• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\pi}$-domain

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A National Survey on Utilization of Pattern Identification among Korean Medicine Doctors (전국 한방의료기관 한의사 대상 한의 변증활용 현황 조사)

  • Yeo, Minkyung;Park, Kihyun;Jang, Eunsu;Lee, Youngseop
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2015
  • Objective : The aim of this study was to survey the present utilization of pattern identification(PI) in the clinical field among Korean Medicine Doctors. Method : This survey was conducted from Oct. 1 to Oct. 31, 2014 by face-to-face interview using structured questionnaire. The subjects were 400 korean medicine doctors who worked in hospitals or clinics. The questionnaire consisted of two sections - a demographics section(i.e., sex, age, clinical experience, place of work, residence and so on) and the main research section(i.e., the PI utilization rate, the utilization of PI systems, the utilization of PI in the clinical domain and in the treatment domain, the correlation between utilization PI and so on). Results : This study revealed that subjects used the PI to 66.7% of their patients on average. The utilization rate of PI in patients was significantly higher for female physicians than for male physicians, for physicians worked in clinics than for physicians who worked in hospitals and for physicians with more than 10 years clinical experience than for physicians with less than 10 years clinical experience. In the utilization of PI systems, Visceral PI was most as 92.0%. There were significant difference on the PI utilization rate according to utilization of Meridian and Collateral PI, Triple Energizer PI, Defense, Qi, Nutrient and Blood PI, Six-Meridian PI and Six Excesses PI. As a result of analysing the PI utilization rate by clinical domain and in the treatment domain, the Treatment and the Drug Treatment showed the highest values. Among utilized PI systems, the correlation coefficients between Defense, Qi, Nutrient and Blood PI and Triple Energizer PI showed the highest value, but the correlation coefficients between Sasang Constitutional Medicine with the each PI showed substantially lower value. Conclusion : The results of this study demonstrate that usage of PI was higher than usage of U code(in KCD) usage in clinical field. we suggested that additional studies on using PI and developing more appropriate standardized tool should be conducted to widen scope of PI's utilization.

Tuning Algorithm for PID Controller Using Model Reduction in frequency Domain (주파수 영역에서의 모델 축소를 이용한 PID 제어기의 동조 알고리즘)

  • Cho, Joon-Ho;Choi, Jung-Nae;Hwang, Hyung-Soo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2114-2116
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    • 2001
  • Model reduction from high order systems to low order systems in frequency domain is considered four point (${\angle}$G(jw)=0, - ${\pi}/2$, ${\pi}$, and -3${\pi}$/2) instead of two point (${\angle}$G(jw) = - ${\pi}$/2,- ${\pi}$) of existing method in Nyquist curve. The Performances of reduced order model by proposed approach is similar to original model. In this paper, we proposed a new tuning algorithm for PID controller using model reduction in frequency domain. Simulations for some examples with varies dynamic characteristics are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed tuning algorithm for PID controller using model reduction.

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Point Mutations in the Split PLC-γ1 PH Domain Modulate Phosphoinositide Binding

  • Kim, Sung-Kuk;Wee, Sung-Mo;Chang, Jong-Soo;Kwon, Taeg-Kyu;Min, Do-Sik;Lee, Young-Han;Suh, Pann-Ghill
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.720-725
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    • 2004
  • A number of signaling molecules contain small pleckstrin homology (PH) domains capable of binding phosphoinositides or proteins. Phospholipase C (PLC)-${\gamma}1$ has two putative PH domains, an $NH_2$-terminal (PH1) and a split PH domain ($nPH_2$ and $cPH_2$). We previously reported that the split PH domain of PLC-${\gamma}1$ binds to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)$P_2$) (Chang et al., 2002). To identify the amino acid residues responsible for binding with PI(4)P and PI(4,5)$P_2$, we used site-directed mutagenesis to replace each amino acid in the variable loop-1 (VL-1) region of the PLC-${\gamma}1$ $nPH_2$ domain with alanine (a neutral amino acid). The phosphoinositide-binding affinity of these mutant molecules was analyzed by Dot-blot assay followed by ECL detection. We found that two PLC-${\gamma}1$ nPH2 domain mutants, P500A and H503A, showed reduced affinities for phosphoinositide binding. Furthermore, these mutant PLC-${\gamma}1$ molecules showed reduced PI(4,5)$P_2$ hydrolysis. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein system, we showed that both $PH_1$ and $nPH_2$ domains are responsible for membrane-targeted translocation of PLC-${\gamma}1$ upon serum stimulation. Together, our data reveal that the amino acid residues $Pro^{500}$ and $His^{503}$ are critical for binding of PLC-${\gamma}1$ to one of its substrates, PI(4,5)$P_2$ in the membrane.

KAPLANSKY-TYPE THEOREMS IN GRADED INTEGRAL DOMAINS

  • CHANG, GYU WHAN;KIM, HWANKOO;OH, DONG YEOL
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.1253-1268
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    • 2015
  • It is well known that an integral domain D is a UFD if and only if every nonzero prime ideal of D contains a nonzero principal prime. This is the so-called Kaplansky's theorem. In this paper, we give this type of characterizations of a graded PvMD (resp., G-GCD domain, GCD domain, $B{\acute{e}}zout$ domain, valuation domain, Krull domain, ${\pi}$-domain).

LQ-Servo PI Controller Design Using LMI (LMI를 이용한 LQ-서보형 PI제어기 설계)

  • 김상엽;서병설
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.728-731
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    • 1999
  • This paper concerns a development of LQ-servo PI controller design on the basis of time-domain approach. This is because the previous design techniques developed on the frequency-domain is not well suited to meet the time-domain design specifications. Our development techniques used in this paper is based on the convex optimization methods including Lagrange multiplier, dual concept, semidefinite programming.

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Novel Technique for Splay to Bend Transition in a ${\pi}$ Cell

  • Jhun, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Jong-Lac;Kang, Sang-Ho;Lee, Seong-Ryong;Kim, Jae-Chang;Yoon, Tae-Hoon
    • Journal of Information Display
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.19-22
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    • 2004
  • A ${\pi}$ cell is initially in splay state. Before driving a ${\pi}$ cell, transition from splay to bend state is always necessary which originates from nucleation. We propose a novel technique to make bend transition fast and effectively by forming transition cores around the pixels with the technique of multi-domain alignment, where domain boundaries play a crucial role in splay to bend transition. This noble technique enables the splay to bend transition to occur within less than 2 seconds with a low applied voltage.

Effect of the Polarity of Alignment Film in Amorphous TN-LCD for Response Time and Viewing Angle Characteristics (배향막의 극성이 아몰퍼스 TN-LCD의 응답속도와 시야각 특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Seo, Dae-Shik;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Bo-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1579-1581
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    • 1997
  • We investigated the effect of polarity of polyimide(PI) film in amorphous (a) - twisted nematic (TN) - liquid crystal display(LCD) for response time and viewing angle. We found that the domain size of a-TN-LCD on PI film with high polarity is smaller then medium polarity. It is considered that the electro-optical characteristics are strongly dependent on this domain in a-TN-LCD. We observed the response time of a-TN-LCD on PI film with high polarity is slow as comparing to PI film with medium polarity. We suggest that the response time of a-TN-LCD is attributed surface effect between the LCs and the substrates.

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An Optimal Tuning of PI-PD Controller Via LQR (LQR을 사용한 최적 PI-PD제어기 동조)

  • Kang, Keun-Hyoung;Suh, Byung-Suhl
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.109-112
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents an optimal and robust PI-PD controller design method for the second-order systems both with dead time and without dead time to satisfy the design specifications in the time domain via LQR design technique. The optimal tuning method of PI-PD controller are also developed by setpoint weighting and neural networks. It is shown that the simulation results show significantly improved performance by proposed method.

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LQ-servo Design Method Using Convex Optimization(II) Time Domain Approach (볼록형 최적화기법을 이용한 LQ-서보 설계 방법 (II) 시간 영역에서의 접근)

  • 김상엽;서병설
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6A
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    • pp.855-861
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    • 2000
  • This paper concerns a development of LQ-servo PI controller design on the basis of time-domain approach. The motivation is because the previous design techniques developed on the frequency-domain is not well suited meet the time-domain design specifications. Our development techniques used in this paper is base on the convex optimization methods including Lagrange multiplier, dual concept, semidefinite programming.

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An Optimal PI Controller Tuning for TITO System (TITO시스템의 최적 PI제어기 동조)

  • Um, Tae-Ho;Suh, Byung-Suhl
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.186-189
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    • 2003
  • This paper presents an optimal tuning method of the decentralized PI controller of two-input, two-output(TITO) second order system to be formulated as LQR. The tuning method of proposed decentralized PI controller is developed by establishing the relationships between the closed-loop state equation including decentralized PI control factors and the closed-loop state equation of LQR, which can be guaranteed the performance and stability-robustness by selecting the weighting factors Q and R of the cost function in order to satisfy design specifications in frequency domain.

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