• Title, Summary, Keyword: $\beta3AR$

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The Combined Effect of β2- and β3-Adrenergic Receptor Genotypes on Hyperglycemic Risk in the Korean Population

  • Oh, Hyun-Hee;Kim, Kil-Soo;Park, Sun-Mi;Shin, Seung-Uoo;Yang, Hun-Sung;Yoon, Yoo-Sik
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2004
  • Adrenergic receptors play a major role in thermogenesis and lipolysis in brown and visceral adipose tissues, and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of $\beta$2-adrenergic receptor ($\beta$2AR) and $\beta$3-adrenergic receptor ($\beta$3AR) genotypes on hyperglycemia and obesity in the Korean population. A representative sample consisting of 530 Korean men and women were measured for height, weight, BMI, WHR, obesity index and body composition. The genotypes of $\beta$2AR polymorphism in codon 27 and $\beta$3AR polymorphism in codon 64 were analyzed by the PCR RFLP method. Serum concentrations of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride were determined. The frequencies of $\beta$2AR and $\beta$3AR genotype were: both wild type, 62.5% ; only $\beta$2AR variant type, 12.8% ; only $\beta$3AR variant type, 18.8% ; and both variant type, 5.8% ; the frequency of E and R alleles were 0.098 and 0.137, respectively. Among the physiological parameters, fasting glucose level was significantly higher in subjects with both variant type compared with the three other types (p <0.05), Subjects with both variant type had 12%, 12% and 9.3% increases in serum glucose levels compared with wild type, only $\beta$2AR variant type, and only $\beta$3AR variant type, respectively. When logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the risk for hyperglycemia, the subjects were selected for fasting blood glucose concentrations of more than 6.105 m㏖/L (110 mg/dL), and the odds ratios were 1.215 (p=0.636) for only $\beta$2AR variant type,1.659 (p=0.089) for only $\beta$3AR variant type, and 3.078 (p=0.011) for both variant type. These results suggest that the interaction of $\beta$2AR and $\beta$3AR variant genotypes has a strong association with increased glucose levels, and might be a significant risk factor for hyperglycemia among Korean subjects.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase functionally compartmentalizes the concurrent $G_s$ signaling during $\beta_2$-adrenergic stimulation

  • Jo, Su-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2003
  • Compartmentation of intracellular signaling pathways serves as an important mechanism conferring the specificity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. In the heart, stimulation of $\beta$$_2$-adrenoceptor ($\beta$$_2$-AR), a prototypical GPCR, activates a tightly localized protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which regulates substrates at cell surface membranes, bypassing cytosolic target proteins (eg, phospholamban). Although a concurrent activation of $\beta$$_2$-AR-coupled $G_{i}$ proteins has been implicated in the functional compartmentation of PKA signaling, the exact mechanism underlying the restriction of the $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA pathway remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an essential role in confining the $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA signaling. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 or wortmannin enables $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA signaling to reach intracellular substrates, as manifested by a robust increase in phosphorylation of phospholamban, and markedly enhances the receptor-mediated positive contractile and relaxant responses in cardiac myocytes. These potentiating effects of PI3K inhibitors are not accompanied by an increase in $\beta$$_2$-AR-induced cAMP formation. Blocking $G_{i}$ or $G_{$\square$$\square$}$ signaling with pertussis toxin or $\beta$ARK-ct, a peptide inhibitor of $G_{$\square$$\square$}$, completely prevents the potentiating effects induced by PI3K inhibition, indicating that the pathway responsible for the functional compartmentation of $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA siglaling sequentially involves $G_{i}$, $G_{$\square$$\square$}$, and PI3K. Thus, PI3K constitutes a key downstream event of $\beta$$_2$-AR- $G_{i}$ signaling, which confines and negates the concurrent $\beta$$_2$-AR/Gs-mediated PKA signaling.gnaling.

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Comparative Analysis of Obesity by $\beta$-II, III, Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Korean Young Females ($\beta$-II, III Adrenergic Receptor 유전자 다형성에 따른 20대 한국여성의 식이 섭취량, 비만도 및 체성분의 비교연구)

  • 홍정미;김중학;박윤신;최선미;윤유식;안홍석
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.870-879
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the obesity and state of dietary intake of 216 young Korean females, and the influence of $\beta$-II, III Adrenergic receptor (AR) gene polymorphism upon obesity and dietary intake. The average weight, height and BMI of the subjects were 160 cm, 54 kg, and 20.9 kg/$m^2$, respectively. The average triceps skinfold thickness, waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR were 21.7mm, 73.1cm, 93.3cm and 0.78, respectively. The results of body composition measurement using bioimpedance method, average body fluid, body protein, mineral mass and body fat were 29.271, 7.22 kg, 6.79 kg and 19.16 kg, respectively. A dietary survey was conducted using 24-hour recall method. Average calorie intake was 1621 ㎉, which is 81% of Korean RDA. We detected 182 (84.3%) Gln27 (QQ) homozygotes and 34 (15.7%) Gln27Glu (QE) heterozygotes for $\beta$-II AR polymorphism. For $\beta$-III AR polymorphism, we detected 163 (75.5%) Trp64 (WW) and 53 (24.5%) Trp 64Arg (WR). The results of comparing of obesity by $\beta$-II AR gene polymorphism, obesity index and BMI of QE type were slightly higher than those of the QQ type. For $\beta$-III AR gene polymorphism, the mean BMI, obesity index, fat mass and percent body fat (%) of the WR type were significantly higher than those of the WW type (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that genetic variability in the human $\beta$-III AR is associated with obesity among young Korean females. We also evaluated the effect of the simultaneous presence of the $\beta$-II AR and $\beta$-III AR polymorphism on obesity. We found that the BMI and obesity index of the mutant type in both $\beta$-II AR and $\beta$-III AR were significantly higher than those of the type that has only one gene mutation or has no mutation (p < 0.05), indicating a synergistic effect of $\beta$-II AR and $\beta$-III AR polymorphism on obesity. No association was found between $\beta$-II Ad or $\beta$-III AR polymorphism and dietary intake.

Cardiac physiologic regulation of sub-type specific adrenergic receptors in transgenic mice overexpressing β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors.

  • Kim, Ka Eul;Tae, Hyun-Jin;Natalia, Petrashevskaya;Lee, Jae-Chul;Ahn, Ji Hyeon;Park, Joon Ha;Kim, In Hye;Ohk, Taek Geun;Park, Chan Woo;Cho, Jun Hwi;Won, Moo-Ho
    • Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2016
  • Objective Combination of ${\beta}_1-adrenergic$ receptor (AR) blockade and ${\beta}_2-AR$ activation might be a potential novel therapy for treating heart failure. However, use of ${\beta}-AR$ agonists and/or antagonists in the clinical setting is controversial because of the lack of information on cardiac inotropic or chronotropic regulation by AR signaling. Methods In this study, we performed hemodynamic evaluation by examining force frequency response (FFR), Frank-Starling relationship, and response to a non-selective ${\beta}-AR$ agonist (isoproterenol) in hearts isolated from 6-month-old transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing ${\beta}_1-$ and ${\beta}_2-ARs$ (${\beta}_1-$ and ${\beta}_2-AR$ TG mice, respectively). Results Cardiac physiologic consequences of ${\beta}_1-$ and ${\beta}_2-AR$ overexpression resulted in similar maximal response to isoproterenol and faster temporary decline of positive inotropic response in ${\beta}_2-AR$ TG mice. ${\beta}_1-AR$ TG mice showed a pronounced negative limb of FFR, whereas ${\beta}_2-AR$ TG mice showed high stimulation frequencies with low contractile depression during FFR. In contrast, Frank-Starling relationship was equally enhanced in both ${\beta}_1-$ and ${\beta}_2-AR$ TG mice. Conclusion Hemodynamic evaluation performed in the present showed a difference in ${\beta}_1-$ and ${\beta}_2-AR$ signaling, which may be due to the difference in the desensitization of ${\beta}_1-$ and ${\beta}_2-ARs$.

Association Analyses of ${\beta}_3AR$ Trp64Arg and UCP-2 -866G/A Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index in Korean (한국인에서 ${\beta}_3AR$, UCP2 유전자의 다형성과 체질량지수의 관련성)

  • Jung, Hong-Soo;Lee, Joo-Hyun;SaKong, Jun;Bae, Sung-Wook;Kim, Jung-Hye;Kim, Jae-Ryong
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.252-261
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    • 2007
  • Background : Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in Western society as well as in Korea. Obesity results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Materials and Methods : In an attempt to investigate the association of obesity with its candidate genes, ${\beta}3$ adrenergic receptor (${\beta}_3AR$) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), we analyzed polymorphisms of ${\beta}_3AR$ Trp64Arg and UCP2 -866G/A by PCR-RFLP analysis and the obesity-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose concentration, and plasma lipid profiles in 750 subjects. Results : The Trp64Arg polymorphism in the ${\beta}_3AR$ gene was not statistically associated with the BMI. The UCP2 -866G/A polymorphism was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese subjects (P<0.05). However, the UCP2 -866A/A polymorphism was higher in the non-obese subjects. Conclusion : These results suggest that the UCP2 -866G/A polymorphism might be more useful for the prediction of obesity and obesity-associated diseases in Korean patients than the ${\beta}_3AR$ Trp64Arg polymorphism.

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Tumor Necrosis Factor ${\alpha}$ up-regulates the Expression of beta2 Adrenergic Receptor via NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent Pathway in Osteoblasts

  • Baek, Kyunghwa;Kang, Jiho;Hwang, Hyo Rin;Baek, Jeong-Hwa
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2013
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha ($TNF{\alpha}$) is a multifunctional inflammatory cytokine that regulates various cellular and biological processes. Increased levels of $TNF{\alpha}$ have been implicated in a number of human diseases including diabetes and arthritis. Sympathetic nervous system stimulation via the beta2-adrenergic receptor (${\beta}2AR$) in osteoblasts suppresses osteogenic activity. We previously reported that $TNF{\alpha}$ upregulates ${\beta}2AR$ expression in murine osteoblastic cells and that this modulation is associated with $TNF{\alpha}$ inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. In our present study, we explored whether $TNF{\alpha}$ induces ${\beta}2AR$ expression in human osteoblasts and then identified the downstream signaling pathway. Our results indicated that ${\beta}2AR$ expression was increased in Saos-2 and C2C12 cells by $TNF{\alpha}$ treatment, and that this increase was blocked by the inhibition of NF-${\kappa}B$ activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay results indicated that NF-${\kappa}B$ directly binds to its cognate elements on the ${\beta}2AR$ promoter and thereby stimulates ${\beta}2AR$ expression. These findings suggest that the activation of $TNF{\alpha}$ signaling in osteoblastic cells leads to an upregulation of ${\beta}2AR$ and also that $TNF{\alpha}$ induces ${\beta}2AR$ expression in an NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent manner.

Effects of the $\beta$3-Adrenergic Receptor Genotype on Hyperglycemic Risk Among Korean Women

  • Oh, Hyun-Hee;Kim, Kil-Soo;Park, Sun-Mi;Yang, Hyun-Sung;Yoosik Yoon
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.239-245
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    • 2003
  • The $\beta$3-adrenergic receptor ($\beta$3AR) plays a major role in thermogenesis and lipolysis in brown and visceral adipose tissue, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of $\beta$3AR gene polymorphism on the risk of hyperglycemia in 980 Korean women who attended a weight loss program in a local clinic. Each subject s height, weight, BMI, WHR, obesity index and body composition were measured. The genotype of the $\beta$3AR gene in codon 64 was analyzed by the PCR RFLP method. Serum concentrations of fasting glucose, of total and HDL cholesterol, and of TG were determined. Genotype distributions were as follows : 67% WW type, 31% WR type, and 2% RR type. Among the many measured parameters, fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in the WR/RR type compared with the WW type (p=0.0ll). When the subjects were divided into two groups by a fasting blood glucose level higher or lower than 6.105mmol/L (110mg/dl), the frequency of hyperglycemia showed a significant difference in relation to $\beta$3AR genotype as measured by $\X^2$-analysis (p=0.014); the frequency of hyperglycemia was significantly higher (at 24.8%) in WR/RR type subjects, compared to 18.2% in WW type subjects. When all of the measured parameters were included in stepwise logistic regression analyses to find the risk factors for hyperglycemia, the odds ratios for hyperglycemia were 1.573 (p=0.0ll) for the WR/RR type of the $\beta$3AR gene, 1.053 (p=0.001) for TG, 1.044 (p=0.037) for BMI, and 1.026 for age (p=0.031). These data suggest that the WR/RR genotype of the $\beta$3AR has a very strong association with increased blood glucose level and might be a significant risk factor for hyperglycemia among Korean women.

$TNF{\alpha}$ Increases the Expression of ${\beta}2$ Adrenergic Receptors in Osteoblasts

  • Baek, Kyung-Hwa;Lee, Hye-Lim;Hwang, Hyo-Rin;Park, Hyun-Jung;Kwon, A-Rang;Qadir, Abdul S.;Baek, Jeong-Hwa
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2011
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha ($TNF{\alpha}$) is a multifunctional cytokine that is elevated in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent evidence has suggested that ${\beta}2$ adrenergic receptor (${\beta}2AR$) activation in osteoblasts suppresses osteogenic activity. In the present study, we explored whether $TNF{\alpha}$ modulates ${\beta}AR$ expression in osteoblastic cells and whether this regulation is associated with the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by $TNF{\alpha}$. In the experiments, we used C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and primary cultured mouse bone marrow stromal cells. Among the three subtypes of ${\beta}AR$, ${\beta}2$ and ${\beta}3AR$ were found in our analysis to be upregulated by $TNF{\alpha}$. Moreover, isoproterenol-induced cAMP production was observed to be significantly enhanced in $TNF{\alpha}$-primed C2C12 cells, indicating that $TNF{\alpha}$ enhances ${\beta}2AR$ signaling in osteoblasts. $TNF{\alpha}$ was further found in C2C12 cells to suppress bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteogenic marker genes including Runx2, ALP and osteocalcin. Propranolol, a ${\beta}2AR$ antagonist, attenuated this $TNF{\alpha}$ suppression of osteogenic differentiation. $TNF{\alpha}$ increased the expression of receptor activator of NF-${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL), an essential osteoclastogenic factor, in C2C12 cells which was again blocked by propranolol. In summary, our data show that $TNF{\alpha}$ increases ${\beta}2AR$ expression in osteoblasts and that a blockade of ${\beta}2AR$ attenuates the suppression of osteogenic differentiation and stimulation of RANKL expression by $TNF{\alpha}$. These findings imply that a crosstalk between $TNF{\alpha}$ and ${\beta}2AR$ signaling pathways might occur in osteoblasts to modulate their function.

Neural Adaptation of Beta Adrenergic Receptor Subtypes after Chronic Imipramine Treatment: A Quantitative Autoradiographic Study

  • Park, Hae-Young;Hong, Young-Sook;Park, Chan-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.161-167
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    • 1997
  • This study compares the subtypes of central beta adrenergic receptors (ARs) of brains of untreated rats with those of imipramine-treated rats. Beta adrenergic receptors were measured by quantitative autoradiography of the binding of $^3H$-dihydroalprenolol ($^3H$-DHA) in coronal sections of rat brain. Repeated treatment of rats with imipramine significantly reduced the binding of $^3H$-DHA to beta-1 AR in many brain areas, especially throughout the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdala. Significant reductions of the binding of $^3H$-DHA to beta-2 AR were not found in any area of the brain. These data suggests that a selective down-regulation of beta-1 AR may be involved in the adaptive changes occurring after prolonged imipramine treatment.

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Cloning and Expression of β1-Adrenergic Receptor Genes in Adipose Tissues from Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Ha, S.H.;Chung, M.I.;Baik, M.G.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.13-16
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    • 2001
  • Bovine ${\beta}1$-adrenergic receptor (AR) cDNA was cloned using degenerative primers. Bovine ${\beta}1$-AR coded for 467 amino acids and the comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of sheep showed 93.4% identity. Northern blot analysis indicated that transcript size for the bovine ${\beta}1$-AR was 3.6 kb in the adipose tissue. The expression level of three $\beta$-ARs (1, 2, and 3) in bovine abdominal, subcutaneous, and perirenal adipose tissues were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the levels of ${\beta}1$- and ${\beta}3$-AR mRNA were found to be lower in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than in the abdominal and perirenal adipose tissues. These results suggest that the expression of $\beta$-ARs mRNA are differentially regulated among the adipose tissues.