• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\beta}$-carotene

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Preparation and Stability of Sodium Alginate Beads Containing ${\beta}-Carotene$ (베타카로틴 함유 알긴산 나트륨 비드의 제조 및 안정성)

  • Go, Kwang-Mook;Koo, Ja-Seong;Kim, Young-Il;Yang, Jae-Heon
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.323-327
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    • 1999
  • To protect ${\beta}-carotene$ at the stomach and to release rapidly at the intestine we prepared alginate beads containing ${\beta}-carotene$. ${\beta}-carotene$ and alginate solution was homogenized and prepared o/w emulsion was prepared. It was poured into $Ca^{2+}$ solution through syringe needle. The gel was formed spontaneously and alginate beads containing ${\beta}-carotene$ were prepared. ${\beta}-Carotene$ was incorporated into the beads more than 95%. The release rate of ${\beta}-carotene$ was dependent on the concentration of $Ca^{2+}$, ${\beta}-carotene$ and surfactants. However, the concentration of alginate did not affect the release rate of ${\beta}-carotene$. The high concentration of $Ca^{2+}$ slowed down the release rate of ${\beta}-carotene$. The addition of surfactants in the ${\beta}-carotene$beads increased the release rate of ${\beta}-carotene$ in the order of Tween 80 > Cremophor > Span 20. The contents of ${\beta}-carotene$ and diameter of ${\beta}-carotene$ beads did not change significantly at $50^{\circ}C$ for 20 days.

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Effect of ${\beta}-Carotene$ Supplementation on Lipid Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities in Rats (${\beta}-Carotene$ 공급이 흰쥐 간 조직의 지질대사와 관련효소의 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 최은미;박정룡;서정숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.743-749
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    • 1994
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary ${\beta}-carotene$ level on the lipid metabolism and lipid peroxide metabolizing enzyme activities in rats. Male Sprague -Dawley rats were fed on diets containing five levels of ${\beta}-carotene$ (0, 10, 120, 1200, 12000mg/kg diet ; BC 0, BC 1, BC 2, BC 3, BC 4 group). The rats were sacrificed after 7 weeks of the feeding periods. Lipid peroxide value of mitochondrial fraction of rat liver was elevated in ${\beta}-carotene$ restriction group when compared to $\beta$ -carotene groups. Superxide dismutase activity increased significantly by ${\beta}-carotene$ supplementation. Both catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced with increasing ${\beta}-carotene$ supplementation, except only ${\beta}-carotene$ restriction group. In liver, the contents of total lipid and cholestero decreased by ${\beta}-carotene$ supplementation but triglyceride content was not different among treatment groups. HDL-and total cholesterol ratio in plasma of 12, 000 ${\beta}-carotene$ group decreased, and was similar to that of ${\beta}-carotene$ restriction group.

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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of β-Carotene on Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Glutathione Concentration in Diabetic Rats (β-Carotene의 섭취가 당뇨 유도 흰쥐의 간조직 항산화효소 활성과 Glutathione 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Kyeung-Soon;Seo, Jung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.1092-1098
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    • 2011
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of ${\beta}$-carotene on the antioxidant system of rats with diabetes. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were fed the AIN-76 control diet or the same diet supplemented with ${\beta}$-carotene (7.2 mg/kg diet) for 3 weeks, then diabetes was induced in half the rats by administering streptozotocin (45 mg/kg BW) into the femoral muscle. Diabetic and normal rats were fed the experimental diets for 2 more weeks. To investigate the effect of dietary ${\beta}$-carotene on diabetes, the activities of antioxidative enzymes and glutathione concentration were determined in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats were not influenced by the dietary supplementation of ${\beta}$-carotene. Hepatic activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in diabetic rats were significantly lower than those of control rats but ${\beta}$-carotene tended to induce these activities. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was not significantly different between experimental groups. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was induced in diabetic rats, but dietary supplementation of ${\beta}$-carotene reduced this activity. The hepatic concentration of reduced glutathione in diabetic rats was lower than that of control rats, but dietary supplementation with ${\beta}$-carotene restored the content to some extent. These data suggest that diabetic rats are exposed to increased oxidative stress and that dietary supplementation with ${\beta}$-carotene may reduce its detrimental effects.

The Effect of Hot Taste Preference on Dietary Intake and Level of Serum $\beta$-Carotene Concentration in Korean Female College Students (매운 맛 선호도가 한국 여대생의 $\beta$-Carotene 섭취와 혈청수준에 미치는 영향)

  • 백희영;이심열
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.530-536
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    • 1995
  • A study was performed to assess dietary intake and serum levels of $\beta$-carotene and the influence of preference for hot taste on $\beta$-carotene intake in Korean female college students. Daily intake of $\beta$-carotene was estimated with a questionnaire composed of food item of high $\beta$-carotene contents and the average daily intake level was 4089$\pm$2400$\mu\textrm{g}$. The major sources of $\beta$-carotene included carrot, pumpkin, spinach, tomatoes and red pepper powder. 14$\pm$10% of total dietary $\beta$-carotene intake was from foods containing red pepper powder. The average amount of red pepper powder added to bean sprout soupr were 0.32$\pm$0.34g. Subjects preferring hot taste added significantly larger amount of red pepper powder(p<0.05) than those not preferring hot taste. Subjects of the lowest quartile of $\beta$-carotene intake level showed the lowest precentage of subjects preferring hot taste. The average serum $\beta$-carotene concentration was 36.5$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl and large variation in the amount among the subject has been observed. The level of dietary $\beta$-carotene intake and serum $\beta$-carotene concentration of Korean female college students were not significantly correlated but both were higher than levels in reports from western countries. These results indicate that $\beta$-carotene intake levels of the subjects are adequate and the preference for hot taste affects $\beta$-carotene intake significantly.

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Comparison of Dietary Carotenoids Metabolism and Effects to Improve the Body Color of Cultured Fresh-water Fishes and Marine Fishes (양식 담수어 및 해산어의 사료 Carotenoids 대사의 비교와 체색개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Bong-Seuk;Kweon, Moon-Jeong;Park, Mi-Yeon;Baek, Sung-Han;Kim, Soo-Young;Baek, In-Ok;Kang, Seok-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.270-284
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    • 1997
  • Effects of dietary carotenoids were investigated on the metaboβsm and body pigmentation of rainbow trout(Salmo gairdneri), masu salmon(Oncorhynchus macrostomos), eel(Anguilla japonica), rock fish(Sebastes inermis) and black rock fish(Sebastes schlegeli). Three weeks later after depletion, these fishes were fed diet supplemented with ${\beta}-carotene$, lutein, canthaxanthin', astaxanthin or ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ for 4 to 5 weeks, respectively. Carotenoids distributed to and changed in integument were analyzed. In the integument of rainbow trout. zeaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$ and canthaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids, while lutein, isocryptoxanthin and salmoxanthin were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of masu salmon, zeaxanthin was found to be the major carotenoids, while triol, lutein, tunaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$, ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and canthaxanthin were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of eel, ${\beta}-carotene$ was found to be the major carotenoids, while lutein, zeaxanthin and ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ were the minor carotenoids. In the integument of rock fish, zeaxanthin, ${\beta}-carotene$, tunaxanthin$(A{\sim}C)$ and lutein were found to be the major carotenoids, while ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$, ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ and astaxanthin were the minor carotenoids. Likely in the integument of black rock fish, ${\beta}-carotene$, astaxanthin and zeaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids, whereas ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$, ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$, lutein and canthaxanthin were the minor contributor. The efficacy of body pigmentation by the accumulation of carotenoids in the integument of rainbow trout and masu salmon were the most effectively shown in the canthaxanthin group and of eel, rock fish and black rock fish were the most effectively shown in the lutein group. Based on these results in the integument of each fish, dietary carotenoids were presumably biotransformed via oxidative and reductive pathways. In the rainbow trout, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to astaxanthin via successively isocryptoxanthin, echinenone and canthaxanthin. Lutein was oxidized to canthaxanthin. Canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$ via isozeaxanthin, and astaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via triol. In the masu salmon, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to zeaxanthin. Lutein was reduced to zeaxanthin via tunaxanthin. Canthaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via ${\beta}-carotene$. and astaxanthin was reduced to zeaxanthin via triol. In the eel, ${\beta}-carotene$ and lutein were directly deposited but canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$, and cholesterol lowering effect by Meju supplementation might be resulted from the modulation of fecal axanthin, astaxanthin and ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ were oxidized and reduced to tunaxanthin via zeaxanthin. In the black roch fish, ${\beta}-carotene$ was oxidized to ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$. Lutein was reduced to ${\beta}-carotene$ via ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$. Canthaxanthin was reduced to ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ via successively ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and zeaxanthin. Astaxanthin converted to tunaxanthin via isocryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, and ${\beta}-apo-8'-carotenal$ was reduced to ${\alpha}-cryptoxanthin$ via ${\beta}-cryptoxanthin$ and zeaxanthin.

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Effect of Dietary Level of $\beta$-Carotene on Antioxidants Contents and Hepatic Morphology in Rats ($\beta$-Carotene 의 수준별 공급에 따른 흰주의 항산화 물질과 간조직의 형태적 변화)

  • 최은미;박정룡;서정숙
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 1993
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary level of $\beta$-carotene on level of antioxidant nutrients of rat tissues. Male Sprague Dawley rats at the age of 30days were fed on diets containing different levels of $\beta$-carotene(0, 10, 120, 1200, 12000mg per kg diet). Body weight gain of rats fed with 12000mg $\beta$-carotene diet was significantly decreased, but liver and heart weights were not significantly different among groups, The content of total glutathione tended to decrease significantly in 12000mg $\beta$-carotene diet group when compared to $\beta$-carotene restriction group(BC O). However, total vitamin C content of liver showed the tendency to increase by $\beta$ -carotene supply up to 1200mg. But this tendency was not found in plasma, The content of zinc in liver and plasma was significantly decreased by $\beta$-carotene restriction. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in 12000mg diet group. In case of $\beta$-carotene restriction group, fibroblasts were proliferated in portal endothelium, and the vacuolar size was enlarged more than the nuclear, In 12000mg diet group, hepatic vacuoles were extended, but their size was regular and the lysis of hepatocytes was observed. Also, fibroblasts were proliferated in portal endothelium and the regular vacuolar size was extended.

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Characterization of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway Using Viviparous Mutant Embryos in Maize ( Zea mays L. )

  • Lee, Byung-Moo
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 1998
  • Carotenoid compounds in embryos of wild-type(WT) and viviparous mutants of maize(Zea mays L.) were analyzed using high performance liquid ehromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. Zeaxanthin accumulates in WT embryos as the major carotenoid. Phytoene accumulates in vp2 and vp5. Phytofluene in w3 and ${\xi}$-carotene in the vp9 mutant embryos. This indicates that the vp2 and vp5 mutants impair phytoene desaturase from 15-cis-phytoene to 15-cis-phytofluene. The w3 mutant has neither an isomerase from 15-cis-phytofluene to all-trans-phytofuene nor phytofluene desaturase from phytofluene to ${\xi}$-carotene. The vp9 mutant does not have the ${\xi}$-carotene desaturase from ${\xi}$-carotene to lycopene. Our analysis shows that the terminal carotenoid. ${\gamma}$-carotene(${\beta},{\Psi}$-carotene), accumulates in the vp7 mutant embryos. The ${\varepsilon}$-carotene(${\varepsilon},{\varepsilon}$-carotene), a product of ${\delta}$-carotene(${\varepsilon},{\Psi}$-carotene) in some plants, however, has not been found in maize embryos. The vp7 mutant impairs a cyclization step from ${\gamma}$-carotene to both ${\beta}$-carotene and ${\alpha}$-carotene. We suggest that monocyclic ${\gamma}$-carotene is the sole precursor of both bicyclic ${\beta}$-carotene(${\beta},{\beta}$-carotene) and ${\alpha}$-carotene(${\beta},{\varepsilon}$-carotene) in maize.

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Effects of $\beta-Carotene$ on the Thermal Oxidation Stability of Deep Fried Lard (튀김용 돈지의 열산화 안정성에 미치는 $\beta-Carotene$의 효과)

  • Han Kyu-Ho;Park Pyo-Jam;Jeon Byung-Tae;Park Woo-Joon;Lee Chi-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.507-512
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    • 2005
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of $\beta-carotene$ on the heat oxidation stability of deep fried laid with different healing temperature. Commercially purchased $\beta-carotene$ was used to this experiment $\beta-carotene$ was added to the deep fried lard at final concentration of $0\%\;0.001\%\;and\;0.004\%$ (wt/wt fat basis). Total plate count peroxide value, acid value, and TBA(thiobarbituric acid) values of the samples were determined regulary at $50^{\circ}C$ during 15 days. The result of the study are as follows: The number of microorganism was decreased by $\beta-carotene$ added to the deep fried lard Deep fried lard with $0.004\%$ $\beta-carotene$ have higher antioxidative effect than those of control and $0.001\%$ treated group. Peroxide and TBA values were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in all samples by added $\beta-carotene$ at $0.004\%$ Antioxidative effect increased with increasing concentration of $\beta-carotene$. These results suggest that $\beta-carotene$ might inhibit the growth of microganisms and retard lipid oxidation in the deep fried lard.

Effects of $\beta$-Carotene Supplementation on Lipid Peroxide Levels and Antioxidative Enzyme Activities in Diabetic Rats ($\beta$-Carotene 첨가식이가 당뇨쥐의 지질과산화물 수준과 항산화효소 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이완희;천종희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.7
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    • pp.675-683
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the effect of dietary $\beta$-carotene supplementation on lipid peroxidation and anti oxidative enzyme activity as indices of oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley male rats aging 7 weeks were used as experimental animals, which were divided into the non-diabetic control group and the diabetic group. The diabetic group received an intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Then the diabetic rats were divided into four dietary groups which contained different amounts of $\beta$-carotene; 0%, 0.002%, 0.02%, or 0.2% of the diet. The diabetic rats were fed the experimental diets and the non-diabetic rats were fed the basal diet without $\beta$-carotene supplementation for 2 weeks and then sacrificed. The diabetic group had a significantly higher blood glucose level than the non-diabetic group. However, blood glucose level were not significantly changed by the level of dietary $\beta$-carotene supplementation. Compared to the non-diabetic control group, the diabetic control group indicated a significant increase of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Liver TBARS level also tended to be higher in diabetic control group, although it was not significant. The $\beta$-carotene supplementation did not reduce plasma TBARS level. However, Liver TBARS level was significantly decreased when 0.02% or more $\beta$-carotene was supplemented in the diet. The liver lipofuscin level in the diabetic control group was higher than in the non-diabetic control group, but the effect of $\beta$-carotene supplementation did not show any differences. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in the diabetic group, but it was increased in groups receiving 0.02% or more $\beta$-carotene. Compared to the non-diabetic control group, lower activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were observed in the diabetic control group, although it was not significant. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities tended to increase as the levels of $\beta$-carotene supplementation increased, although it was not statistically significant. Therefore, it seems that dietary $\beta$-carotene supplementation might reduce diabetic complications by partly decreasing the lipid peroxidation and increasing the activity of antioxidative enzyme in diabetes.

Investigation of the Incorporation Efficiency of $\beta$-Carotene into Liposomes

  • Rhim, Chae-Hwan;Lee, Kyong-Eun;Yuk, Hyun-Gyun;Lee, Sang-Chun;Lee, Seung-Cheol
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.177-178
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    • 2000
  • Chemical and photochemical precesses during food storage an preparation rapidly degrade $\beta$-carotene, the most active form of carotenoids. We investigated the possibility of liposomes as tool to preserve $\beta$-carotene. Liposomes with $\beta$-carotene were prepared as multilamellar vesicles by using soybean phosphatidylcholine, in terms of the ratio of $\beta$-carotene to phospholipid and pH. Incorporated efficiency was 99.7% at 1:0.05 of phospholipid : $\beta$-carotene and at pH 9.0. As the concentration of $\beta$-carotene increased, the incorporated efficiency increased progressively. pH did not affect the incorporation efficiency greatly.

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