enhancing the motivation to speak in English, b) stimulating the creative and problem-solving processes, and c) providing the sufficient opportunity to repeat and internalize the target expressions. The study results also indicated that the students' satisfaction with their group members and tasks seemed to have positive influences on their interactions in group and English proficiency development. Further discussion and pedagogical implications are provided as well as the study limitations.
As great attention is given to a high quality of English education in Korea, more and more in-service and pre-service English teachers are looking for an opportunity to study in an English speaking country to become better qualified teachers. However, after receiving a degree in an English speaking country, many teachers fail to apply what they have learned to their own teaching due to their tensions of identity, beliefs, knowledge, and professionalism within the changes of sociocultural settings. By using sociocultural theory as a theoretical framework, this paper explores how formal training and Ph.D. studies in the U.S. have influenced a Korean teacher educator in applying theory to practice in relation to her identity, beliefs, knowledge, and professionalism during 30 years of her teaching experience. Rather than facing tensions, the teacher educator has been willing to change her roles, broaden and deepen her beliefs in teaching and knowledge about theory of teaching and learning, and continue her professional development. Limitations and implications of the study are provided.
Previous research on the impact of pretask planning on subsequent second language (L2) production has mainly focused on the linguistic quality of planned production, while learners' thought processes and perceptions about planning have been relatively less explored. In addition, few previous planning studies have examined whether the learners did in fact follow the pretask instructions, thus leaving the role of pretask instructions in the planning process unexplored. Therefore, the present study investigated whether pretask instructions affect attentional allocation as well as what cognitive operations planners engage in and what their perceptions about planning are. Forty-three Korean EFL classroom learners were divided into two groups: before having time to plan for an oral story retelling task, one group received general instructions, while the other group received specific instructions. The findings, based on both quantitative and qualitative data analysis, indicated no large effects of pretask instructions on the planners' attentional focus. Rather, the qualitative analysis identified a number of other factors that influenced learners' decision making as well as their general processes and approaches to planning and their perceptions about planning and thinking aloud while planning. Implications for L2 teaching as well as limitations of the study are discussed.
This study reports on the use of the trait and state cognitive/metacognitive strategy use and the difference of the trait/state strategy use according to students' proficiency level. First of all, for checking up the trait strategy use, 119 first-grade male students in a high school completed the questionnaire on strategies which they thought they used during a reading test. Secondly, to find out their state strategy use, students took a fifteen-item reading comprehension test, followed by filling out questionnaires on cognitive and metacognitive strategies used in the test. This study employed quantitative data analysis. The results suggested that (1) the cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in the trait and state conditions are used the most by the high proficiency group and they are correlated respectively; (2) these strategies are used with statistically significant difference according to students' proficiency level, especially to the lower level students. The highly successful group uses the cognitive and metacognitive strategy in the actual test situation more than the lower proficient group; there is no difference in trait and state strategy use.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest a model for an English learning web-site using Korean folktales to stimulate the interest of beginners learning English, (elementary and early middle school ages) and suggest an integrated way of teaching 4 skills. The study first reviews the theoretical and historical backgrounds of storytelling using Korean folk tale, WBI (Web Based Learning), and learner-centered learning. Storytelling using Korean folk tale is an interactive way of teaching English through the use of words and actions from Korean traditional culture. The students can take pride in their own culture while learning a foreign language since they are familiar with the stories and the culture. Nowadays multicultural education is one of the big features of global education. Therefore there are benefits of studying English through Korean folktales. The websites can help students learn English ubiquitously with a learner-centered focus. For the study, we analyzed several digital English storytelling websites. The paper concludes that digital English story books need to improve their interactive ways of teaching for more effective learning. The authors created an integrated English learning website model using Korean folktales for beginners. We hope to introduce this type of learning through the website for higher level students in middle school. Further study should be conducted in order to make the websites more meaningful and useful for Korean students learning English.
This study explores the function of the affixes -en and -ing that could influence the theta-roles of verbs to which the affixes are attached. The two affixes often appear in the synthetic compounds in English. The results are as follows. First, the affixes -en and -ing link the theta-role realized in the subject of the verb to the noun followed, which is proposed as Theta-linking Principle: that is, the affixes -en and -ing link the theta-role realized in the subject of the verb to the noun followed. Second, in the synthetic compounds including the affixes -en and -ing, the left element must not be the subject of the verb, which is the Synthetic Compound Constraint. And the affix -er link thematic roles of the sentential subject, such as Agent, Instrument. Thus, this study aims to find out the function of the affixes on the point of lexical functional approach.
The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize how Parks recalling, deconstructing and reconstructing African-American memories of the absences in American history through a black Lincoln impersonator named, The Foundling Father or The Lesser Known. Parks unearths and reconstitutes a significance for the historical event of Lincoln's assassination by repetitive mimicry and verbal puns. As a pun of the Founding Father, the Foundling Father reminds us of Abraham Lincoln, one of the most venerated figures in American history. In the first act, the black Foundling Father performs as The Great Man. This inverted minstrel show of the black Foundling Father performing a white Lincoln exposes the desire of the Foundling Father to insert his narrative within the history of America. With a series of assassinations, the African-American performers figuratively murder the power and control of the American myth. In the second act, his wife Lucy and his son Brazil dig relics from the past out of 'The great hole of history' instead of the Foundling Father. Digging and burial for African-Americans are their livelihood and their calling as well. As Parks pointed out, they should locate the ancestral buried ground, dig for bones and find bones because so much of African-American history has been unrecorded, dismembered and washed out. Parks leaves the possibilities of digging and burying on the black history through Lucy and Brazil.
R.W.B. Lewis called Greene's three novels - Brighton Rock, The Power and the Glory and The Heart of the Matter - Greene's 'trilogy'. Greene was paid full attention by many readers and many critics after publishing these Catholic novels. The themes and plots of his Catholic novels are unique and beyond those of traditional Catholicism. Greene is always willing to stand on the edge of reality. He always conflicts with the reality and eagerly searches for a higher, more spiritual dimension. If we view Greene's protagonists from an open-minded viewpoint, Pinkie of Brighton Rock will be saved at the mercy and grace of God in spite of being evil. Whiskey Priest of The Power and the Glory is worthy of being called a saint in spite of his drunkenness and adultery. Scobie of The Heart of the Matter will be within God's grace in spite of his suicide. The reason all protagonists are saint-like is clear and simple because they all have faith and sacrifice themselves to obey God's first commandment, to love others. To summarize the theme of Greene's 'trilogy', we can say that love is the most valuable in the world. God has mercy for all human beings. The protagonists love God and they love others. In fact, Greene's faith is found in his love of human beings and God.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the preconceptions Korean EFL learners have about team teaching in the field of English education at a secondary level. Team teaching is a method of teaching where a Korean English teacher works in co-junction with a native English speaker. Generally speaking, when we discuss teaching methods for a foreign language, the most important objective is to improve our communication skills. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect on communication skills when team teaching is employed, and to find ways to maximize the benefit when team teaching. The underlying issues are; firstly, what are the precedent conditions for team teaching? Secondly, what are the best teaching methods and preparations for teaching materials for improving the effectiveness of team teaching? Third, how do the programs for team teaching with native teachers assist in improving the student's communication skills? Ideally, this study will assist in overcoming the fear that foreign language learners have when communicating with real native speakers.
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