• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\alpha}$-glucosidase

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The Difference of Efficacy for Oral Hypoglysemic Pharmacotherapy Based on Sasang Constitutional Medicine Among Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Korea (제 2형 당뇨병 환자에서 사상체질에 따른 경구 혈당강하요법의 치료 반응성 및 사용 패턴 평가)

  • Kim, Ji Yeon;Lee, Myung Koo;Kim, Jung Tae;Lim, Sung Cil
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2014
  • Although Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are generally treated by western medicine, many of them strongly believe in the traditional oriental Sasang constitutional classification and depend on it for food, health supplements, and oriental medicines decision making. Sasang constitutional classification is a part of traditional Korean medicine that divides people into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE), which differ in inherited characteristics such as appearance, personality traits, susceptibility to diseases, and drug responses. It is recommended for T2DM patients to control their blood glucose very well from early stages with drugs and diet. However, many T2DM patients respond differently to their drugs, even though they receive the same medicine. Therefore, the present study investigated whether Sasang constitutional type can explain the therapeutic differences between oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) therapy (mono, dual and triple drug therapy). Patients of 618 with T2DM diagnosis and Sasang constitutional type known who received both western and oriental medicine treatment in a hospital between April 2006 and April 2013 retrospectively studied. HbA1c (%) and blood glucose (mg/dl) levels before OHAs therapy and 3 month after were collected for metformin (MET) or sulfonylurea (SU) monotherapy, MET+SU dual therapy, MET+except SU (where was either alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, meglitinide or thiazolidinedione) dual therapy, and triple therapy, according to Sasang constitutional type. For statistical analysis, ANOVA was used and paired t-test by SPSS 19.0 where P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Pattern was similar levels of HbA1c and blood glucose and which was decreased in order of mono, MET+SU dual, MET+except SU dual and triple therapy. In all patients comparison, for the So-yang (SY) constitutional type, either monotherapy was less effective; for Te-eum (TE) type, MET+SU dual therapy was less effective while MET+except SU dual therapy was more effective and the triple therapy was less effective; and for So-eum (SE) type, the triple therapy was more effective. For the management of TE type it is recommended to use drugs except SU when dual therapy is needed, restrict triple therapy and consider dual and insulin therapy; for SY type it is recommended to follow current guidelines; and for SE type it is advisable to skip dual therapy and start the triple therapy early. Finally, the therapeutic response to OHAs is different among Korean T2DM patients with different Sasang constitutional types. Taken together, the choice of effective OHAs therapy for each type is necessary in order to minimize the poor control of blood glucose level, the risk of complications, and the costs from a failure of therapy.

Bioactive compounds of Cheonggukjang prepared by different soybean cultivars with Bacillus subtilis HJ18-9 (Bacillus subtilis HJ18-9 이용하여 제조한 품종별 청국장의 품질특성과 isoflavone 함량의 변화)

  • Song, Jin;Lee, Kyung-Ha;Choi, Hye-Sun;Hwang, Kyung-A
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.535-544
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes of isoflavone composition (glycoside and bio-active aglycone) in Cheonggukjang and to evaluate its quality characteristics depending on different soybean cultivars (Daewon, Daepoong, Wooram, Hwangkeumol and Saedanback). The bioactivity of Cheonggukjang was enhanced during fermentation at $37^{\circ}C$ for 48 h. Activities of ${\alpha}$-amylase, protease, and cellulase increased significantly after 48 h fermentation (p<0.05). In addition, amino-type nitrogen and reducing sugar contents in Cheonggukjang fermented with B. subtilis increased significantly after 48 h fermentation (p<0.05). Among the isoflavones, the content of $\beta$-glucosides and acetyl-glucosides decreased, while aglycone content increased during fermentation. Especially, Cheonggukjang fermented with Daepoong cultivars showed the greatest increase in daidzein, genistein and glycitein contents. After 48 h fermentation, the contents of daidzein, genistein and glycitein in the Cheonggukjang fermented with Daepoong cultivars increased significantly up to $503.65{\pm}2.76$, $111.40{\pm}0.42$, and $633.95{\pm}6.01{\mu}g/g$ (p<0.05), respectively. Total aerobic and anaerobic cell counts increased with increase in fermentation time. Therefore, it would be beneficial for the food industry if components of Cheonggukjang could be separated and used to develop functional products.

Fermentation characteristics of mulberry (Cudrania tricuspidata) fruit vinegar produced by acetic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods (전통발효식품으로부터 분리한 초산균을 이용한 꾸지뽕 열매 발효식초 제조 및 발효특성)

  • Yim, Eun-Jung;Jo, Seung-Wha;Lee, Eun-Sil;Park, Hae-Suk;Ryu, Myeong-Seon;Uhm, Tai-Boong;Kim, Hyoun-Young;Cho, Sung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.108-118
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    • 2015
  • To raise the added value of the fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata, Cudrania tricuspidata vinegar was produced and examined for its fermentation conditions. Forty nine acetic acid bacteria with resistance against acetic acid, ethanol, and sulfide as high acetic acid producers were isolated from fermented foods and identified as Acetobacter indonesiensis, A. cerevisiae, A. orientalis, A. tropicalis, A. fabarum, A. pasteurianus, and A. syzygii based on the results of the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Among them, two GRAS strains, A. pasteurianus SCMA5 and SCMA6, were finally selected for the production of acetic acid. Optimal vinegar productions were obtained from the medium containing 40% (v/v) fruit juice of Cudrania tricuspidata and 5% (v/v) ethanol at $25^{\circ}C$ for 72 hr. The sensory panel preferred the vinegar fermented with the SCMA06 to that with the SCM05 strain. The radical scavenger capacity of DPPH was 53% higher than that of the control in the vinegar fermented with the SCMA06 strain. The ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitor activity as an index of the antidiabetic drug showed 91% inhibition, which is higher than that of acabose. This study will be helpful for the scale-up production of vinegar with the fruit of Cudrania tricuspidata.

The Biofunctional Activities and Shelf-life of Low-salt Squid Sikhae (저식염 오징어 식해의 생리활성 및 유통기한 설정)

  • Cho, Won-Il;Kim, Sang-Moo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2012
  • Sikhae is a traditional Korean fermented seafood with a 7-10% salt concentration. Consumers have begun to look for low-salt food because excess salt is known to cause hypertension and gastric cancer. The quality characteristics of low-salt squid sikhae were investigated at different fermentation temperatures and periods, so as to determine its shelflife. The shelf-life of the low-salt (5%) squid sikhae at $-1^{\circ}C$ based on pH was 142 days. The functional activities of the ethanol extract of squid sikhae such as its antioxidant activity and inhibitions on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase, ${\beta}$-glucuronidase, and elastase were stronger than those of the water extract. Based on the results of sensory evaluation, the low-salted squid sikhae was very similar to fermented seafood. In conclusion, low-salt sikhae is commercially viable.

Production of fermented apple juice using Lactobacillus plantarum JBE245 isolated from Korean traditional Meju (메주에서 분리한 Lactobacillus plantarum JBE245를 이용한 사과 발효 음료 제조)

  • Heo, Jun;Park, Hae-Suk;Uhm, Tai-Boong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.445-453
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    • 2016
  • Eighty-four strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Korean fermented foods for the production of fermented apple juice. Among these strains, the JBE245 strain that showed rapid growth and food functionality was selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. This strain reached the stationary phase after 24 h fermentation at $30^{\circ}C$ with $1.5{\times}10^8$ colony forming unit (CFU)/mL of viable cells, and maintained its viability levels even after 14 days of storage. During fermentation, the ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity (40.4%), total polyphenol content (583.6 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mL), and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (52%) were increased. As judged by a sensory test, the overall preference for the fermented juice (4.22) was comparable to that for the unfermented juice (4.72), indicating that fermentation does not significantly affect the sensory characteristics of apple juice. Consequently, the fermented beverage containing L. plantarum JBE245 and apple juice is a promising functional health food.

Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms Producing the Soy Protein-Hydrolyzing Enzyme from Traditional Mejus (전통메주로부터 대두단백질 가수분해효소 생산성 미생물의 분리 및 동정)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, Seong-Ho;Joo, Hyun-Kyu;Lee, Gap-Sang;Yim, Moo-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.86-94
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    • 2000
  • In order to develop the enzymatic hydrolysis system concerned with taste and flavor, strains having the high hydrolyzing activity on the soy protein were selected from some traditional Mejus. Two molds and one bacterium producing enzymes which were different in character of hydrolysis were isolated and identified. Leucine and azodye enzyme activities of both M4 and M5 were relatively high among in the isolated molds. And, leucine enzyme activity of B16 was the lowest in the isolated bacteria. These strains were isolated as microorganisms having a dissimilar hydrolysis pattern on the soy protein by enzymatic reactions. Mold M4 on the culture solid media was mycelium colors of white and its sclerotia colors were changed from white to black. According to the result of slide culture, radial conidial head, subclavate vesicle, conidia of subglobose, stipes of uncolored with smooth walls and metula and phialides were existed. Because M4 was taxonomically similar to the characteristics of Aspergillus oryzae (ahlburg) species, M4 was identified and named as Aspergillus oryzae M4.Mold M5 showed white and black mycelium on the MEA medium. Mold M5 colony exhibited grayish-green color and have long(7 mm) sporangiophores at slide culture. Sporangia became brownish-gray and the wall of larger sporangia was broken to form small collars, and smaller sporangia were fomed continually from large basal membrane. Columella is globose and hyaline, and sporangiospores are ellipsoidal of small diameter$(80\;{\mu}m)$. Because M5 was taxonomically similar to the Mucor circinelloides of zygomycetes, M5 was was identified and named as Mucor circinelloides M5. Bacteria B16 colony was opaque white, circular and lobate, and had rod shaped endospore. B16 was found positive in stain, catalase, ${\beta}-glucosidse$ and V-P tests. B16 was found to utilize D-fructose, ${\alpha}-D-glucose$, maltose, D-mannose, D-raffinose, stachyose and sucrose. By the morphological and physiological results, the characteristics of B16 was thought to correspond to that of Bacillus megaterium. However, fatty acid composition was similar to Paenibacillus marcerans, requiring further study for the definite identification. Accordingly, Bacteria B16 was provisionally classified and named as Bacillus megaterium B16.

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Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction from Actinidia arguta sprout against high glucose-induced in vitro neurotoxicity (포도당으로 유도된 in vitro 뇌신경세포 독성에 대한 다래 순 아세트산에틸 분획물의 보호 효과)

  • Yoo, Seul Ki;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kim, Jong Min;Kang, Jin Yong;Park, Su Bin;Han, Hye Ju;Kim, Chul-Wo;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.517-527
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    • 2018
  • The current study investigated in vitro anti-diabetic and neuroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate fraction in Actinidia arguta sprouts (EFAS), on $H_2O_2$ and high glucose-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells. EFAS had high total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. An assessment of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity of EFAS, as well as its potential for inhibiting malondialdehyde production, indicated that EFAS may possess significant antioxidant properties. EFAS exerted inhibitory effects on ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ via glycemic regulation which forms advanced glycation end products. In addition, EFAS exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects. Moreover, EFAS displayed protective effects against $H_2O_2$ and high glucose-induced cell death, and inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in MC-IXC cells. Finally, the main physiological compound of EFAS was identified via high performance liquid chromatography as a rutin.

Sludge reduction by Enzyme Pretreatment (효소 전처리를 통한 슬러지 저감)

  • 김정래;심상준;최수형;염익태
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.93-97
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    • 2004
  • We investigate the effect of enzyme pretreatment using protease, carbohydrase, and lipase on improvement of sludge treatment efficiency by measuring SCOD and TCOD. The enzyme-pretreatment increases SCOD of excess sludge. In addition, the amount of sludge reduction during digestion, in terms of SCOD and TCOD, are enhanced by enzyme-pretreatment. Among pretense, carbohydrase, and lipase, pretense showed the best enhancement of the sludge treatment efficiency. Sludge digestion followed by ozone and enzyme treatments showed more effective sludge treatment when compared with ozone treatment alone. Therefore, we expect that enzyme pretreatment can be used as a useful tool for enhancing the sludge treatment efficiency.

Physiological Properties of Jeju Traditional Doenjang (제주 재래식된장의 생리적 특성)

  • Hwang, Joon-Ho;Oh, You-Sung;Lim, Ja-Hun;Park, Ji-Eun;Kim, Mi-Bo;Yoon, Hoon-Seok;Lim, Sang-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.12
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    • pp.1656-1663
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    • 2009
  • The antioxidant activities of water extracts from wild vegetables such as Ligularia fischeri (GC), Capsicum annuum L. (GCY), Aster scaber (CNM), Petasites japonicus S. et Z. Max (MYD), Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam) (GGM) were evaluated and compared with water extracts from freeze dried block. The antioxidant properties of water extracts from wild vegetables and their freeze dried block were evaluated using different antioxidant tests; 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and nitrite scavenging activities. The water extracts from wild vegetables were found to have a higher total phenolic content than water extracts from freeze dried block. Total phenolic contents of water extracts from GC, GCY, CNM, MYD, and GGM were $471.66{\pm}3.52\;{\mu}g/mg,\;141.33{\pm}2.51\;{\mu}g/mg,\;177.33{\pm}2.88\;{\mu}g/mg,\;238.66{\pm}9.50\;{\mu}g/mg\;and\;122.67{\pm}3.51\;{\mu}g/mg$, respectively. At the concentrations of 1000 ppm, water extracts from GC, GCY, CNM, and GGM showed higher activities than water extracts from their freeze dried block on DPPH radical scavenger activity. The activity of water extracts from CNM, GC, GCY, MYD, and GGM were 90.9%, 89.9%, 76.6%, 71.1%, and 57.4%, respectively. When 10000 ppm of GC, GCY, CNM, MYD, and GGM water extracts tested for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, activities were increased by 38.8%, 33.4%, 35.9%, 34.3%, and 33.8%, respectively and a similar effect was found with water extracts from GCY, CNM, and GGM freeze dried block at 10000 ppm concentration. However, the water extracts from GC and MYD was slightly more effective than freeze dried block extracts. The water extracts from wild vegetables and their freeze dried block had effective DPPH radical scavenger activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity at all tested concentrations. Nitrite scavenging activity of GC water extract significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner and the extract had higher nitrite scavenging activity than extracts freeze dried block extracts. We found that freeze dried block maintained antioxidant activities of the wild vegetables.

Fermentation characteristics of mulberry (Cudrania tricuspidata) fruits produced using microbes isolated from traditional fermented food, and development of fermented soybean food (전통장류로부터 분리한 발효미생물을 이용한 꾸지뽕 열매 발효물의 특성 및 장류제품 개발)

  • Lee, Eun-Sil;Jo, Seung-Wha;Yim, Eun-Jung;Kim, Yun-Sun;Park, Hae-Suk;Kim, Myung-Kon;Cho, Sung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.866-877
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to develop a new functional traditional fermented soybean food using Cudrania tricuspidata fruits and fermentation microbes isolated from traditional fermented food. Aspergillus oryzae koji, Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp. were used for the selection of a suitable microbe for the fermentation of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits, and as a result, Bacillus licheniformis SCDB 1234 was selected. SCDB 1234 enhanced the concentration of kaempferol in the Cudrania tricuspidata fruits from 9.54 to $217.04{\mu}g/g$ (about 22 times). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the fermented materials was similar to that of BHA and BHT (92~99 ppm). The tyrosinase inhibitory activity was high with arbutin (95 ppm) and kojic acid (90 ppm). Doenjang-added fermentation materials of the Cudrania tricuspidata fruits were developed, and the organic acid, reducing sugar, and free amino acid of the developed Doenjang were analyzed. The pancreatic lipase inhibitory (PLI) activity and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory (AGI) activity of the fermentation materials of the Cudrania tricuspidata fruits and the developed Doenjang were investigated, and it was found that after fermentation, the PLI and AGI activities of the fermentation materials of the Cudrania tricuspidata fruits were higher than those before fermentation, and that the AGI activity of the developed Doenjang after aging ($91.25{\pm}0.04%$) was higher than that before aging ($84.89{\pm}0.08%$).