• Title, Summary, Keyword: $CCl_{4}$

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The Effects of Gunyuljejo-tang on the CCl4-induced Liver Damage in Rat (건율제조탕이 CCl4로 유발(誘發)된 간손상(肝損傷) 백서(白鼠)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Jung-Yul;Kim, Hyuk;Yang, Sang-Mook;Kim, Dal-Rae;Jeon, Jong-Weon
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.96-107
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    • 2004
  • 1. Objectives This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Gunyuljejo-tang on the $CCl_4$-induced Liver Damage in Rats. 2. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were devided into 5 experimental groups : Normal, $NS+CCl_4$(Solid extract of $CCl_4$ injection group after Normal Saline feed), $GYJJT+CCl_4$(Solid extract of $CCl_4$ injection group after Gunyuljejo-tang feed), $CCl_4+NS$(Normal Saline feed group after $CCl_4$ injection), $CCl_4+GYJJT$(Solid extract of Gunyuljejo-tang feed group after $CCl_4$ injection). Biochemical assays for serum enzyme activities such as AST, ALT, ALP, BUN, Creatinine, Uric Acid, Total Protein, Albumin, Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Glucose, and mRNA Revelation of Cytochrome p450 and activities such as LPO, GSH, GST, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase, SOD, Catalase, Hydroxyproline, and ${\beta}$-Glucuronidase were performed. 3. Results (1) $GYJJT+CCl_4$ showed lower revelation of Cytochrome p450. (2) $GYJJT+CCl_4$ showed higher GSH activity than $NS+CCl_4$, $CCl_4+GYJJT$ showed higher GSH activity than $CCl_4+NS$ injection significantly. (3) $GYJJT+CCl_4$ showed higher GST activity than $NS+CCl_4$. $CCl_4+GYJJT$ showed higher GST activity than $CCl_4+NS$ significantly. (4) $GYJJT+CCl_4$ showed higher Glutathione Peroxidase activity than $NS+CCl_4$, $CCl_4+GYJJT$ showed higher Glutathione Peroxidase activity than $CCl_4+NS$ significantly. (5) $CCl_4+GYJJT$ showed higher SOD activity than $CCl_4+NS$ significantly. (6) $CCl_4+GYJJT$ showed higher Catalase activity than $CCl_4+NS$ significantly. (7) $GYJJT+CCl_4$ showed lower Hydroxyproline than $NS+CCl_4$ significantly, $CCl_4+GYJJT$ showed higher Hydroxyproline than $CCl_4+NS$ significantly. (8) $GYJJT+CCl_4$ showed higher ${\beta}$-Glucuronidase activity than $NS+CCl_4$, $CCl_4+GYJJT$ showed higher ${\beta}$-Glucuronidase activity than $CCl_4+NS$ significantly. 4. Conclusions Gunyuljejo-tang has the recovering effects on the $CCl_4$-induced Liver Damage significantly.

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Effect of Aster scaber Juice supplemented with Carrot and Ginseng extracts on Serum Lipid in Rats (인삼과 당근 즙액 첨가 참취녹즙이 흰쥐의 혈청지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ae-Ran;Seung, Suk-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.897-902
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    • 2008
  • The effect on serum lipid of green aster juice blended with ginseng and carrot extracts was investigated using rats injected with $CCl_4$. The rats were classified with four groups: (i) normal control (NC), (ii) rats fed with the blended juice (BA), (iii) rats treated with $CCl_4$ after having been on a normal diet for 4 weeks ($NC-CCl_4$), and (iv) rats treated with $CCl_4$ after having been fed the blended juice for 4 weeks ($BA-CCl_4$). All groups had similar feed intake. The weight gains and feed efficiency ratio were lower in the $NC-CCl_4$ group. The liver weight per body weight was much higher in the $NC-CCl_4$ group than the NC group, but did not differ between the $BA-CCl_4$ and BA groups. Triglycerides increased only for the $NC-CCl_4$ group (88.72 mg/dL); the other groups had similar levels (56.48-65.33 mg/dL). The BA group had the lowest total cholesterol level (74.08 mg/dL) the other groups had similar levels (96.78-108.83 mg/dL). HDL-cholesterol was lower in the $NC-CCl_4$ group (40.56 mg/dL) compared with the NC group (48.95 mg/dL), but there was no difference between the BA and $BA-CCl_4$ groups. The LDL-cholesterol level was higher in the $NC-CCl_4$ group (55.20 mg/dL the highest level) than the NC group (43.33 mg/dL), and higher in the $BA-CCl_4$ group (50.10 mg/dL) than the BA group (18.09 mg/dL). The lipid peroxide content was much higher in the $NC-CCl_4$ group (22.61 nmol/g) than the NC group (12.52 nmol/g), but the $BA-CCl_4$ (17.41 nmol/g) and BA (13.99 nmol/g) groups were similar. The glutathione content was much lower in the $NC-CCl_4$ group ($2.25\;{\mu}mol/g$) than the NC and BA groups, and decreased to $2.63\;{\mu}mol/g$ for the $BA-CCl_4$ group. The glutathione content of the $BA-CCl_4$ recovered to the level of that in the NC group.

Effect of Allopurinol Pretreatment on the Hepatic Xanthine Oxidase Activity in $CCl_4$-Treated Rats (흰쥐에 사염화탄소 투여시간 Xanthine Oxidase활성에 미치는 Allopurinol의 영향)

  • 윤종국;이혜자;이상일
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 1995
  • To evaluate an effect of xanthine oxidase(XO) reaction system on the carbon tetrachloride($CCl_4$) metabolism, $CCl_4$ was given twice at 0.1ml/100g body wt. at intervals of 18 hour to the rats and those pretreated with allopurinol (50mg/kg. body wt.). The influence of XO on the metabolism of $CCl_4$ was focused on the degree of liver damage and the activities of a $CCl_4$ metabolizing marker enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase. The increasing rate of liver weight per body weight and the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase to the control group were more decreased in allopurinol-pretreated rats than in those treated with $CCl_4$ alone. The liver XO activities were more increased in $CCl_4$-treated rats than the control group and the $CCl_4$-treated rats pretreated with allopurinol showed a decreased activities of XO compared to the $CCl_4$-treated rats. The type conversion (type D --> type O) rate was more decreased tendency in allopurinol pretreated rats than those treated $CCl_4$ alone. In dialyzed liver enzyme preparations, all of the xanthine oxidase activities: $CCl_4$-treated, allopurinol and $CCl_4$-treated rats pretreated with allopurinol showed the more increased Vmax value than the control group, but similar Km value. Moreover, $CCl_4$-treated rats pretreated with allopurinol showed the more increased Vmax value than the group treated with $CCl_4$ alone. In conclusion, it can not be negate the possibility of metabolism of $CCl_4$ by the xanthine oxidase enzyme system.

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Therapeutic Effects of Hovenia Dulcis Thunb Extract on $CCl_4$ Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Rats (Carbon Tetrachloride로 유발된 Rat의 간장과 신장 손상시 헛개나무 추출액의 치료효과)

  • Kim, Hong-Tae;Kim, Dae-Dong;Ku, Sae-Kwang;Kim, Ju-Wan;Lim, Mee-Kyung;Oh, Tae-Ho;Lee, Keun-Woo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 2011
  • Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT) has been known folk medicine and has been used as therapeutic drug in the treatment of liver disease. Also it has been used as a detoxifying agents for alcoholic poisoning and promoting diuresis. However, there has not been any study on therapeutic effect of Hovenia dulcis extract on $CCl_4$ induced liver and kidney damage in rats. In this study, we report on therapeutic effects of Hovenia dulcis extract on $CCl_4$ induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Rats were divided into four groups of eighteen animals. Control group (DW) was administrated with distilled water 2.5 mL/kg per peritonial administration and then $CCl_4$ group (CCl) was administrated $CCl_4$ 2.5 mL/kg per peritonial administration, $CCl_4$+HDT extract group ($CCl_4$+HDT) was administrated HDT extrat (100 mg/kg) after $CCl_4$ 2.5 mL/kg administration, $CCl_4$+Silymarin group ($CCl_4$+Sily) was administrated Silymarin (50 mg/kg) after $CCl_4$ 2.5 mL/kg administration. The complete blood cell (CBC) count of RBC, WBC, PCV, Hb, MCH, MCV, MCHC and blood chemistry profile of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, Total choloesterol, Tryglyceride, Total bilirubin, Amylase, Glucose, BUN, Creatinine, Lipase and pathologic changes were observed for 7 days after administration of D.W., $CCl_4$, $CCl_4$+HDT extract, $CCl_4$+Silymarin. The results are as follows : 1. RBC and PCV were significantly (p < 0.01) increased in all groups compared to D.W. but hemoglobin, MCH, MCV and MCHC were not showed significant difference during experimental periods. 2. AST, ALT, T-cholesterol, T-bilirubin, TG were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all groups on day 3 compared to D.W. and were normal on day 7. 3. ALP was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in $CCl_4$+HDT group on day 3 but Amylase was not showed significant difference during experimental periods. 4. BUN was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in $CCl_4$ group on day 7, but $CCl_4$+HDT group and $CCl_4$+Sily group were normal. Creatninie was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in $CCl_4$ group on day 3 and normal on day 7 but $CCl_4$+HDT group and $CCl_4$+Sily group were not showed significant difference during experimental periods.

Inhibitory Effect of Leek Greek Juice on $CCl_{4}$-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats (부추녹즙이 사염화탄소 투여에 의한 흰쥐의 간손상에 미치는 영향)

  • 이명렬
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.102-106
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    • 2001
  • To investigate the effects of leek green juice on the damaged liver of $CCl_{4}$-treated rats, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing about 100g, were divided into 4 groups ; control group (CON), leek green juice-administered group (LGJ), $CCl_{4}$-treated group (CCL) and leek green juice and $CCl_{4}$-treated group (LCL). After 6 weeks, the activities of sGPT and sGOT, and content of hepatic TBA-reactants, elevated by $CCl_{4}$ treatment, were markedly decreased by administering leek green juice, compared to CCL. It was also observed that activities of hepatic SOD and GSH-Px were elevated by $CCl_{4}$-treatment as compared to CON, but concomitant treatment of leek green juice and $CCl_{4}$ decreased those levels adjacent to CON, whereas catalase activity did not show significant decreasing effects compared to CCL. The hepatic content of glutathione, decreased by $CCl_{4}$, was more abundantly increased by leek green juice administration than by CCL. These results suggest that leek green juice is believed to b a possible protective effect for the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver.

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Effect of Allopurinol Pretreatment on the Liver Damage in $CCl_4$-treated Rat (흰쥐에 있어서 사염화탄소에 의한 간손상에 allopurinol의 영향)

  • 배지혜;윤종국;이상일
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 1995
  • To evaluate the effect of xanthine oxidase on liver injury by $CCl_4$, liver damage was induced both in allopurinol pretreated rats (500 mg/kg. ip) and control group by twice intraperitoneal injection of $CCl_4$ (0.1 ml/100 g body wt. 50% in olive oil) at interval of one day. Increases in the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and liver weight/body weight (%) by $CCl_4$ were significantly smaller inallopurinol pretreated rats than in control whereas the hepatic microsomal glucose-6-pholphatase activities were significantly higher in allopurinol pretreated rats than control group by $CCl_4$ treatment. These results indicates that allopurinol pretreatment may reduce the liver damage in $CCl_4$ intoxicated rats. In rats either with $CCl_4$or not, hepatic type O xanthine oxidase activities were significantly reduced by allopurinol pretreatment and the increasing rate of these enzymes to each control was remarkably lower in allopurinol pretreated rats than control. Liver cytosolic protein contents and aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine demethylase activities were higher in allopurinol pretreated rats than coirol rats when animals were treated with $CCl_4$. On the other hand, neither allopurinol pretreated nor $CCl_4$ treatment caused any significant changes in hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Hepatic glutathione contents were higher in $CCl_4$-treated rats than control, but no significant changes were found in both between the allopurinol treated rats and $CCl_4$-treated rats pretreated with allopurinol, and glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activities were significantly reduced in $CCl_4$-treated rats than control whereas these enzyme activities showed on significant change in both between allopurinel treated and $CCl_4$-treated rats pretreated with allopurinol. It is concluded that xanthine oxidase reaction system augment $CCl_4$ induced liver injury via even oxygen free radical system.

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Protective Effect of Rutin on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats (사염화탄소 투여로 인한 랫드의 급성 간 손상에 대한 루틴의 예방 효과)

  • Hwang, Eui-Kyung
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to investigate hepatoprotective effect of rutin on acute hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; normal control group, $CCl_4$ control group, two rutin treatment groups (rutin 200+$CCl_4$ and rutin 400+$CCl_4$). Dissolving vehicles were applied to the rats in the normal control group. The rutin was administrated to the rats in rutin 200+$CCl_4$ and rutin 400+$CCl_4$ groups at the levels of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, 3 consecutive days orally, with 24 hours interval before inoculating $CCl_4$. $CCl_4$ was intraperitoneally administered an hour after the last treatment of rutin to the rats in every group except the normal control group. The body weight of rats in $CCl_4$ control group were significantly lower than other groups (p < 0.05), but the liver weight and relative liver weight were higher than normal control group (p < 0.05). The activities of ALT, AST, ALP, GTP, LDH and the level of total bilirubin in sera of rats in $CCl_4$ control group were higher and the levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were lower than the normal group (p < 0.05). The activities of ALT, AST, ALP, GTP, LDH and the level of total bilirubin in rutin 200+$CCl_4$ and rutin 400+$CCl_4$ groups were lower than $CCl_4$ control group (p < 0.05). Therefore the pre-treatment of rutin before $CCl_4$ inoculation in rats effectively inhibited the elevation of serum ALT, AST and total bilirubin which are the parameters of hepatic damage.

Effect of Cyclohexane Treatment on the Liver Damage in CCl4-Pretreated Rats (CCl4전처치한 흰쥐에 Cyclohexane 투여가 간손상에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤종국;김현희
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2003
  • TO evaluate an effect of cyclohexane treatment on the degree of liver damage, rats were induced liver damage with 10 or 17 times $CCl_4$ injection (0.1 m1/100 g body wt., 50% $CCl_4$ dis-solved in olive oil) at intervals of every other day. Cyclohexane (1.56 g/kg body wt., i.p.) was administrated to the animals at 48 hours after the last pretreatment of $CCl_4$ . Rats were sacrificed at 4 hours after injection of cyclohexane. On the basis of histopathological findings, liver weight/body weight (LW/ BW, %), activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), xanthine oxidase (XO) and akaline phosphatase (ALP), and contents of liver protein and manlondialdehyde (MDA), $CCl_4$ -pretreatment induced liver damage. And $CCl_4$ 17 times treated group showed more severe liver damage than $CCl_4$ 10 times treated group. Administration of one dose of cyclohexane to $CCl_4$ 10 times treated animals resulted in the enhanced liver damage; liver necrosis with proliferation of fibroblast and bile duct abnormality, and increase in hepatic MDA content and the activities of serum ALP and ALT, But the enhanced liver damage was not found in $CCl_4$ 17 times treated animals. Serum cyclohexanone concentrations at 4 or 8 hours after injection of cyclohexane were higher in all liver damaged groups than normal group and were somewhat higher In $CCl_4$ 17 times treated animals than $CCl_4$ 10 times treated ones. Among the oxygen free radical metabolizing enzymes, hepatic cytochrome P45O dependent aniline hydroxylase (CYPdAH) activity in cyclohexane metabolizing enzyme system was meaningfully increased by the injection of cyclohexane to the liver damaged rats, with increased Vmax and high affinity to aniline. LW/BW (%) and activities of serum XO and ALT were more significantly increased in liver damaged groups than normal group by administration of cyclohexanone. In conclusion, it is assumed that an enhancement of liver damage by injection of one dose of cyclohexane to liver damaged animals might be caused by oxygen free radicals and cyclohexanone.

Protective Effects of Succinic Acid of Succiniter against Liver Toxicity (간 독성에 대한 보석 호박 호박산의 간 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hong-Bi;Ha, Bae-Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.896-901
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to investigate the protective effects of succinic acid of Succiniter against carbon tetrachloride ($CCl_4$)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. After an adaptation period of one week, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered succinic acid of Succiniter at 200 mg/kg every day for 21 days. Then $CCl_4$ (3.3 ml/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into rats of the other groups except the normal group, five hours after the last treatment of succinic acid of Succiniter on day 21. The succinic acid-treated group showed 93.20% and 88.76% of inhibitory effects in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, respectively, compared with the $CCl_4-treated$ group. The succinic acid-treated group showed inhibition of malonedialdehyde (MDA) by 85.17% compared with the $CCl_4-treated$ group. The succinic acid-treated group in liver homogenate promoted effects of 38.65% and 47.99% in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), respectively, compared with the $CCl_4-treated$ group. In conclusion, the AST and ALT activities of the succinic acid-treated group were both decreased compared with the $CCl_4-treated$ group. The MDA level of the succinic acid-treated group was decreased compared with the $CCl_4-treated$ group. However, the SOD and CAT levels of the succinic acid-treated group in liver homogenate were both increased compared with the $CCl_4-treated$ group. Also, histological examinations showed that the liver cell necrosis and centrilobular congestion aggregation induced by $CCl_4$ were clearly eliminated by treatment with succinic acid of Succiniter. These results suggest that succinic acid of Succiniter has a protective effect against liver damage and could be used in the development of the appropriate drug.

Effect of Cyclohexane Treatment on Serum Level of Glutathione S-Transferase Activity in Liver Damaged Rats ($CCl_4$ 에 의한 간손상 모델 실험동물에 있어서 cyclohexane 투여가 혈청 glutathione S-transferase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 오정대;윤종국
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2003
  • To evaluate the effect of cyclohexane(CH) treatment on the serum levels of glutathion S-transferase(GST) activity in liver damaged animals, damaged liver was induced with pretreatment of 50% $CCl_4$ dissolved in olive oil (0.1 m1/100g body weight) intraperitoneally 17 times every other day. To $CCl_4$-treated rats, CH (1.56 g/kg body weight, i.p) was injected once and then the animals were sacrificed at 4 hours after injection of CH. The $CCl_4$-treated animals were identified as severe liver damage on the basis of liver functional findings, 1,e, increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), alkaline phosphate(ALP) and xanthine oxidase(XO) activities. On the other hand, $CCl_4$-treated animals injected with CH once($CCl_4$-pretreated animals) showed more decreased serum levels of ALT and XO, and more increased those of ALP rather than $CCl_4$-treated animals. In case of comparing the GST with ALT activity in liver, both $CCl_4$-treated and pretreated animals showed similar changing pattern of enzyme actvity. Especially $CCl_4$-pretreated animals showed significantly increased serum level of GST actvity compared with the $CCl_4$-treated those, whereas those of ALT showed reversed tendency. In aspects of GST enzyme kinetics, $CCl_4$-pretreated animals showed higher Vmax of liver GST enzyme than $CCl_4$-treated animals. In conclusion, injection of CH to the liver damaged rats led to enhanced liver damage and more increased activity of serum GST which may be chiefly caused by the enzyme induction.