• Title, Summary, Keyword: $\beta$-glucan

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${\beta}-Glucan$ Enrichment from Pearled Barley and Milled Barley Fractions (보리의 도정 및 제분분획을 이용한 ${\beta}-Glucan$의 강화)

  • Lee, Young-Tack;Seog, Ho-Moon;Cho, Mi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.888-894
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    • 1997
  • Two hulled and two hull-less barley varieties were investigated for ${\beta}-glucan$ enrichment. Hull-less barleys contained higher levels of total ${\beta}-glucan$ than hulled barleys, and were thus suitable as starting materials for preparing ${\beta}-glucan-rich$ fractions. Particularly, a waxy type (Suweon-291) of hull-less barley was found to have high soluble dietary fiber content containing primarily ${\beta}-glucan$, compared to the other non-waxy barley varieties. ${\beta}-Glucan$ content of barley during pearling process was measured, and the highest value was observed at the pearling yield of approximately $70{\sim}75%$. The pearled barley grains were ground and sieved to yield ${\beta}-Glucan$ enriched fractions containing up to 22% ${\beta}-glucan$. In the meanwhile, whole barley samples were directly milled by $B{\ddot{u}}hler$ mill to produce bran, shorts, break flour and reduction flour. ${\beta}-Glucan$ contents in the bran and shorts from the milled stream were relatively high, and further concentration of ${\beta}-glucan$ could be accomplished by successive sieving of the bran and shorts fractions. Pearled barley and milled stream could be used to prepare barley fractions with ${\beta}-glucan$ concentrations $2.4{\sim}3.1$ times those of the original barley grain. Water solubility of barley ${\beta}-glucan$ from pearled barley and the milled stream was in the range of $40{\sim}81%$.

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Quality Characteristics of Barley ${\beta}$-Glucan Enriched Noodles (보리 ${\beta}$-glucan 강화 국수의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Young-Tack;Jung, Ji-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.405-409
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to evaluate quality characteristics of noodles containing barley flour and ${\beta}$-glucan enriched fraction. Compared to 100% wheat flour, composite flours containing barley flour and ${\beta}$-glucan enriched fraction decreased initial pasting temperature and increased maximum peak viscosity. The noodles containing ${\beta}$-glucan enriched fraction exhibited somewhat darker color and lower values in cooked weight, volume, moisture content, and cooking loss. From the textural properties measured by texture analyzer, the noodles with 30% barley flour and ${\beta}$-glucan enriched fraction were similar to 100% wheat noodle in springiness value and significantly higher in gumminess, hardness, and chewiness. The results of sensory evaluation indicated that barley flour or ${\beta}$-glucan enriched fraction at levels up to 30% could be substituted for wheat flour without seriously depressing noodle quality. Cooking of raw noodle with ${\beta}$-glucan enrichment slightly increased total, insoluble, and soluble ${\beta}$-glucan content.

Contents of $\beta$-Glucan in Various Cereals and Its Functional Properties

  • Whang, Key
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.382-386
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    • 1998
  • A soluble dietary fiber, $\beta$-glucan, contained in oat and barley has nutritional benefits such as hypocholesterolemic effects and influences blood glucose regulation. The contents of $\beta$-glucan in both cereals range from 3 to 7% with the exception of a certain barley genotype which contains up to 16% $\beta$-glucan. $\beta$-Glucan is distributed mainly in the cell walls of endosperm and the distal (bran) portion of kernel. Various procedures have been developed for increasing the extraction yield of $\beta$-glucan. Oat gum prepared with weak alkali extractionand alcohol proecipitation following protein removal usually contains 80% $\beta$-glucan.The most commonly used method for $\beta$-glucan quantitiation is an enzymatic procedure combining lichenase plus $\beta$-glucosidase followed by measuring the amount of glucos released by glucose oxidase-peroxidase treatment. The increase in foam-and emulsion-stabilizing capacity of $\beta$-glucan is due to the increase in viscosity of the aqueous phase. Therefore, $\beta$-glucan shows great potentials as a thickener and a stabilizer.

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Synergistic effects of dietary $\beta$-1,3 glucan and feed stimulants in juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

  • Sungchul C. Bai;Park, Gunjun;Kim, Joon-Hyung;Cui Hua;Kim, Youngchul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Aquaculture Society Conference
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    • pp.68-69
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    • 2003
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of $\beta$-1,3 glucan and feed stimulants(BAISM) as a feed additive for juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Eight experimental diets supplemented with $\beta$-1,3 glucan and feed stimulants at 0%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.05% + Baism 0.45%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.05% + Baism 0.95%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.10% + Baism 0.90%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.10% + Baism 1.90%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.15% + Baism 1.35%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.15% + Baism 2.85% and $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.30% + Baism 2.70% of diets as a dry-matter(DM) basis were prepared. Three replicate groups of fish averaging 9.2 $\pm$ 0.1g (Mean $\pm$ SD) were randomly distributed in each aquarium as a group of 15 fish and fed one of eight experimental diets for seven weeks. After the feeding trial, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.10% + Baism 0.90%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.10% + Baism 1.90% diets had a higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency(FE), specific growth rate(SGR) and protein efficiency ratio(PER) than did fish fed 0%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.05% + Baism 0.45%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.05% + Baism 0.95%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.15% + Baism 2.85% and $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.30% + Baism 2.70% (P<0.05). however, there was no significant difference among fish fed $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.05% + Baism 0.45%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.05% + Baism 0.95%, $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.15% + Baism 2.85% and $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.30% + Baism 2.70%(P>0.05). and $\beta$-1,3 glucan 0.10% + Baism 0.90% diets had a higher peak value of CL(Chemiluminescence) and lysozyme activity, than did fish fed the other diets (P<0.05). These results indicated that dietary sipplementation of $\beta$-1, 3 glucan and Baism affected growth, feed efficiency, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, Peak value of CL and Lysozyme activity, and the optimum dietary supplementation level of $\beta$-1, 3 glucan and Baism as a feed additive could be approximately $\beta$-1, 3 glucan 0.10% + Baism 0.90% of diet in juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

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A Study on the Thermal Characterization of Barley ${\beta}-Glucan$ [mixed-linked $(1-3),(1-4)-{\beta}-D-Glucan$] by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC에 의한 보리 ${\beta}-Glucan$ [mixed-linked$(1-3),(1-4)-{\beta}-D-Glucan$의 열적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Hee-Sook;Kim, Mi-Ok;Koo, Sung-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 1993
  • Crude ${\beta}-glucan$ extracted from Barley was purified by stepwide enzyme treatment with thermostable ${\alpha}-amylase$, amyloglucosidase and protease. The thermal properties of Barley ${\beta}-glucan$ were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Three endotherms have been observed on DSC thermograms of Barley ${\beta}-glucan$. The first endotherm which produced the gelatinization phenomena commonly observed in Barley ${\beta}-glucan$ became the focus of this study. The temperature range and the enthalpy of gelation exhibited maximum values with increasing concentration of Barley ${\beta}-glucan$. Gelating Barley ${\beta}-glucan$ registered an enthalpy of approximately 0.23 cal/g and exhibited onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp) and conclusion temperature (Tc) of $48.8^{\circ}C,\;61.2^{\circ}C\;and\;78.5^{\circ}C$ respectively. The temperature and enthalpy of gelatinizing Barley ${\beta}-glucan$ at both alkali and acid conditions were lower than those at pH 7. With salt present, the Tp and Tc of gelating Barley ${\beta}-glucan$ produced lower temperatures than in conditions where salt was absent, and the enthalpy abruptly decreased. However, increasing salt concentrations did not affect the gelation temperature and the enthalpy of Barley ${\beta}-glucan$. The 'true melting' temperature of Barley ${\beta}-glucan$ was near $184^{\circ}C$ and the melting enthalpy was approximately 34.6 cal/g. The Barley ${\beta}-glucan$ decomposition temperature was in the range of $316^{\circ}C{\sim}346^{\circ}C$.

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Baking Qualities of Bread Dough Substituted with High Amount of ${\beta}-Glucan$ from Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197Bp (Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197BP로부터 생산된 ${\beta}-glucan$ 고함유 식빵 반죽의 특성)

  • Kang, Eun-Young;Yang, Yun-Hyoung;Oh, Sang-Hee;Lee, Jeung-Hee;Kim, Hye-Yooung;Kim, Mi-Kyoung;Cho, Han-Young;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.348-354
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    • 2006
  • Baking quality of dough made of flour substituted with insoluble ${\beta}-glucan$ (10, 20, and 30%), functional food material produced from Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197BP, was evaluated. Optimum time to reach 1st stage of dough fermentation decreased with increasing ${\beta}-glucan$ content, whereas mixing time increased. Addition of ${\beta}-glucan$ did not affect pH of dough. Hunter color L, a, and b values of dough added with up to 20% ${\beta}-glucan$ were not significantly different from those of control. Rheology properties such as cohesiveness and springiness of ${\beta}-glucan$ added dough increased, while hardness and gumminess decreased. Amylogram showed addition of ${\beta}-glucan$ to flour lowered setback and consistency, which are suggested to delay retrogradation.

Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Milk Bread Substituted with High Amount of $\beta$-Glucan ($\beta$-Glucan 고함유 식빵의 이화학적.관능적 특성)

  • Yang Yun-Hyoung;Kang Eun-Young;Kim Mi-Kyoung;Cho Han-Young;Kim Mee-Ree
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.204-212
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    • 2006
  • The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk bread substituted with a high wont of $\beta$-glucan were investigated. As $\beta$-glucan content increased up to 20%, the loaf volume and bread height were increased. There were no significant differences in Hunter color $L^*,\;a^*\;and\;b^*$ values of both crust and c겨mb of milk bread with $\beta$-glucan added up to 20%. The moisture content and water holding capacity of bread with 30% $\beta$-glucan were the highest among the treatments. Textural properties by TPA showed that hardness was not changed by the addition of $\beta$-glucan right after baking. Sensory evaluation results showed tt the scores of color, flavor, taste and over-all acceptability of the bread with $\beta$-glucan were not significantly different among the treated groups, except for milk bread with 30% $\beta$-glucan. Based on our results, $\beta$-glucan addition up to 20% enhanced baking quality of milk bread.

Physicochemical Characteristics of ${\beta}-Glucan$ Isolated from Barley (보리로부터 분리한 ${\beta}-Glucan$의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Sung-Ran;Choi, Hee-Don;Seog, Ho-Moon;Kim, Sung-Soo;Lee, Young-Tack
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1164-1170
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    • 1999
  • The physicochemical characteristics of ${\beta}-glucan$ isolated from waxy and non-waxy barley were investigated. The hull-less waxy and non-waxy barley containing 6.5% and 5.3% of total ${\beta}-glucan$ respectively, were used as a starting material. The yield and ${\beta}-glucan$ content of crude ${\beta}-glucan$ from waxy barley was 5.54% and 62.9%, respectively, and those were higher than 3.34% and 59.2% from non-waxy barley. The crude ${\beta}-glucan$ purified with selective precipitation and enzymatic treatment to obtain the ${\beta}-glucan$ isolate of high purity (>99%). The total yield of purified ${\beta}-glucan$ from waxy and non-waxy barley was 4.46% and 2.59%, respectively. The surface appearance of the purified ${\beta}-glucan$ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed randomly entangled multi-net structure of ${\beta}-glucan$ microfibrils. The melting temperature of ${\beta}-glucan$ from waxy and non-waxy barley measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was $184.6^{\circ}C$, and $180.3^{\circ}C$, respectively. DSC endotherm of ${\beta}-glucan$ solution showed 2 peaks near $68^{\circ}C$ and $84^{\circ}C$. Enthalpy of phase transition was higher in non-waxy ${\beta}-glucan$ than waxy ${\beta}-glucan$, and the intrinsic viscosity of ${\beta}-glucan$ solution from waxy barley was higher than that of non-waxy ${\beta}-glucan$. The pasting viscosity of barley starch with the purified ${\beta}-glucan$ determined by Rapid Visco-Analyzer was higher than that of barley starch without ${\beta}-glucan$, and the effect of ${\beta}-glucan$ on increasing the paste viscosity was greater in non-waxy barley starch.

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Cloning and Molecular Characterization of ${\beta}$-1,3-Glucan Synthase from Sparassis crispa

  • Yang, Yun Hui;Kang, Hyeon-Woo;Ro, Hyeon-Su
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.167-173
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    • 2014
  • A ${\beta}$-glucan synthase gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of polypore mushroom Sparassis crispa, which reportedly produces unusually high amount of soluble ${\beta}$-1,3-glucan (${\beta}$-glucan). Sequencing and subsequent open reading frame analysis of the isolated gene revealed that the gene (5,502 bp) consisted of 10 exons separated by nine introns. The predicted mRNA encoded a ${\beta}$-glucan synthase protein, consisting of 1,576 amino acid residues. Comparison of the predicted protein sequence with multiple fungal ${\beta}$-glucan synthases estimated that the isolated gene contained a complete N-terminus but was lacking approximately 70 amino acid residues in the C-terminus. Fungal ${\beta}$-glucan synthases are integral membrane proteins, containing the two catalytic and two transmembrane domains. The lacking C-terminal part of S. crispa ${\beta}$-glucan synthase was estimated to include catalytically insignificant transmembrane ${\alpha}$-helices and loops. Sequence analysis of 101 fungal ${\beta}$-glucan synthases, obtained from public databases, revealed that the ${\beta}$-glucan synthases with various fungal origins were categorized into corresponding fungal groups in the classification system. Interestingly, mushrooms belonging to the class Agaricomycetes were found to contain two distinct types (Type I and II) of ${\beta}$-glucan synthases with the type-specific sequence signatures in the loop regions. S. crispa ${\beta}$-glucan synthase in this study belonged to Type II family, meaning Type I ${\beta}$-glucan synthase is expected to be discovered in S. crispa. The high productivity of soluble ${\beta}$-glucan was not explained but detailed biochemical studies on the catalytic loop domain in the S. crispa ${\beta}$-glucan synthase will provide better explanations.

Pasting Properties of Crude ${\beta}-Glucan$ from Spent Brewer's Yeast on Wheat Flour and Starch

  • Yoo, Moon-Sik;Lee, Young-Tack
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.485-488
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    • 2007
  • Plentiful amount of spent yeast has been produced as a by-product from breweries. ${\beta}-Glucan$ was prepared from the spent brewer's yeast in a crude form with hot water extraction and subsequent enzymatic treatment. The crude ${\beta}-glucan$ preparation consisted of mainly glucan (53% of total wt), containing approximately 35% ${\beta}-glucan$ content of total weight. The effects of crude ${\beta}-glucan$ substitution (1-9%) on pasting properties of wheat flour and starch were determined using a Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA). Incorporation of yeast ${\beta}-glucan$ into wheat flour and starch significantly decreased peak and [mal viscosities, but slightly increased setback viscosity. The setback viscosity was considerably higher in starch/${\beta}-glucan$ suspension than in flour/${\beta}-glucan$ suspension. It was suggested that preparation of yeast ${\beta}-glucan$ into aqueous dispersion might affect pasting behaviors of wheat flour and starch.