• Title/Summary/Keyword: $E_2$

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A facile synthesis of (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate and (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate, pheromone components of Riptortus pedestris (톱다리개미허리노린재 페로몬, (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate과 (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate의 합성)

  • Kim, Junheon;Park, Chung Gyoo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.140-143
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    • 2013
  • We investigated optimal condition for synthesis of (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate (1) and (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate (2), the pheromone components of Riptortus pedestris, by Steglich esterification. The reaction with 1.1-1.5 equivalent of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), 1.5-2.0 equivalent of (E)-2-hexenol, and 0.1 equivalent 4-dimethylaminopyrinde (DMAP) to (E)-2-hexenoic acid in toluene or (Z)-3-hexenoic acid in dichloromethane led 1 and 2 in 76-78% and 87-91% yield, respectively.

Composition of the Aggregation Pheromone Components of Korean Bean Bug and Attractiveness of Different Blends (한국산 톱다리개미허리노린재 집합페로몬 성분의 조성과 배합비율별 유인력)

  • Huh, Hye-Soon;Yun, Ji-Eun;Takashi, Wada;Mizutani, Nobuo;Park, Chung-Gyoo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2008
  • Male adults of bean bug, Riptortus clavatus Thunberg (Heteroptera: Alydidae), release aggregation pheromone (AP) attracting both sexes of adult and nymphs, which its egg parasite, Ooencyrtus nezarae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) exploits the pheromone to find host. The AP consists of three components; (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate (E2HZ3H), (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate (E2HE2H), and tetradecyl isobutyrate (TI). We analyzed composition of the pheromone components of bean bugs from different geo graphical locations of Korea and Japan. The attractiveness of different blends of AP components to R. clavatus was also tested in the fields in Jinju, Korea and in Kumamoto, Japan. Composition ratios (E2HZ3H: E2HE2H:TI) of the AP of Jinju and Iksan populations were 1:1.4:0.2 and 1:0.8:0.2, and those of Tsukuba and Kumamoto populations were 1:2.8:0.2 and 1:1.5:0.1, respectively. In field tests, traps baited with ratio of 1:1:1 (E2HZ3H:E2HE2H:TI=16.7:16.7:16.7mg/rubber septum) and 1:1:0.5(E2HZ3H:E2HE2H:TI= 20:20:10mg/rubber septum) attracted significantly greater number of adult bugs than that of 1:5:1 (E2HZ3H:E2HE2H:TI=7.1:35.7:7.1mg/rubber septum).

Characterization of Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Protein (Hepatitis C Virus E2 외피항원에 대한 단일클론항체의 특성 연구)

  • Park, Joon-Sang;Lee, Bum-Young;Chung, Soo-Il;Min, Mi-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 1997
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 protein is known to be one of putative envelope proteins. To develop a sensitive detection method for HCV infected tissues and cells, monoclonal antibodys (MAbs) to the E2 protein of HCV were prepared from mice immunized with recombinant baculovirus-expressing E2 protein (Bac-E2). Several hybridoma clones secreting various levels of MAb were isolated and isotypes of these MAb were determined. One clone (L.2.3.3) was used for ascites production and the E2-MAb was purified and characterized. The L.2.3.3 reacted well with both Bac-E2 and E. coli expressed glutathione-S-transferase-E2 (GST-E2) fusion proteins. Using HCV patient sera, E2 envelope protein was found to be localized in the cell membrane boundary both in CHO cells and insect cells which express HCV E2 protein. Similar result was obtained when same cells were treated with the MAb L.2.3.3. These results demonstrated that Bac-E2 protein is capable of eliciting high titer antibody production in mice.

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17 beta-Estradiol Increases Peak of $\textrm{Ca}^{2+}$ Current in Mouse Early Embryo (에스트로겐이 생쥐 초기배의 $\textrm{Ca}^{2+}$ 전류에 미치는 영향)

  • 강다원;신용원;김은심;홍성근;한재희
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2001
  • Steroid hormones control the expression of many cellular regulators, and a role thor estrogen in mouse oocytes has been well documented. The preovulatory $E_2$increment is generally accepted as the endocrine process regulating induction of in vivo oocyte maturation To address whether the activity of the T-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel is altered by 17 beta-estradiol ( $E_2$), we examined the actions of $E_2$on the calcium channel of mouse oocytes and early embryos. Oocrtes were collected from the oviduct of mice treated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human choronic gonadotropin (hCG). Whole cell voltage clamp technique and confocal microscopy were used to examine that $E_2$increase intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ([C $a^{2+}$]$_{i}$ ) via voltage dependent $Ca^{2+}$ channel (VDC) and estrogen receptor (FSR), and $E_2$concentration by the use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) were examined in mouse. The results obtained were as follows: The peak of $Ca^{2+}$ current induced by $E_2$increased 122% to 1.50$\pm$0.03 nA from 1.23$\pm$0.21 nA (n=15) in the presence of 5 mM extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ([C $a^{2+}$]$_{o}$ ). The increased $Ca^{2+}$ current was temporally associated with $Ca^{2+}$ transients. The intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level increased 207%~30 s following the addition of 1${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ $E_2$(relative fluorescence intensity: 836.4$\pm$131.2 for control, n=10, 1736.4$\pm$192.0 in the presence of $E_2$, n=10). $E_2$increased amplitude of $Ca^{2+}$ current and [C $a^{2+}$]$_{i}$ . $E_2$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ current and $E_2$concentration in blood were showed difference on the stage of embryo. These results suggest that $E_2$modulate $Ca^{2+}$ channel to increase $Ca^{2+}$ influx.$Ca^{2+}$ influx.

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Antifungal Activity of Medium-Chain ($C_{6}-C_{13}$) Alkenals against, and Their Inhibitory Effect on the Plasma Membrane $H^{+}$-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Lee, Jae-Ran;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Kubo, Isao;Hong, Soon-Duck
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 1998
  • Aliphatic alkenals having 6 to 13 carbons were evaluated for antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The activity was gradually increased with chain length, e.g., (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-undecenal exhibited maximum potency, while (E)-2-dodecenal and (E)-2-tridecenal were completely inactive. Alkenals showed increasing inhibitory activity with chain length, as in the case of antifungal activity, towards glucose-induced medium acidification by the plasma membrane $H^+$-ATPase of S. cerevisiae. The group including (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, and (E)-2-undecenal exhibited maximum potency, but the potency of (E)-2-dodecenal and (E)-2-tridecenal demonstrated a sudden drop with respect to the former group. (E)-2-Nonenal revealed dose-responsive inhibition to the medium acidification and inhibited over 90% at a concentration of 1.25 mM ($175.3{\mu}g$/ml). In contrast to (E)-2-undecenal whose inhibitory efficiency increased with incubation time, inhibition by (E)-2-dodecenal was reversed with time. Of the tested alkenals, (E)-2-heptenal and (E)-2-octenal most highly inhibited ATP hydrolytic activity by the plasma membrane $H^+$ ATPase, while (E)-2-heptenal at 10 mM ($1121.8{\mu}g$/ml) showed an inhibitory efficacy of 93.2%.

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Tristetraprolin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Through Suppression of E2F1

  • Lee, Hyun Hee;Lee, Se-Ra;Leem, Sun-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2014
  • The transcription factor E2F1 is active during G1 to S transition and is involved in the cell cycle and progression. A recent study reported that increased E2F1 is associated with DNA damage and tumor development in several tissues using transgenic models. Here, we show that E2F1 expression is regulated by tristetraprolin (TTP) in prostate cancer. Overexpression of TTP decreased the stability of E2F1 mRNA and the expression level of E2F1. In contrast, inhibition of TTP using siRNA increased the E2F1 expression. E2F1 mRNA contains three AREs within the 3'UTR, and TTP destabilized a luciferase mRNA that contained the E2F1 mRNA 3'UTR. Analyses of point mutants of the E2F1 mRNA 3'UTR demonstrated that ARE2 was mostly responsible for the TTP-mediated destabilization of E2F1 mRNA. RNA EMSA revealed that TTP binds directly to the E2F1 mRNA 3'UTR of ARE2. Moreover, treatment with siRNA against TTP increased the proliferation of PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that E2F1 mRNA is a physiological target of TTP and suggests that TTP controls proliferation as well as migration and invasion through the regulation of E2F1 mRNA stability.

Curcumin Induces Downregulation of E2F4 Expression and Apoptotic Cell Death in H CT116 Human Colon Cancer Cells; Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species

  • Kim, Kyung-Chan;Lee, Chu-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2010
  • E2F transcription factors and their target genes have been known to play an important role in cell growth control. We found that curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical isolated from the plant Curcuma longa, markedly suppressed E2F4 expression in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Hydrogen peroxide was also found to decrease E2F4 protein level, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in curucmin-induced downregulation of E2F4 expression. Involvement of ROS in E2F4 downregulation in response to curcumin was confirmed by the result that pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcystein (NAC) before exposure of curcumin almost completely blocked the reduction of E2F4 expression at the protein as well as mRNA level. Anti-proliferative effect of curcumin was also suppressed by NAC which is consistent to previous reports showing curcumin-superoxide production and induction of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage as well as apoptosis. Expression of several genes, cyclin A, p21, and p27, which has been shown to be regulated in E2F4-dependent manner and involved in the cell cycle progression was also affected by curcumin. Moreover, decreased (cyclin A) and increased (p21 and p27) expression of these E2F4 downstream genes by curcumin was restored by pretreatment of cells with NAC and E2F4 overexpression which is induced by doxycycline. In addition, E2F4 overexpression was observed to partially ameliorate curcumin-induced growth inhibition by cell viability assay. Taken together, we found curcumin-induced ROS down-regulation of E2F4 expression and modulation of E2F4 target genes which finally lead to the apoptotic cell death in HCT116 colon cancer cells, suggesting that E2F4 appears to be a novel determinant of curcumin-induced cytotoxicity.

Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Hog Cholera Virus(HCV) E2 Gene (돼지 콜레라 바이러스 E2 유전자의 클로닝 및 염기서열분석)

  • 이영기;강신웅;김선원;박성원;이종철;이청호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2001
  • Hog cholera virus(HCV) was purified from virus infected Bovine kidney cells. From this virus, total protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and about 55 kDa band of E2 envelope protein was detected. The viral RNA was purified and E2 cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR. E2 cDNA fragment was cloned to PCRII-TOPO cloning vector and named pE2. The analysis of nucleotide sequence showed that this E2 cDNA fragment inserted into pE2 was 1191 nucleotides long and coded 397 amino acids.

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Effects of Estradiol-17β on the Feminization of Japanase Eel, Anguilla japonica (극동산 뱀장어, Anguilla japonica 자성화에 미치는 estradiol-17β 유도 효과)

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Bae-Ik;Kim, Kyung-Kil;Kim, Eung-Oh;Son, Maeng-Hyun;Seong, Ki-Baik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.998-1003
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    • 2013
  • The effects of oral administration of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ (E2) on glass eels (Body weight: $0.16{\pm}0.05g$, Total length: $6.2{\pm}0.9cm$) and young eels (Body weight: $2.6{\pm}0.6g$, Total length: $13.2{\pm}0.6cm$) on gonadal sex and growth were examined, respectively. Glass eels were fed a diet containing E2 at a dose of 10 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg, respectively, for five months. The female ratio significantly increased in all E2-treated groups (10 mg/kg diet group: 70%; 25 mg/kg diet group: 90%) when compared to the control group (10%). Young eels were fed a diet containing E2 at a dose of 25 mg/kg for four months. The female ratio also significantly increased in the E2-treated groups (60%) compared to the control group (20%). The highest female ratio was observed in the stage of glass eels rather than young eels. In all experiments, however, the growth of eels treated with E2 was similar to that of controls to the end of the experiment. Thus, oral administration of E2 could be a good approach to controlling sex differentiation.

Study on Relationship between constitution medicine and Prostaglandin E2 in Blood (사상인(四象人) 체질(體質)과 혈중(血中) Prostaglandin E2치(値)와의 관계(關係)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Jong-Weon
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.245-261
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    • 1997
  • The investigation were carried out the 37 patient with cerebrovascular accidents who had been treated in Oriental Medical Hospital in Kyung Hee University and in KangNam Uy Lim, and the 10 examinees who had been worked in Medical Hospital in Kyung Hee University. The consitution which had discriminated by survey, which had discriminated by study on the morphological diagrammings, which had discriminated by the result of the impatient of hospital on a dosage of constitutial prescription. The Prostaglandin E2 in blood for 47 persons (37 patients & 10 examinees) was measured. The following results were obtained. 1.In the constitution which had discriminated by survey, in the value of Prostaglandin E2 in bood of ammong four constitutiens didn,t showed significant differance. 2.In the constitution which had discriminated by study on the morphological diagrammings, in the value of Prostaglandin E2 in bood of ammong four constitutiens didn,t showed significant differance. 3.In the constitution which had discriminated by the result of patient of hospital on a dosage of constitutial prescription, the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of among four constitutions didn,nt showed signicant differance. 4.In the constitution which had discriminated by colligated three methods(survey, morphological diagrammings,the result of patient of hospital on a dosage of constitutial prescription), the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of ammong four constituion didn,t showed significant differnce. 5.In the constitution which had discriminated by survey, a test of significance between the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of each constitution and the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of the others was conducted. Only the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood between in the TAE-EUM-IN(太陰人) and the others of female showed significant differance. 6.In the constitution which had discriminated by study on the morphological diagrammings,a test of significance between the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of each constitution and the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of the others was conducted. Only the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood between in the SO-EUM-IN(少陰人) and the others of male showed significant differance. 7.In the constitution whichhad discriminated by the result of patient of hospital on a dosage of constitutial prescription,a test of significance between the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of each constitution and the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of the others was conducted. Only the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood between in the TAE-EUM-IN(太陰人) and the others of male showed significant differance. 8.In the constitution which had discriminated was the colligated three methods(survey,morphological diagrammings,the result of patient of hospital on a dosage of constitutial prescription),a test of significance between the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of each constitution and the value of Prostaglandin E2 in blood of the others didn,t showed significant differnce. In this connected study is inadequete at present. But if the study is done persistently,the analysis of various ingredient in the body enables objectification in differentiation of four types of physical constitution as the supplemental method.

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