• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\alpha}_2$-adrenoceptor agonists

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The Role of Central Postsynaptic ${\alpha}_2$-Adrenoceptor on the Immobility Duration in the Forced-swimming Test Mice (새앙쥐 강제수영시 부동자세 시간에 대한 Central postsynaptic ${\alpha}_2$-Adrenoceptor의 역할에 대한 연구)

  • Rhim, Byung-Yong;Kim, Sang-Kon;Lee, Won-Suk;Hong, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 1985
  • 1) In the study of the forced-swimming test in mice (FSM), the duration of immobility posture was dose-dependently shortened by ${\alpha}_2$-agonists, clonidine and guanabenz. BH-T 933 and oxymetazoline also decreased it . Xylazine rather increased the immobility duration at low dose. 2) ${\alpha}_1$-Agonists, cirazoline, amidephrine and methoxamine, however, showed inconsistent effect on the immobility duration (ID). 3) The decrease in ID by clonidine and guanabenz was antagonized by pretreatment with yohimbine, idazoxan and phentolamine (${\alpha}_2$antagonist), but not by prazosin and corynanthine (${\alpha}_1$-antagonist) .4) The ID in the FSM was shortened dose-dependently by d-amphetamine, and it was also antagonized by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. 5) In the mice pretreated with either ${\alpha}$-methyl-p-tyrosine or reserpine, or with combination of both, the decrease in ID was still evoked by clonidine. 6) When the mice were chronically treated with antidepressants (desipramine and imipramine), or with electroconvulsive shock, clonidine still decreased the ID as it did in the control. 7) These results provided the evidences to hypothesize that the change of the ID in the FSM is closely related with the postsynaptie ${\alpha}_2$-adrenoceptor located on the central noradrenergic neuron body. Furthermore, it is assumed that this escape-directed behavior enhanced by ${\alpha}_2$-adrenoceptor agonist may be the result in some analogy with the incentive of drives which are directed toward the self-preservation.

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Postsynaptic $\alpha_1$-, $\alpha_2$-Adrenoceptors in Rat Isolated Aorta (적출한 흰쥐 대동맥에 있어서 postsynaptic $\alpha_1$-, $\alpha_2$- 아드레날린 수용체에 관한 연구)

  • 임광진;조윤성;고광호;김미영
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 1986
  • $\alpha$-Adrenoceptor subtypes in the isolated rat aortic strips were examined by using agonists and antagonists which have varying selectivity for $\alpha_1$- and $\alpha_2$- adrenoceptors. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine produced a similar magnitude of maximum contractions. $pA_2$ values for prazosin and yohimbine were not significantly different using norepinephrine or phenylephrine as the agonist, suggesting a single population of alpha-adrenoceptor. Contractile responses produced by alpha-agonists were antagonized more effectively by prazosin (approximately 1000 fold) than by yohimbine.

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Relaxant Actions of α2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Rat Aorta 2-Adrenoceptor Agonists의 흰쥐 대동맥 이완 작용)

  • Cho, In-gook;Lee, Sang-woo;Kang, Hyung-sub;Seo, Heyng-seok;Kim, Jin-shang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.361-371
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    • 2003
  • The vasorelaxant actions and blood pressure lowering of the ${\alpha}_2$-adrenoceptor agonists (${\alpha}_2$-AAs) clonidine and xylazine were investigated in rat isolated aortic rings and anesthesized rats. Both clonidine and xylazine produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the sustained contraction induced by norepinephrine (NE), but not by KCl. NE-induced contractions were attenuated partly by nifedipine or verapamil, voltage dependent $Ca^{2+}$ channel blockers. These $Ca^{2+}$ channel blockers-resistant contractions were abolished by clonidine or xylazine. Inhibitory effects of a ${\alpha}_2$-AAs on contractions could be reversed by ryanodine, an intracellular $Ca^{2+}$, transport blocker, and tetrabutylammonium (TBA), a $Ca^{2+}$ activated $K^+$ channel blocker, but not by nifedipine, glibenclamide or removal of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ and endothelium. Moreover, ${\alpha}_2$-AAs produced relaxation in NE-precontracted isolated intact aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner, but not in KCl-precontracted rings. The relaxant effects of ${\alpha}_2$-AAs were inhibited by ryanodine and TBA, but not by nifedipine, glibenclamide, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), aminoguanidine (AG), 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarhurnte (NCDC), lithium sulfate, staurosporine or removal of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ and endothelium. In vivo, infusion of xylazine elicited significant decrease in anerial blood pressure. This xylazinelowered blood pressure was completely inhibited by the intravenous injection of TBA, but not by the intravenous injection of glibenclamide, L-NNA, L-NAME, AG, nifedipine, lithium sulfate or saponin.. These findings showed that the receptor-mediated and ${\alpha}_2$-adrenoceptor A-stimulated endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect may be explained by decreasing intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release and activation of $Ca^{2+}$-activated $K^+$ channels, which may contribute to the hypotensive effects of ${\alpha}_2$-AAs in rats.

Possible Relationship between Hyperactivity of Central $_{{\alpha}2_}$-Adrenoceptors and Muricidal Behavior in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats (후신경구절제 흰쥐에서 Muricide 발생기전으로서 $_{{\alpha}2_}$-Adrenoceptors의 기능항진에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Won-Suk;Rhim Byung-Yong;Hong Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 1986
  • The involvement of central $_{{\alpha}2}$-adrenoceptors in the development of muricide (mouse-killing behavior) in the olfactoly bulbectomized (OB) rats was strudied. The fractional turnover rate of noradrenaline (NA) in forebrain from OB muricidal rats was significantly lowered than that from sham rats. However, after yohimbine or idazoxan treatment, NA turnover was significantly increased in concert with inhibition of the development of muricide in OB rats. By radioligand binding studies with $[^3H]$ yohimbine, the maximum binding $(B_{max})$ of $[^3H]$ yohimbine to cerebral cortical membrane from OB rats was significantly higher than that from sham rats without change of affinity for agonists and antagonists$(K_i)$. With these results it was suggested that muricidal behavior of OB rats has a close relevance to the hyperactivity of central $_{{\alpha}2}$-adrenoceptor system.

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Effect of Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonist on Beta Adrenoceptor-Nediated Control of Blood Glucose in the Fasted Mouse

  • Han, Guie-In;Kim, Mie-Young
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.219-222
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    • 1986
  • Dose-dependent increasesin blood glucose were produced by epinephrine and clonidine in fasted male mice. Isoproterenol was ineffective in increasing blood glucose at lower doses ($10^{-8}M$/kg-$10^{-7}M$/kg); with higher dose ($10^{-6}M$/kg) the glucose level was increased. The hyperglycemia induced by epinephrine was inhibited by yobimbine, prazosin and propranolol, indicating that the hyperglycemic effect of epinephrine is mediated by alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta adrenoceptor. When clonidine (10$^{-6}$ M/kg) was administered simultaneously with sioproterenol ($10^{-6}M$/kg), an enhenced hyperglycemic effect was observed. The increment produced by clonidine plus isoproterenol was higher than that by clonidine alone. These increment produced by clonidine plus isoproterenol was higher than that by clonidine alone. These results suggest that stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptor may be reponsible for the exertion of the hyperglycemic effect by beta agonists in fasted mice.

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Pharmacological Evaluation of the Mechanism of ${\alpha}-Adrenoceptor-Mediating$ Sleep in Chickens (${\alpha}$-아드레나린 수용체의 매개에 의한 병아리 수면에 대한 약리학적 고찰)

  • Jeong, S.H.;Sohn, U.D.;Song, C.S.;Hong, K.W.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 1984
  • It was aimed to study the effects of ${\alpha}_2-adrenoceptor$ agonists on the sleeping time in $one{\sim}two-day-old$ chickens. Furthermore, it was also evaluated whether ${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ agonist and antagonist might affect the sleeping in the chickens and discussed in relation with opiate receptor. 1) Guanabenz, clonidine, guanfacine and B-HT 933 decreased the latency of the loss of righting reflex in a dose-dependent manner, but B-HT 920 and oxymetazoline slightly prolonged it. 2) ${\alpha}_2-Adrenoceptor$ agonists produced dose·related increase in sleeping time. The potency was guanabenz>clonidine>oxymetazoline${\geq}$B-HT 933${\geq}$B-HT 920>guanfacine in this order. 3) ${\alpha}_2-Adrenoceptor$ antagonists decreased guanabenz-induced sleeping time in a dose ·dependent manner. The rank order of ${\alpha}_2-adrenoceptor$ antagonists was yohimbine>rauwolscine>piperoxan${\geq}$RX 781094. 4) Sleeping time caused by both ethanol and hexobarbital was not affected by yohimbine in chickens. 5) Methoxamine and phenylephrine showed little significant effect on the guanabenz-induced sleeping time. However, prazosin increased it. Paradoxically, corynanthine rather caused to decrease it. These results suggest that the stimulation of central ${\alpha}_2-adrenoceptor$ mediates sleeping, however it is remained uncertain in the role of central ${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ in chickens. In addition, the one~two-day-old chickens may be considered as a useful, inexpensive and simple experimental model to evaluate the in vivo pharmacological action of the ${\alpha}_2-adrenoceptor$ agonist and antagonist related to sedation.

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Study on Alpha-Adrenoceptors of the Isolated Atrium in Cold Blood Animals (I) -Experiments with clonidine, oxymetazoline and phenylephrine in frog atria- (척출 냉혈동물 심방의 Alpha-Adrenoceptors에 관한 연구(I) -개구리 심방의 clonidine, oxymetazoline 및 phenylephrine에 대한 반응-)

  • Choi, Soo-Hyung;Park, Haeng-Soon;Shin, Dong-Ho
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 1988
  • Effects of the selective alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine, oxymetazoline and phenylephrine, on heart rate and contractile force were investigated in the isolated frog atria and it was attempted to examine the influence of adrenoceptor antagonist upon those. Clonidine produced dose-dependent negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects. The negative chronotropic effect was significantly attenuated in the presence of prazosin and yohimbine but not propranolol. The positive inotropic effect was significantly attenuated by prazosin, yohimbine and propranolol. Oxymetazoline produced dose-dependent negative chronotropic and inotropic effects. The negative chronotropic effect was significantly attenuated in the presence of prazosin, which was partially augmented by yohimbine but was not affected by propranolol. The negative inotropic effect was not affected by propranolol but it was partially augmented by yohimbine and was partially attenuated by prazosin. Phenylephrine produced dose-dependent positive chronotropic and inotropic effects. The positive chronotropic and inotropic effect were significantly attenuated in the presence of propranolol but were not affected by prazosin and yohimbine. These results suggest that the negative chronotropic effect by clonidine and oxymetazoline is mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors, the positive chronotropic and inotropic effects by phenylephrine are mediated by beta-adrenoceptors, and alpha-adrenoceptors mediated the inhibitory chronotropic responses exists in the isolated frog atria.

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Effects of phenylephrine-induced PKC activation on Mg2+ release in guinea pig heart and isolated ventricular myocytes (기니픽 심장과 심근세포에서 Phenylephrine에 의한 PKC 활성화가 Mg2+ 유리에 미치는 영향)

  • Chang, Sung-eun;Kang, Hyung-sub;Kim, Jin-sang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.29-42
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    • 1998
  • $Mg^{2+}$ is one of the most abundant divalent cations in mammalian body(0.2~1.0mM) and the important physiological roles are : first, the cofactor of many enzyme activities, second, the regulator of glycolysis and DNA synthesis, third, the important role of bioenergetics by regulating of phosphorylation, fourth, the influence of cardiac metabolism and function. In this work we have investigated the regulation of the $Mg^{2+}$ induced by ${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ stimulation in perfused guinea pig hearts and isolated myocytes. The $Mg^{2+}$ content of the perfusate or the supernatant was measured by atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. The elimination of $Mg^{2+}$ in the medium increased the force of contraction of right ventricular papillary muscles, and the left ventricular pressure. Phenylephrine also enhanced the force of contraction in the presence of $Mg^{2+}-free$ medium. ${\alpha}_1-Agonists$ such as phenylephrine and methoxamine were found to induce $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in both perfused hearts and myocytes. These effects were blocked by prazosin, an ${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ antagonist. The $Mg^{2+}$ influx could also be induced by phenylephrine and R59022, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor. In the presence of protein kinase C(PKC) inhibitors, phenylephrine produced an increase in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux from perfused hearts. Furthermore, $Mg^{2+}$ efflux by phenylephrine was amplified by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA). This enhancement of $Mg^{2+}$ efflux by PMA was blocked by prazosin in perfused hearts. By contrast, the $Mg^{2+}$ influx could be induced by verapamil, nifedipine, ryanodine in perfused hearts, but not in myocytes. $W^7$, a $Ca^{2+}$/calmodulin antagonist, completely blocked the phenylephrine-induced $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in perfused hearts. In conclusion, $Mg^{2+}$ is responsible for the cardiac activity associated with ${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ stimulation. The mobilization of $Mg^{2+}$ is decreased or increased by ${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ stimulation in guinea pig hearts. These responses may be related specifically to the respective pathways of signal transduction. A decrease in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux by ${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ stimulation in hearts can be through PKC dependent and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ levels.

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Studies on Adrenoceptors Involved in Regulation of Sodium Transport in Frog Skin (개구리 피부에 있어서 Na 수송을 조절하는 Adrenoceptors에 관한 연구)

  • Choi Bong-Kyu;Kim Kyung-Keun;Kim Heung-Kyu;Kook Young-Johng
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 1986
  • To ascertain the existence of various adrenoceptors involved in active transport of sodium in the frog skin and to delineate their physiological roles, the influence of various adrenergic agonists and antagonists on the potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (SCC) and total skin conductance (TSC) of the isolated frog skin of Rana nigromaculata were investigated. PD and SCC were determined with Ussing's technique. Drugs were administered to the serosal side of the skin. Experimental results were summarized as follows: 1. The responses to norepinephrine (NE, $6{\times}10^{-8}-6{\times}10^{-5})M$), phenylephrine (PE, $5{\times}10^{-6}-5{\times}10^{-4}M$) and epinephrine (Epi, $5.5{\times}10^{-7}-5.5{\times}10^{-5}M$) were characterized by marked elevation of PD & SCC in dose-related fashion, but the maximal effect attained by Epi was less than those of NE and PE. 2. These increments of PD & SCC were significantly inhibited by prazosin $(2{\times}10^{-6}M)$, a speciflc ${\alpha}_1$-adrenoceptor blocker. The stimulatory effect on PD & SCC were completely abolished by phenoxybenzamine (PBZ, $3.3{\times}10^{-5}M$), an irreversible ${\alpha}$-adrenoceptor blocking agent. Furthermore, with a larger doses of Epi produced marked decline of PD & SCC after the PBZ pretreatment. 3. Isoproterenol (ISP), a ${\beta}$-adrenoceptor agonist, in concentrations ranging from $5{\times}10^{-7}$ to $5{\times}10^{-6}M$ produced dose-related decrease in PD & SCC, which could be abolished by pretreatment with propranolol $(4{\times}10^{-6}M)$, a specific ${\beta}$-adrenoceptor blocker. It was further noted that the effects of Epi on PD & SCC were markedly potentiated by Propranolol pretreatment. 4. Clonidine as well as guanabenz produced increases in PD & SCC and these effects were inhibited more specifically by prazosin pretreatment than by yohimbine. These results indicated that there exist in the frog skin two distinctive types of adrenoceptors, ${\alpha}$ and ${\beta}$, which roughly corresponds to those in mammals, and that the ${\alpha}$ type of adrenoceptors mediate the stimulation of PD & SCC, whereas ${\beta}$-adrenoceptors mediate the inhibition. However, based on evidence at hand, no conclusion could be drawn on the subtype of ${\alpha}$-adrenoceptors which is involved in the stimulation of sodium transport in the frog skin.

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Safe Sedation and Hypnosis using Dexmedetomidine for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in a Prone Position

  • Kim, Kyung Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2014
  • Dexmedetomidine, an imidazoline compound, is a highly selective ${\alpha}_2$-adrenoceptor agonist with sympatholytic, sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties. In order to minimize the patients' pain and anxiety during minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) when compared to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, an adequate conscious sedation (CS) or monitored anesthetic care (MAC) should be provided. Commonly used intravenous sedatives and hypnotics, such as midazolam and propofol, are not suitable for operations in a prone position due to undesired respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine converges on an endogenous non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep-promoting pathway to exert its sedative effects. The great merit of dexmedetomidine for CS or MAC is the ability of the operator to recognize nerve damage during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy, a representative MISS. However, there are 2 shortcomings for dexmedetomidine in MISS: hypotension/bradycardia and delayed emergence. Its hypotension/bradycardiac effects can be prevented by ketamine intraoperatively. Using atipamezole (an ${\alpha}_2$-adrenoceptor antagonist) might allow doctors to control the rate of recovery from procedural sedation in the future. MAC, with other analgesics such as ketorolac and opioids, creates ideal conditions for MISS. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine provides a favorable surgical condition in patients receiving MISS in a prone position due to its unique properties of conscious sedation followed by unconscious hypnosis with analgesia. However, no respiratory depression occurs based on the dexmedetomidine-related endogenous sleep pathways involves the inhibition of the locus coeruleus in the pons, which facilitates VLPO firing in the anterior hypothalamus.