• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\beta}$-Secretase

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Characterization of a New Antidementia $\beta$-Secretase Inhibitory Peptide from Rubus coreanus

  • Lee, Dae-Hyoung;Lee, Dae-Hyung;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.489-494
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    • 2008
  • In order to develop a potent antidementia $\beta$-secretase inhibitor from phytochemicals, $\beta$-secretase inhibitory activities of extracts from many medicinal plants and herbs were determined. Water extracts from Rubus coreanus showed the highest $\beta$-secretase inhibitory activity of 84.5%. After purification of the $\beta$-secretase inhibitor from R. coreanus using systematic solvent extraction, ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a purified $\beta$-secretase inhibitor with $IC_{50}$ inhibitory activity of $6.3{\times}10^3\;ng/mL$ ($1.56{\times}10^{-6}\;M)$ was obtained with a 0.08% solid yield. The molecular mass of the purified $\beta$-secretase inhibitor was estimated to be 576 Da by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and $\beta$-secretase inhibitor also is a new tetrapeptide with the sequence Gly-Trp-Trp-Glu. The purified $\beta$-secretase inhibitory peptide inhibited $\beta$-secretase non-competitively and also show less inhibition on trypsin, however no inhibition on other proteases such as $\alpha$-secretase, chymotrypsin, and elastase.

Protective Effect of Sesaminol Glucosides on Memory Impairment and ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$-Secretase Activity In Vivo (Sesaminol Glucosides의 기억력 회복능 및 ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$-Secretase)

  • Lee, Sun-Young;Son, Dong-Ju;Ha, Tae-Youl;Hong, Jin-Tae
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.168-173
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    • 2005
  • Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of neurodegenerations associated with aging in the human population. This disease is characterized by the extracellular deposition of beta-amyloid (A ${\beta}$) peptide in cerebral plaques. The A ${\beta}$ peptide is derived from the ${\beta}$-amyloid precursor protein ( ${\beta}$APP). Photolytic processing of ${\beta}$APP by ${\beta}$-secretase(beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme, BASE) and ${\gamma}$-secretase generates the A ${\beta}$ peptide. Several lines of evidence support that A ${\beta}$-induced neuronal cell death is major mechanisms of development of AD. Accordingly, the ${\beta}$-and ${\gamma}$-secretase have been implicated to be excellent targets for the treatment of AD. We previously found that sesaminol glucosides have improving effect on memory functions through anti-oxidative mechanism. In this study, to elucidate possible other mechanism (inhibition of ${\beta}$-and ${\gamma}$-secretase) of sesaminol glucosides, we examined the improving effect of sesaminol glucosides in the scopolamine (1 mg/kg/mouse)-induced memory dysfunction using water maze test in the mice. Sesaminol glucosides (3.75, 7.5 mg/kg/6ml/day p.o., for 3 weeks) reversed the latency time, distance and velocity by scopolamine in dose dependent manner. Next, ${\beta}$-and ${\gamma}$-secretase activities were determined in different regions of brain. Sesaminol glucosides dose-dependently attenuated scopolamine-induced ${\beta}$-secretase activities in cortex and hippocampous and ${\gamma}$-secretase in cortex. This study therefore suggests that sesaminol glucosides may be a useful agent for prevention of the development or progression of AD, and its inhibitory effect on secretase may play a role in the improving action of sesaminol glucosides on memory function.

Purification and characterization of β-secretase inhibitory peptide from sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) by enzymatic hydrolysis

  • Lee, Jung Kwon;Kim, Sung Rae;Byun, Hee-Guk
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.13.1-13.8
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    • 2018
  • Amyloid plaque, also called senile plaque, the product of aggregation of ${\beta}$-amyloid peptides ($A{\beta}$), is observed in brains of the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is one of the key factors in etiology of the disease. In this study, hydrolysates obtained from the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were investigated for ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptide. The sea hare's muscle protein was hydrolyzed using six enzymes in a batch reactor. Trypsin hydrolysate had highest ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory activity compared to the other hydrolysates. ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptide was separated using Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column. ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptide was identified as eight amino acid residues of Val-Ala-Ala-Leu-Met-Leu-Phe-Asn by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. $IC_{50}$ value of purified ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptide was $74.25{\mu}M$, and Lineweaver-Burk plots suggested that the peptide purified from sea hare muscle protein acts as a competitive inhibitor against ${\beta}$-secretase. Results of this study suggest that peptides derived from sea hare muscle may be beneficial as anti-dementia compounds in functional foods or as pharmaceuticals.

Characterization of a New Anti-dementia β-secretase Inhibitory Peptide from Arctoscopus japonicus

  • Park, Seul Bit Na;Kim, Sung Rae;Byun, Hee-Guk
    • Journal of Chitin and Chitosan
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.220-227
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    • 2018
  • Amyloid plaque is a product of aggregation of ${\beta}$-amyloid peptide ($A{\beta}$) and is an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). $A{\beta}$ is a major component of amyloid plaque and vascular deposits in the AD brain. The enzyme ${\beta}$-secretase is required for the production of $A{\beta}$; thus, prevention of the formation of $A{\beta}$ through the inhibition of ${\beta}$-secretase is a major focus in the study of the treatment of AD. In this study, we investigated ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory activity of an Arctoscopus japonicus peptide. An Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory activity. A ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory activity peptide was separated using ion exchange column chromatography (carboxy-methyl: CM, quaternary methyl ammonium: QMA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a C18 column. The $IC_{50}$ value of the purified peptide was $248.2{\pm}1.73{\mu}g/mL$. The ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptide was identified as a six amino acid residue of Gly-Pro-Val-Gly-Ala-Pro (MW: 497.27 Da). In cell viability experiments, the final purified fraction, the carboxy-methyl ion exchange column fraction (CM-F1) showed no significant cytotoxic effect in SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations below $100{\mu}g/mL$ in 24 h. The results of this study suggest that peptides separated from Arctoscopus japonicus may be beneficial as ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitor compounds in functional foods.

Shrimp (Pandalopsis dispar) waste hydrolysate as a source of novel β-secretase inhibitors

  • Li-Chan, Eunice C.Y.;Cheung, Imelda W.Y.;Byun, Hee-Guk
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.11.1-11.7
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    • 2016
  • In this study, purified peptides from shrimp waste hydrolysates (SWHs) were examined for their inhibitory effects against ${\beta}$-secretase. During consecutive purification using a Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column, a potent ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptide Asp-Val-Leu-Phe-His (629 Da) was isolated and identified from SWH24 by Q-TOF MS/MS and the $IC_{50}$ value was determined to be $92.70{\mu}M$. The ${\beta}$-secretase inhibition patterns of the purified peptides were found to be competitive. Among synthesized ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptides, Leu-Phe-His had higher ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory activity than the others. The result of this study suggests that the ${\beta}$-secretase inhibitory peptide derived from SWH24 could be potential candidates to develop nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

Interaction Models of Substrate Peptides and β-Secretase Studied by NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

  • Lee, Jee-Young;Lee, Sung-Ah;Kim, Jin-Kyoung;Chae, Chi-Bom;Kim, Yangmee
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.651-656
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    • 2009
  • The formation of ${\beta}$-amyloid peptide ($A{\beta}$) is initiated from cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by a family of protease, ${\alpha}$-, ${\beta}$-, and ${\gamma}$-secretase. Sub W, a substrate peptide, consists of 10 amino acids, which are adjacent to the ${\beta}$-cleavage site of wild-type APP, and Sub M is Swedish mutant with double mutations on the left side of the ${\beta}$-cleavage site of APP. Sub W is a normal product of the metabolism of APP in the secretary pathway. Sub M is known to increase the efficiency of ${\beta}$-secretase activity, resulting in a more specific binding model compared to Sub W. Three-dimensional structures of Sub W and Sub M were studied by CD and NMR spectroscopy in water solution. On the basis of these structures, interaction models of ${\beta}$-secretase and substrate peptides were determined by molecular dynamics simulation. Four hydrogen bonds and one water-mediated interaction were formed in the docking models. In particular, the hydrogen bonding network of Sub M-BACE formed spread over the broad region of the active site of ${\beta}$-secretase (P5-P3'), and the side chain of P2- Asn formed a hydrogen bond specifically with the side chain of Arg235. These are more favorable to the cleavage of Sub M by ${\beta}$-secretase than Sub W. The two substrate peptides showed different tendency to bind to ${\beta}$-secretase and this information may useful for drug development to treat and prevent Alzheimer's disease.

Characterization of β-Secretase Inhibitory Peptide Purified from Blackfin flounder (Glyptocephalus stelleri) Protein Hydrolysate

  • Lee, Jung Kwon;Kim, Sung Rae;Byun, Hee-Guk
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the ${\beta}-secretase$ inhibitor from enzymatic hydrolysates of blackfin flounder muscle, for development of a novel anti-dementia agent that may be used in the drug or functional food industries. ${\beta}-secretase$ inhibitory peptide was purified from various enzymatic hydrolysates of blackfin flounder muscle. Among six enzymatic hydrolysates, the Alcalase hydrolysate revealed highest ${\beta}-secretase$ inhibitory activity. Consecutive purification of the blackfin flounder muscle hydrolysate using Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and octadecylsilane C18 reversed phase HPLC techniques were used to isolate a potent ${\beta}-secretase$ inhibitory peptide composed of 5 amino acids, Leu-Thr-Gln-Asp-Trp (MW: 526.7 Da). The $IC_{50}$ value of purified ${\beta}-secretase$ inhibitory peptide was $126.93{\mu}M$. Results of this study suggest that peptides derived from blackfin flounder muscle may be beneficial as anti-dementia compounds in functional foods or as pharmaceuticals.

Screening and Optimal Extraction of a New Antidementia β-Secretase Inhibitor-Containing Mushroom

  • Seo, Dong-Soo;Lee, Eun-Na;Seo, Geon-Sik;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.195-197
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    • 2008
  • To produce a potent antidementia $\beta$-secretase inhibitor from a mushroom, the $\beta$-secretase inhibitory activities of various mushroom extracts were determined. Methanol extracts of Lentinula edodes exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (40.1%). The inhibitor was maximally extracted when a fruiting body of L. edodes was treated with 50% methanol at 40$^{\circ}C$ for 24 h.

A Correspondence between Aging-related Reduction of Neprilysin and Elevation of Aβ-42 or γ-Secretase Activity in Transgenic Mice Expressing NSE-controlled APPsw or Human Mutant Presenilin-2

  • Lim Hwa-J.;Kim Yong-K.;Sheen Yhun-Y.
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.106-109
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    • 2006
  • Neprilysin (Nep) is known to be important to degrade $A{\beta}$ derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by cleavage with $\beta-and\;\gamma$-secretases. In order to determine whether a correspondence between $A{\beta}-42/{\gamma}-secretase$ activity and Nep levels exists in postnatal aging of transgenic mice expressing either neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human mutant presenilin-2 (hPS2m) or APPsw alone, the levels of Nep expression and $A{\beta}-42/{\gamma}-secretase$ activity were examined age of 5, 12, and 20 months, respectively. The levels of Nep expression in both types of transgenic brains were decreased relative to those of control mice in a aging-related manner, while the level of $A{\beta}-42/{\gamma}-secretase$ activity was reversibly increased. Thus, changes in $A{\beta}-42$ may all reflect variation in amounts of Nep enzyme.

A novel BACE inhibitor isolated from Eisenia bicyclis exhibits neuroprotective activity against β-amyloid toxicity

  • Lee, Jung Kwon;Byun, Hee-Guk
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.38.1-38.9
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    • 2018
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disturbing and advanced neurodegenerative disease and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid beta ($A{\beta}$) and the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins in the brain. The deposition of $A{\beta}$ aggregates triggers synaptic dysfunction, and neurodegeneration, which lead to cognitive disorders. Here, we found that FF isolated from an eatable perennial brown seaweed E.bicyclis protect against $A{\beta}$-induced neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with two amyloid precursor protein (APP) constructs: the APP695 cDNA (SH-SY5Y-APP695swe). The FF demonstrated strong inhibitory activity for ${\beta}$-secretase ($IC_{50}$ $16.1{\mu}M$) and its inhibition pattern was investigated using Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots, and found to be non-competitive. Then, we tested whether FF could inhibit production of $A{\beta}$ in SH-SY5Y-APP695swe. FF inhibited the production of $A{\beta}$ and soluble-APP, residue of APP from cleaved APP by ${\beta}$-secretase. Our data show that FF can inhibit the production of $A{\beta}$ and soluble-$APP{\beta}$ via inhibition of ${\beta}$-secretase activity. Taken together these results suggest that FF may be worthy of future study as an anti-AD treatment.