• Title, Summary, Keyword: $\beta$-amyloid protein

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Vaccinium uliginosum L. Improves Amyloid β Protein-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease in Mice

  • Choi, Yoon-Hee;Kwon, Hyuck-Se;Shin, Se-Gye;Chung, Cha-Kwon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.343-347
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    • 2014
  • The present study investigated the effects of Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bilberry) on the learning and memory impairments induced by amyloid-${\beta}$ protein ($A{\beta}P$) 1-42. ICR Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: the control ($A{\beta}40$-1A), control with 5% bilberry group ($A{\beta}40$-1B), amyloid ${\beta}$ protein 1-42 treated group ($A{\beta}1$-42A), and $A{\beta}1$-42 with 5% bilberry group ($A{\beta}1$-42B). The control was treated with amyloid ${\beta}$-protein 40-1 for placebo effect, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) group was treated with amyloid ${\beta}$-protein 1-42. Amyloid ${\beta}$-protein 1-42 was intracerebroventricular (ICV) micro injected into the hippocampus in 35% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. Although bilberry added groups tended to decrease the finding time of hidden platform, no statistical significance was found. On the other hand, escape latencies of $A{\beta}P$ injected mice were extended compared to that of $A{\beta}40$-1. In the Probe test, bilberry added $A{\beta}1$-42B group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of probe crossing frequency compared to $A{\beta}1$-42A. Administration of amyloid protein ($A{\beta}1$-42) decreased working memory compared to $A{\beta}40$-1 control group. In passive avoidance test, bilberry significantly (P<0.05) increased the time of staying in the lighted area compared to AD control. The results suggest that bilberry may help to improve memory and learning capability in chemically induced Alzheimer's disease in experimental animal models.

Effect of Chongmyung-Tang Prescription Combination on the Production of Amyloid β protein and β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme Activity in vitro (In vitro에서 β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 활성과 amyloid β protein 생산에 대한 총명탕가미방(聰明湯加味方)의 효과)

  • Lim, Jung-Hwa;Jung, In-Chul;Lim, Jong-Soon;Kim, Seung-Hyung;Lee, Sang-Ryong
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.191-200
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Chongmyung-Tang Prescription Combination(CmTP-$C_{1-10}$) extract on the production of amyloid $\beta$ protein and $\beta$-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme(BACE) activity. Methods : The effect of CmTP-$C_{1-10}$ extract on expression of APP mRNA, BACE2 mRNA in BV2 microglia cell line treated by lipopolysacchride(LPS) and amyloid $\beta$ protein fragment(A$\beta$ fragment) were investigated. The effect of CmTP-$C_{1-10}$ extract on production of amyloid $\beta$ protein(A$\beta$) in BV2 microglia cell line treated by LPS and A$\beta$ fragment were investigated. The effect of CmTP-$C_{1-10}$ extract on BACE activity were investigated. Results : 1. CmTP-$C_9$ extract the most significantly suppressed the expression of APP mRNA, BACE2 mRNA in BV2 microglia cell line treated by LPS and A$\beta$ fragment. 2. CmTP-$C_9$ extract significantly suppressed the production of A$\beta$ in BV2 microglia cell line treated by LPS and A$\beta$ fragment. 3. CmTP-$C_9$ extract the most significantly inhibited BACE activity. Conclusions : These results suggest that CmTP-$C_9$ may be effective for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Investigation into clinical use of CmTP-$C_9$ for Alzheimer's Disease is suggested for future research.

Zinc Inhibits Amyloid ${\beta}$ Production from Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein in SH-SY5Y Cells

  • Lee, Jin-U;Kim, Chul-Hoon;Kim, Dong-Goo;Ahn, Young-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2009
  • Zinc released from excited glutamatergic neurons accelerates amyloid ${\beta}$ (A ${\beta}$) aggregation, underscoring the therapeutic potential of zinc chelation for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Zinc can also alter A ${\beta}$ concentration by affecting its degradation. In order to elucidate the possible role of zinc influx in secretase-processed A ${\beta}$ production, SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) were treated with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a zinc ionophore, and the resultant changes in APP processing were examined. PDTC decreased A ${\beta}$ 40 and A ${\beta}$ 42 concentrations in culture media bathing APP-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. Measuring the levels of a series of C-terminal APP fragments generated by enzymatic cutting at different APP-cleavage sites showed that both ${\beta}$-and ${\alpha}$-cleavage of APP were inhibited by zinc influx. PDTC also interfered with the maturation of APP. PDTC, however, paradoxically increased the intracellular levels of A ${\beta}$ 40. These results indicate that inhibition of secretase-mediated APP cleavage accounts -at least in part- for zinc inhibition of A ${\beta}$ secretion.

Justicidin A Reduces β-Amyloid via Inhibiting Endocytosis of β-Amyloid Precursor Protein

  • Chun, Yoon Sun;Kwon, Oh-Hoon;Oh, Hyun Geun;Cho, Yoon Young;Yang, Hyun Ok;Chung, Sungkwon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 2019
  • ${\beta}$-amyloid precursor protein (APP) can be cleaved by ${\alpha}$-, and ${\gamma}$-secretase at plasma membrane producing soluble ectodomain fragment ($sAPP{\alpha}$). Alternatively, following endocytosis, APP is cleaved by ${\beta}$-, and ${\gamma}$-secretase at early endosomes generating ${\beta}$-amyloid ($A{\beta}$), the main culprit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, APP endocytosis is critical for $A{\beta}$ production. Recently, we reported that Monsonia angustifolia, the indigenous vegetables consumed in Tanzania, improved cognitive function and decreased $A{\beta}$ production. In this study, we examined the underlying mechanism of justicidin A, the active compound of M. angustifolia, on $A{\beta}$ production. We found that justicidin A reduced endocytosis of APP, increasing $sAPP{\alpha}$ level, while decreasing $A{\beta}$ level in HeLa cells overexpressing human APP with the Swedish mutation. The effect of justicidin A on $A{\beta}$ production was blocked by endocytosis inhibitors, indicating that the decreased APP endocytosis by justicidin A is the underlying mechanism. Thus, justicidin A, the active compound of M. angustifolia, may be a novel agent for AD treatment.

Thiolated Protein A-functionalized Bimetallic Surface Plasmon Resonance Chip for Enhanced Determination of Amyloid Beta 42

  • Kim, Hyung Jin;Kim, Chang-Duk;Sohn, Young-Soo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.379-383
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    • 2019
  • The capability of detecting amyloid beta 42 ($A{\beta}42$), a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease, using a thiolated protein A-functionalized bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip was investigated. An optimized configuration of a bimetallic chip containing gold and silver was obtained through calculations in the intensity measurement mode. The surface of the SPR bimetallic chip was functionalized with thiolated protein A for the immobilization of $A{\beta}42$ antibody. The response of the thiolated protein A-functionalized bimetallic chip to $A{\beta}42$ in the concentration range of 50 to 1,000 pg/mL was linear. Compared to protein A without thiolation, the thiolated protein A resulted in greater sensitivity. Therefore, the thiolated protein A-functionalized bimetallic SPR chip can be used to detect very low concentrations of the biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

Mercury induced the Accumulation of Amyloid Beta (Aβ) in PC12 Cells: The Role of Production and Degradation of Aβ

  • Song, Ji-Won;Choi, Byung-Sun
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2013
  • Extracellular accumulation of amyloid beta protein ($A{\beta}$) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some metals, such as copper, lead, and aluminum can affect the $A{\beta}$ accumulation in the brain. However, the effect of mercury on $A{\beta}$ accumulation in the brain is not clear. Thus, this study was proposed to estimate whether mercury concentration affects $A{\beta}$ accumulation in PC12 cells. We treated 10, 100, and 1000 nM $HgCl_2$ (Hg) or $CH_3HgCl_2$ (MeHg) for 48 hr in PC12 cells. After treatment, $A{\beta}_{40}$ in culture medium increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hg and MeHg increased amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is related to $A{\beta}$ production. Neprilysin (NEP) levels in PC12 cells were decreased by Hg and MeHg treatment. These results suggested that Hg induced $A{\beta}$ accumulation through APP overproduction and reduction of NEP.

Comparative Study on the Structural and Thermodynamic Features of Amyloid-Beta Protein 40 and 42

  • Lim, Sulgi;Ham, Sihyun
    • Proceeding of EDISON Challenge
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    • pp.237-249
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    • 2014
  • Deposition of amyloid-${\beta}$ ($A{\beta}$) proteins is the conventional pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The $A{\beta}$ protein formed from the amyloid precursor protein is predominated by the 40 residue protein ($A{\beta}40$) and by the 42 residue protein ($A{\beta}42$). While $A{\beta}40$ and $A{\beta}42$ differ in only two amino acid residues at the C-terminal end, $A{\beta}42$ is much more prone to aggregate and exhibits more neurotoxicity than $A{\beta}40$. Here, we investigate the molecular origin of the difference in the aggregation propensity of these two proteins by performing fully atomistic, explicit-water molecular dynamics simulations. Then, it is followed by the solvation thermodynamic analysis based on the integral-equation theory of liquids. We find that $A{\beta}42$ displays higher tendency to adopt ${\beta}$-sheet conformations than $A{\beta}40$, which would consequently facilitate the conversion to the ${\beta}$-sheet rich fibril structure. Furthermore, the solvation thermodynamic analysis on the simulated protein conformations indicates that $A{\beta}42$ is more hydrophobic than $A{\beta}40$, implying that the surrounding water imparts a larger thermodynamic driving force for the self-assembly of $A{\beta}42$. Taken together, our results provide structural and thermodynamic grounds on why $A{\beta}42$ is more aggregation-prone than $A{\beta}40$ in aqueous environments.

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Effect of Mycelial Extract of Clavicorona pyxidata on the Production of Amyloid $\beta$-Peptide and the Inhibition of Endogenous $\beta$-Secretase Activity in vitro

  • Lee, Tae-Hee;Park, Young-Il;Han, Yeong-Hwan
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.665-670
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    • 2006
  • Amyloid $\beta$-peptide (A$\beta$), which is a product of the proteolytic effect of $\beta$-secretase (BACE) on an amyloid precursor protein, is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that a BACE inhibitor may reduce A$\beta$ levels, thus decreasing the risk of AD. In a previous study, an extract of Clavicorona pyxidata DGUM 29005 mycelia was found to inhibit the production of a soluble $\beta$-amyloid precursor protein (s$\beta$APP), A$\beta$, and BACE in neuronal cell lines. We sought to determine whether this mycelial extract exerts the same effect in human rhabdomyosarcoma A-204 and rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells. We found that the production of A$\beta$ decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of the mycelial extract and that the concentration of A$\beta$ never exceeded $50{\mu}g/ml$. The presence of sAPP was detected in every culture medium to which the mycelial extract had been added and its concentration remained the same, regardless of the concentration of the extract used. Endogenous $\beta$-secretase activity in A-204 and PC-12 cellular homogenates also decreased in the presence of this extract. These cells, in culture, were not susceptible to the cytotoxic activity of the mycelial extract.

A novel BACE inhibitor isolated from Eisenia bicyclis exhibits neuroprotective activity against β-amyloid toxicity

  • Lee, Jung Kwon;Byun, Hee-Guk
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.38.1-38.9
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    • 2018
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disturbing and advanced neurodegenerative disease and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid beta ($A{\beta}$) and the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins in the brain. The deposition of $A{\beta}$ aggregates triggers synaptic dysfunction, and neurodegeneration, which lead to cognitive disorders. Here, we found that FF isolated from an eatable perennial brown seaweed E.bicyclis protect against $A{\beta}$-induced neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with two amyloid precursor protein (APP) constructs: the APP695 cDNA (SH-SY5Y-APP695swe). The FF demonstrated strong inhibitory activity for ${\beta}$-secretase ($IC_{50}$ $16.1{\mu}M$) and its inhibition pattern was investigated using Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots, and found to be non-competitive. Then, we tested whether FF could inhibit production of $A{\beta}$ in SH-SY5Y-APP695swe. FF inhibited the production of $A{\beta}$ and soluble-APP, residue of APP from cleaved APP by ${\beta}$-secretase. Our data show that FF can inhibit the production of $A{\beta}$ and soluble-$APP{\beta}$ via inhibition of ${\beta}$-secretase activity. Taken together these results suggest that FF may be worthy of future study as an anti-AD treatment.

Inhibitory Effect of an Ethanol Extract Mixture of Vitis amurensis, Aralia cordata, and Glycyrrhizae radix on Amyloid β Protein (25-35)-Induced Neurotoxicity (머루전초, 독활전초, 감초 혼합추출물의 Amyloid β Protein (25-35) 유발 신경 독성에 대한 억제효과)

  • Jang, Ji Yeon;Seong, Yeon Hee
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2014
  • The present study investigated an ethanol extract (SSB) of a mixture of three medicinal plants of Vitis amurensis, Aralia cordata, and Glycyrrhizae radix for possible neuroprotective effects on neurotoxicity induced by Amyloid ${\beta}$ protein ($A{\beta}$) (25-35) in cultured rat cortical neurons and antidementia activity in mice. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to $15{\mu}M$ $A{\beta}$ (25-35) for 36 h induced neuronal apoptotic death. At $1-30{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, SSB inhibited neuronal death, elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$), and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by $A{\beta}$ (25-35) in cultured cortical neurons. Memory impairment and increase of acetylcholinesterase activity induced by intracerebroventricular injection of mice with 16 nmol $A{\beta}$ (25-35) was inhibited by chronic treatment with SSB (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., for 8 days). From these results, it is suggested that antidementia effect of SSB is due to its neuroprotective effect against $A{\beta}$ (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity and that SSB may have a therapeutic role in preventing the progression of Alzheimer's disease.