Recasts, which are defined as implicit types of corrective feedback, have been the focus of numerous SLA researchers for more than a decade. A range of classroom-based observational and experimental research studies have explored how and when language teachers provide recasts to learners' ill-formed utterances and aimed to understand the role of recasts in language acquisition or learning. On the basis of previous studies on recasts, our study investigated when an ESL teacher provided recasts and how recasts were provided in his class. The research questions were as follows: (1) When does an ESL teacher provide recasts? (2) How does the teacher provide recasts? The data came from observations of one ESL classroom as well as consecutive-semi structured interviews with the teacher. The data analysis included transcriptions of teacher-student interactions in the target setting and categories of recasts according to the linguistic phenomena, which prompted recasting. Based on the findings, practical suggestions for ESL teachers were provided. [156 words].
This study surveyed L2 learners' needs for different components of communicative competence. It aimed to determine what abilities the learners strongly need to achieve communicative competence in different learning contexts. It also examined gender differences in the learners' need for phonological competence. A total of 359 students participated in this study, divided into three learner groups: high school, vocational college, and university students. The data were collected via a questionnaire, which was based on Bachman's (1990) framework of language competence. The study drew some important findings: (a) The vocational trainees expressed a stronger need for illocutionary competence than the high school students and for sociolinguistic competence than the high school and the university groups; (b) The high school and the university groups equated grammatical, textual, illocutionary, and strategic competences in their needs with lesser attention to sociolinguistic competence; (c) To the high school and the university groups, pragmatic competence was assessed higher than organizational competence; (d) Female students showed greater sensitivity to pronunciation ability than did male students. On the basis of these results, pedagogical implications are discussed, along with some helpful suggestions.
This study aims to identify how participants in online-incorporated English learning perceive interaction between achievement and factors of learning and personality. Using grounded theory analysis, this study attempts to generate a theoretical model depicting how the factors work with the L2 learners situated in the learning setting. A total of 231 college freshmen participated in online and offline EFL learning programs for the duration of one semester. In addition, all respondents completed a survey questionnaire on their learning experiences. In the investigation of the differences between low- and high-proficiency groups, audio-taped interviews with 20 selected students, 10 from each group, have revealed differences not only in the types of personal and instructional factors, but also, more importantly, in the interrelationship between these factors in each group's learning model. These models effectively explained the statistically significant differences in four questionnaire items, such as online learning and contributions of offline class sections to their L2 achievement. These findings entail L2 practitioners' shared understandings of their students' perspectives of learning in the specific L2 learning context.
This study suggests that English literature educators need to be eclectic and flexible in applying theories and methods, not simply adhering to one or two for all situations and occasions. They need to be available to go with the flow and particularly employ whatever is needed at any given moment of class time. There is a current trend emphasizing English literature as merely a language resource rather than the study of English literature as an end in itself. Without much attention given to literary analysis and criticism, students tend to lack creative and critical thinking abilities. Given the current imbalance, it would seem important to address the issue, and create English class programs that maintain a balance between teaching the study of English literature to improve students' critical thinking abilities, and its use as a language resource. To fulfill this goal, thorough preparation is required. Indeed, we can direct our intelligence more effectively when we are well prepared and we are familiar with the basic methods and mechanics of teaching our subject. The greatest achievement of the English literature class I taught was that the students showed unexpectedly remarkable creative and critical appreciation of the novel we studied, in addition to improving their English language skills.
This study examines the use of hedges in cross-cultural communication between EFL learners in an e-learning environment. The study analyzes the use of hedges in a corpus of an interactive web with a bulletin board system through which college students of English at Japanese and Korean universities interacted with each other discussing the topics of local and global issues. It compares the use of hedges in the students' corpus to that of a native English speakers' corpus. The result shows that EFL learners tend to use relatively smaller number of hedges than the native speakers in terms of the frequencies of the total tokens. It further reveals that the learners' overuse of a single versatile high-frequency hedging item, I think, results in relative underuse of other hedging devices. This indicates that due to their small repertoire of hedges, EFL learners' overuse of a limited number of hedging items may cause their speech or writing to become less competent. Based on the result and interviews with the learners, the study also argues that hedging should be understood in its social contexts and should not be understood just as a lack of conviction or a mark of low proficiency. Suggestions were made for using computer corpora in understanding EFL learners' language difficulties and helping them develop communicative and pragmatic competence.
The goals of the present study are two-fold: 1) to examine NNS teachers' needs for training period in improving their general communicative competence and classroom communicative competence, and 2) to explore the relationships of teachers' needs for the training period, and their current levels of general/classroom communicative competence and other background variables. Data was collected from seventy primary and secondary school English teachers (N=70) who participated in the six-month intensive teacher training program in South Korea. The teacher trainees responded to four questionnaires of 1) the self-diagnosis of their current levels of four language skills (L/S/R/W) in both general/classroom communicative competence, 2) the training period required to improve their general/classroom communicative competence for teaching both English and other subjects through English, 3) the period of their English teaching, and 4) the proportion of their English use in class. The data analysis has shown that there were the strong relationships between trainee needs for the training period and their teaching period, and the proportion of their English use in class. In terms of trainees' communicative competence, the significant relations of both their general/classroom communicative competence and their needs for the training period were found. Implications of the findings are discussed.
There is disagreement, among researchers, on the benefits of corrective feedback on L2 learners' written output. Some scholars advocate the usefulness of corrective feedback while some claim that error correction is ineffective and even harmful. So far, however, research outcomes cannot settle this debate. Based on this debate, this study examines whether there is a difference among diverse types of feedback on the effects of L2 learners' writing improvement. This study found that teacher's direct feedback was more effective than any other types of feedback on the effect of participants' writing improvement. In particular, teacher's direct feedback helped their improvement on grammar, mechanics, and form. Among the types of peer feedback, self-correction was the most effective. In teacher feedback, form-focused feedback had more effects than content-focused feedback, but no difference with regard to peer feedback. In addition, teacher's content-focused feedback was more effective than peer's content-focused feedback. Overall, in all types of feedback, teacher feedback was more effective than peer feedback. However, direct (form-focused) feedback was the most effective in teacher feedback, and self-correction in peer feedback. The least effective feedback in both teacher and peer feedback was indirect (form-focused) feedback, which is simple underlining of errors.
On the bases of the 5 principles and the 4 criteria for designing and developing of the listening and the reading test of National English Ability Test (NEAT), this study presents Item-Types Decision-Making Model as a blueprint for designing and constructing the two tests. It sets up the criteria for validating item types, designs a modular type of test specifications, constructs an item-types bank, and specifies a complementary type of test specifications of the two tests. To gather all these threads up, it constructs Item-Types Decision-Making Model which consists of such components as the item-type pool, the validity criteria and the procedures of testing item types, the item-types bank, the modular and the complementary type test specification. Thus, it shows how the Model works in developing and constructing the two level-differentiated listening and reading tests (the 2nd and the 3rd rank) of NEAT. Finally, it discusses some implications and applications of the Model to the two level-differentiated tests (the A and the B type) of 2014 CSAT (College Scholastic Ability Test) systems, National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA), and classroom testing. In conclusion, Item-Types Decision-Making Model functions as a testing template in an item development system and as a matrix in an item-types bank system.
Nathaniel Hawthorne seems to realize the reader's role in bringing his creation of fiction to completion. Almost all of Hawthorne's prefaces may be considered in terms of their contribution to the writer's narrative strategy. When he refers to the audience in the prefatory essay, "The Custom-House" and other prefaces to his major works as "the Reader," Hawthorne is establishing a mutual complicity that will continue throughout the following narratives. According to this rhetorical alliance, the writer's obligation is to get the story into the reader's imagination by any means possible, while the reader's share is to believe the story as much as possible while it is being told. The ultimate issue is thus not whether any event actually happened as Hawthorne reports it but whether readers are willing to grant the event credence while they are reading. Hawthorne's relationship with his audience is not congenial. In his prefaces, Hawthorne sometimes reveals a narrator who evades a fixed identity. The introduction of an unreliable narrator helps illuminate the unresolved, elusive ambiguity in Hawthorne's stories. Hawthorne seeks to make his narrative ambiguous frequently utilizing the very same indeterminacy so often cherished by poststructuralists. No critical term may be more firmly associated with the works of Hawthorne than ambiguity. Looking for new readers with more fresh eyes, Hawthorne's narratives always remain open to reinterpretation. After all, Hawthorne's prefaces (sometimes including unreliable narrators) help him become one of the most frustrating and fascinating novelists.
The purpose of this study is to investigate /l/-deletion in lC clusters which are composed of a lateral followed by consonants at syllable-final position in English. For this, I have analyzed /l/-deletion in words depending on conditions and theoretical analyses such as Sonority Sequencing Generalization, Cluster Simplification, Complex sounds and merger, and Feature Geometry, but they didn't offer a very satisfactory explanation to the phenomenon. Therefore, I adopted a historical approach in order to determine the cause and origin of /l/-deletion in lC clusters, and then as a phonological analysis tool, I relied on the constraints and their ranking in Optimal Theory framework for explaining /l/-deletion in the clusters more consistently. As a result, I can explain the phenomenon more explicitly than from the above mentioned analyses.
This article analyzes and discusses M.M. Bakhtin's dialogics with the perspectives of what it emphasizes and how it makes the Russian Formalism and the Marxist literary theory together in his dialogics. This article considers conversion in the literary texts the central idea of dialogics, and it takes place through satire and parody. As Bakhtin stresses in his works, this article also examines the novel as the dominant genre in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Such satire and parody shows the ambivalence of the Russian Formalism and the Marxist literary theory. Bakhtin states that novel per se is very conversing. It has turned over the position that has been occupied by epics (poetry) and play for thousands years, and taken it over in the nineteenth century. Thus, novel is a literary genre in which a variety of conversing struggles occur throughout the texts, which makes it different from epics and play. Throughout such analyses and discussions, this paper considers Bakhtin's dialogics a complex of semantic, pragmatic, and semiotic elements.
This study investigates the effects of corpus-based vocabulary tasks on the acquisition of English vocabulary in an attempt to explore the influence of corpus use on EFL pedagogy. For this to be realized, a total of 40 Korean high school students participated in the study over a 4-week period. An experimental group used a set of corpus-based tasks for vocabulary learning, whereas a control group carried out a traditional task (i.e., the L1-L2 translation) for vocabulary learning. To assess learning gains, the students were asked to complete the pre- and post-treatment tests measuring the word form, meaning, and use aspects of target lexical items. Results of the study indicate that in the experimental group the corpus-based vocabulary tasks were beneficial for the learning of word forms and use. In particular, corpus-based benefits were greatest in the low-proficiency EFL learners' collocational aspects of vocabulary use. On the other hand, in the control group, the traditional vocabulary tasks benefited the meaning aspects of target vocabulary items the most. In addition, survey results revealed that most students were positive about the corpus-based learning experience although some expressed reservations about the heavy cognitive load and the time-consuming nature of the analysis of corpus data primarily due to learners' lack of language proficiency.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the writing tasks included in the newly developed high school English textbooks in the aspects of genre, rhetorical structure, task type, and authenticity in order to find out whether these tasks could contribute to improving Korean EFL students' writing skills. A total of nine textbooks were selected for the study and every writing task in each textbook was analyzed. The results show that various types of genres were incorporated in the tasks, but very few opportunities were provided for students to acquire characteristics of specific genres. In terms of rhetorical structure of text, narration, illustration, and transaction were required most, whereas not a single writing task asked students to use classification or cause and effect. Many of the writing tasks analyzed offered linguistic and/or content support through the use of models, which displays traces of the product-based approach to teaching writing. Lastly, most of the tasks lacked authenticity represented by explicit discussion of purpose and audience. Implications for L2 writing task development and writing instruction in the Korean EFL context are discussed.
The Bible has been and still is one of the most influential books ever published. The English Bible has a great impact on English language, literature, and culture. Therefore, knowledge of the Bible is essential in learning English language, its literature, culture and tradition. Biblical allusions are found in great literature and the daily newspapers as well. Rock musicians, screenwriters, television producers, and advertisers use the Bible as a source. Politicians use the words and accounts of the Bible to frame their debates. The Bible has continued to be philosophically, ethically, religiously, and politically influential in Western, Eastern, now World cultures. Therefore, not to know it means not to understand a great portion of world culture. This study examines the influence of the first book of the Bible, Genesis, in English language, literature, and culture. Furthermore, this study suggests why we should incorporate the English Bible in English education.
This study was performed to develop a task-based English lesson plan. The study reviewed the background theories needed to accomplish the study purpose; types of learning, current trends in English teaching, and the task-based teaching. A frame for the task-based English lesson was developed as the result of this study. An actual task-based lesson plan was made after the frame for the task-based English lesson. The author presented task-based English lesson plans at English education conferences, and applied them to pre-teacher training and in-service trainings for English teachers. It is concluded that the task-based English lesson plan was very effective in enhancing English communicative competence and that the pre-teachers and teachers were satisfied with the lesson plans. It is hoped that more teaching material will be developed based on this task-based English lesson plan.
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