• Title, Summary, Keyword: $Cyclin\

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NF-Y binds to both G1- and G2-specific cyclin promoters; a possible role in linking CDK2/Cyclin A to CDK1/Cyclin B

  • Chae, Hee-Don;Kim, Jung-Bin;Shin, Deug-Y.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.8
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    • pp.553-557
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    • 2011
  • We previously reported that CDK2/Cyclin A can phosphorylate and activate the transcription factor NF-Y. In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role for NF-Y in the transcription of Cyclin A and other cell cycle regulatory genes. Gel-shift assays demonstrate that NF-Y binds to CCAAT sequences in the Cyclin A promoter, as well as to those in the promoters of cell cycle G2 regulators such as CDC2, Cyclin B and CDC25C. Furthermore, expression of Cyclin A increases NF-Y's affinity for CCAAT sequences in the CDC2 promoter; however, Cyclin A's induction of CDC2 transcription is antagonized by p21, an inhibitor of CDK2/Cyclin A. These results suggest a model wherein NF-Y binds to and activates transcription from the Cyclin A promoter, increasing cellular levels of Cyclin A/CDK2 and potentiating NF-Y's capacity for transcriptional transactivation, and imply a positive feedback loop between NF-Y and Cyclin A/CDK2. Our findings are additionally indicative of a role for Cyclin A in activating Cyclin B/CDK1 through promoting NF-Y dependent transcription of Cyclin B and CDC2; NF-Y mediated crosstalk may therefore help to orchestrate cell-cycle progression.

Prognostic Significance of Cyclin B1 and p53 Expression in Patient with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (식도 편평세포암 환자에서 Cyclin B1, p53의 발현과 예후)

  • 김치학;조봉균;천봉권;조성래
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.952-960
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    • 2003
  • It has been reported that p53 regulates the G2-M checkpoint transition through cyclin Bl, and it has been suggested that p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of various malignancies. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of the cell cycle regulators, cyclin B1 and p53 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Material and Method: Tissue samples from 46 patients with ESCC were included in this study. Expression levels of cyclin Bl and p53 in samples of normal squamous epithelium, dysplasia, and tumor cells from patients with ESCC were analyzed by immunohistochemical study Result: Several cells in the basement layer of normal epithelium expressed cyclin B1. The number of cyclin B1 positive cells tended to increase as the degree of dysplasia increased from low grade to high grade. More than 10% of tumor cells were cyclin B1 positive in 19 patients (41.3%). Several clinicopathologic parameters, including tumor stage (p<0.05), pathologic Iymph node status (p<0.05) and invasion of Iymphatic vessels (p<0.05), were correlated with the overexpression of cyclin B1. Elevated expression levels of cyclin B1 also correlated with a poor prognosis in patient with ESCC in univariate analysis (p<0.05) and multivariate analysis (p<0.05), In contrast, p53 expression exhibited significant correlation with the level of cyclin B1 expression, but was not associated with prognostic parameters in patients with ESCC. Conclusion: These findings suggest that cyclin B1 is involved in the pathogenesis of carcinoma of the esophagus and that elevated levels of cyclin B1 expression, but not p53 expression, may indicate a poor prognosis for patients with ESCC.

Rabbit Antibody Raised against Murine Cyclin D3 Protein Overexpressed in Bacterial System

  • Jun, Do-Youn;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.474-481
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    • 1996
  • Since the commercially available rabbit anti-cyclin D3, generated from c-terminal 16 amino acid residues which are common to human and murine cyclin D3, is highly cross-reactive with many other cellular proteins of mouse, a new rabbit polyclonal anti-cyclin D3 has been raised by using murine cyclin D3 protein expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli as the immunogen. To express murine cyclin D3 protein in E. coli, the cyclin D3 cDNA fragment encoding c-terminal 236 amino acid residues obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was inserted into the NcoI/BamHI site of protein expression vector, pET 3d. Molecular mass of the cyclin D3 overexpressed in the presence of IPTG (Isopropyl $\beta$-D-thiogalactopyranoside) was approximately 26 kDa as calculated from the reading frame on the DNA sequence, and the protein was insoluble and mainly localized in the inclusion bodies that could be easily purified from the other cellular soluble proteins. When renaturation was performed following denaturation of the insoluble cyclin D3 protein in the inclusion bodies using guanidine hydrochloride, 4.4 mg of soluble form of cyclin D3 protein was produced from the transformant cultured in 100ml of LB media under the optimum conditions. Four-hundred micrograms of the soluble form of cyclin D3 protein was used for each immunization of a rabbit. When the antiserum obtained 2 weeks after tertiary immunization was applied to Western blot analysis, it was able to detect 33 kDa cyclin D3 protein in both murine lymphoma cell line BW5147.G.1.4 and human Jurkat T cells at 3,000-fold dilution with higher specificity to murine cyclin D3, demonstrating that the new rabbit polyclonal anti-murine cyclin D3 generated against c-terminal 236 amino acid residues more specifically recognizes murine cyclin D3 protein than does the commercially available rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against c-terminal 16 amino acids residues.

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Effect of Cyclin D2 on Cell Proliferation in T-47D Breast Cancer Cells (인체 유방암 세포에서 과다발현 시킨 Cyclin D2의 영향에 대한 연구)

  • 김현준;이근수;전상학;공구
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2004
  • Three D-type cyelins (D1, D2, and D3) are expressed in G1 phase of the cell cyele and have been implicated in cell transformation and neoplasia in human and mouse. Cyclin D1 overexpression or amplification was described in various human cancers. However, there is controversy about the role of cyclin D2 in cell cyele progression and human carcinogenesis. Specially, loss of cyelin D2 is involved in a vital tumor suppressor function in normal breast tissue, and that its loss may be related to tumorigenesis. The author examined to effect over-expression of cyclin D2 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle using cyclin D2 transfected stable T47D breast cancer cells to investigate whether cyclinD2 functions as a positive regulator or negative regulator in cell proliferation. Overexpression of cyclin D2 led to the suppression of cell growth in cyclin D2 transfected T47D in both in its expression level and a time dependent manner with up to 50% reduction of cell growth at 72 hours. Therefore, the authors performed the cell cycle phase analysis using the flow cytometry to investigate the effect of cyclin D2 on the cell cycle phase in cyclin D2 transfected stable T47D cells. The flow cytometry analysis revealed increased sub G0 phase in cyclin D2 transfeted cells up to 23% at 72 hours. To confirm these results induced by overexpression of cyclinD2, the apoptotic bodies were counted in control and cyclin D2 transfected T47 cells. There are markedly increases of apoptotic bodies in cyclin D2-transfected cells up to 18%. These results suggested that Cyclin D2 suppresses the cell proliferation in breast cancers cells via the induction of apotosis.

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Calpain Protease-dependent Post-translational Regulation of Cyclin D3 (Calpain protease에 의한 cyclin D3의 post-translation조절)

  • Hwang, Won Deok;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2015
  • Cyclin D is a member of the cyclin protein family, which plays a critical role as a core member of the mammalian cell cycle machinery. D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) bind to and activate the cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, which can then phosphorylate the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene products. This phosphorylation in turn leads to release or derepression of E2F transcription factors that promote progression from the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. Among the D-type cyclins, cyclin D3 encoded by the CCND3 gene is one of the least well studied. In the present study, we have investigated the biochemistry of the proteolytic mechanism that leads to loss of cyclin D3 protein. Treatment of human prostate carcinoma PC-3-M cells with lovastatin and actinomycin D resulted in a loss of cyclin D3 protein that was completely reversible by the peptide aldehyde calpain inhibitor, LLnL. Additionally, using inhibitors for various proteolytic systems, we show that degradation of cyclin D3 protein involves the $Ca^{2+}$-activated neutral protease calpain. Moreover, the half-life of cyclin D3 protein half-life increased by at least 10-fold in PC-3M cells in response to the calpain inhibitor. We have also demonstrated that the transient expression of the calpain inhibitor calpastatin increased cyclin D3 protein in serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells. These data suggested that the function of cyclin D3 is regulated by $Ca^{2+}$-dependent protease calpain.

Downregulation of Cyclin D1 by Sophorae Flos through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Jin Wook;Park, Gwang Hun;Eo, Hyun Ji;Jeong, Jin Boo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.727-733
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    • 2015
  • Although Sophorae Flos (SF) has been reported to exert an anti-cancer activity, molecular targets and mechanisms associated with anti-cancer activity of SF have been unclear. Because cyclin D1 has been regarded as an important regulator in the cell proliferation, we focused cyclin D1 and investigated the effect of SF on the cyclin D1 regulation in light of elucidating the molecular mechanism for SF’s anti-cancer activity. The treatment of SF decreased cellular accumulation of cyclin D1 protein. However, SF did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated SF-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with SF. In addition, a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated SF-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by a selective inhibitor, PD98059 suppressed cyclin D1 downregulation by SF. From these results, we suggest that SF-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via ERK1/2. SF-induced proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 might inhibit proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells. The current study provides information on molecular events for an anti-cancer activity of SF

Regulation of Cyclin D3 by Calpain Protease in Human Breast Carcinoma MDA-MB-231 Cells (인체 유방암세포에서 calpain protease에 의한 cyclin D3의 발현 조절)

  • Choi, Byung-Tae;Kim, Gun-Do;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.598-604
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    • 2006
  • The $Ca^{2+}-activated$ neutral protease calpain induced proteolysis has been suggested to play a role in certain cell growth regulatory proteins. Cyclin proteolysis is essential for cell cycle progression. D-type cyclins, which form an assembly with cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk4 and cdk6), are synthesized earlier in G1 of the cell cycle and seem to be induced in response to external signals that promote entry into the cell cycle. Here we show that cyclin D3 protein levels are regulated at the posttranscriptional level by calpain protease. Treatment of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells with lovastatin and actinomycin D resulted in a loss of cyclin D3 protein that was completely reversible by the peptide aldehyde calpain inhibitor, LLnL. The specific inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, lactacystin, the lysosome inhibitors, ammonium chloride and chloroquine, and the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), did not block the degradation of cyclin D3 by lovastatin and actinomycin D. Results of in vitro degradation of cyclin D3 by purified calpain showed that cyclin D3 protein is degraded in a $Ca^{2+}-dependent$ manner, and the half-life of cyclin D3 protein was dramatically increased in LLnL treated cells. These data suggested that cyclin D3 protein is regulated by the $Ca^{2+}-activated$ protease calpain.

Prognostic Significance of Cyclin E and p27 in Stage 1 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (제1병기 비소세포폐암에서 Cyclin E와 p27의 발현과 예후)

  • 조봉균;조성래;천봉권
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2003
  • Cyclin I plays a pivotal role in the regulation of G1-S transition and could consequently be a deregulated molecule in tumors. The activity of the cdk2-cyclin E complex is increased by degradation of cdk inhibitor p27kip1. Little is known about the expression and prognostic significance of cyclin E and p27 in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Material and Method: The expression of cyclin E and p27 in eighty-one cases of resected stage I NSCLC tissues and its relation to major clinico-pathological factors, including histology, differentiation, size of tumor, pleural invasion and survival rate were studied and analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies specific for cyclin E and p27 were performed by ABC method. Result: Expression rates of cyclin E and p27 in stage I NSCLC tissues were 29.6% and 28.4% respectively. Cyclin E was expressed higher in cases of pleural invasion(p=0.04), and p27 was expressed higher in diameter of tumor less than 3cm(p=0.015). The 5-years survival rate was lower in cases of Positive expression of cyclin E than in cases of negative expression of cyclin E(44.4% vs 68.2%, p=0.015), and the 5-years survival rate was 72.2% in positive expression of p27 and 56.2% in negative expression of p27(p=0.09). The 5-years survival rate was higher in negative expression of cyclin E and positive expression of p27 than in cases of positive expression of cyclin I and negative expression of p27 (73.5% vs 36.3%, p=0.0029). In multivariate analysis, expression of cyclin I was an unfavorable prognostic factor(RR=3.578, p=0.006) and p27 was a favorable prognostic factor(RR=0.183, p=0.019) independently. Conclusion: Cyclin E and p27 may play a pivotal role for the biological behavior of stage I NSCLC, so that the expressions of cyclin I and p27 nay be new prognostic markers.

Increased Expression of Cyclin D3 are Involved in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Kim, Gi-Jin;Sun, Woong;Won, Nam-Hee;Park, Sun-Hwa
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2008
  • Human cyclin D3 gene (CCND3) located on 6p21.1 is important for the regulation of the G1-S phase transition of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. Because little is known about the effect of cyclin D3 in various human cancers, we evaluated the intricate relationship between expression of cyclin D3 and the process of HCC development using immunohis tochemistry and TUNEL assay on 43 paraffin embedded tissues. Cyclin D3 immunoreactivity was more frequently observed in the tumors with high histologic grade and the tumors with metastasis, and more frequently expressed in HCCs with cirrhotic background and gain of 6p21.1 when compared with those with non-neoplastic tissue. Apoptotic cells were more common in tumor with cirrhotic background, amplification of 6p21.1 and expression of cyclin D3 when compared with HCCs with lower level of cyclin D3 expression. Also, we observed that some of the cyclin D3 positive cell and apoptotic cell were co-localized. From these results, it is suggested that over-expression of cyclin D3 may contribute to more rapid cell turn-over in the background of HCC, and balance between proliferation and apoptosis is a role in the progression of HCC with cirrhotic background.

Anti-Proliferative Effect of Naringenin through p38-Dependent Downregulation of Cyclin D1 in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Song, Hun Min;Park, Gwang Hun;Eo, Hyun Ji;Lee, Jin Wook;Kim, Mi Kyoung;Lee, Jeong Rak;Lee, Man Hyo;Koo, Jin Suk;Jeong, Jin Boo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.339-344
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    • 2015
  • Naringenin (NAR) as one of the flavonoids observed in grapefruit has been reported to exhibit an anti-cancer activity. However, more detailed mechanism by which NAR exerts anti-cancer properties still remains unanswered. Thus, in this study, we have shown that NAR down-regulates the level of cyclin D1 in human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480. NAR inhibited the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 blocked NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with NAR. In addition, NAR increased the phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine blocked cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. p38 inactivation attenuated cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. From these results, we suggest that NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through p38 activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between NAR, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells.