• Title, Summary, Keyword: $K_{ATP}$ channel

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Effects of $Cl^-$ Channel Blockers on the Cardiac ATP-sensitive $K^+$ Channel

  • Kwak, Yong-Geun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 1999
  • To explore whether $Cl^-$ channel blockers interact with the ATP-sensitive $K^+\;(K_{ATP})$ channel, I have examined the effect of two common $Cl^-$ channel blockers on the $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in isolated rat ventricular myocytes using patch clamp techniques. In inside-out patches, 4,4'-diisothio-cyanatostilbene- 2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and niflumic acid applied to bath solution inhibited the $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in a concentration-dependent manner with $IC_{50}$ of 0.24 and 927 ${\mu}M,$ respectively. The inhibitory action of DIDS was irreversible whereas that of niflumic acid was reversible. Furthermore, DIDS-induced block was not recovered despite exposure to ATP (1 mM). In cell-attached and inside-out patches, DIDS blocked the pinacidil- or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced $K_{ATP}$ channel openings. In contrast, niflumic acid did not block the pinacidil-induced $K_{ATP}$ channel openings in inside-out patches, but inhibited it in cell-attached patches. DIDS and niflumic acid produced additional block in the presence of ATP and did not affect current-voltage relationship and channel kinetics. All these results indicate that DIDS among $Cl^-$ channel blockers specifically blocks the cardiac $K_{ATP}$ channel.

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Effects of Adenosine on the Ionic Channel Activated by Metabolic Inhibition in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Han, Jin;Kim, Eui-Yong;Ho, Won-Kyung;Earm, Yung-E
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1996
  • The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of adenosine in regulation of ATP-sensitive $K^+\;channel\;(K_{ATP}\;channel)$ activity in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes using the patch clamp technique. Internal adenosine had little effects on KaTr channel activity. In an outside-out patch with intrapipette GTP and ATP, external adenosine stimulated $K_{ATP}\;channel$ activity. In an inside-out Patch with intrapipette adenosine, ATP reduced $K_{ATP}\;channel$ activity, and GTP stimulated $K_{ATP}\;channel$ activity. Adenosine receptor activation shifted the half-maximal inhibition Of $K_{ATP}\;channel\;from\;70\;to\;241\;{\mu}m$. These results Suggest that activation of adenosine receptors stimulates $K_{ATP}\;channels$ in rabbit ventricular myocytes by reducing the apparent affinity of the channel for ATP. The effect may be important for activating $K_{ATP}\;channels$ during early phase of myocardial ischemia.

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Effect of pH on the ATP-sensitive $K^+$ Channel in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells from Rats

  • Kim, Se-Hoon;Kim, Il-Su;Kim, Hoe-Suk;Jeon, Byeong-Hwa;Chang, Seok-Jong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.5
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 1997
  • The effects of pH on $K^+$ currents were investigated in single smooth muscle cells isolated from the thoracic aorta of Wistar-Kyoto rats. Whole-cell $K^+$ currents were recorded in the conventional configuration of the voltage-clamp technique. Pinacidil (10uM) activated the whole-cell current and the pinacidil-activated current was completely inhibited by glibenclamide (10uM) , an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channel ($K_{ATP}$ channel). Pinacidil-activated current was reversed at near the $K^+$ equilibrium potential. This current was time- and voltage-independent and reduced by elevating intracellular ATP. Pinacidil-activated current was reduced by lowering the external pH. However, alteration of internal pH has controversial effects on pinacidil-activated current. When the single cell was dialyzed with 0.1 mM ATP, alteration of internal pH had no effect on pinacidil-activated $K^+$ current. In the contrast, when the single cell was dialyzed with 3 mM ATP, pinacidil-activated current was increased by lowering internal pH. Our results suggest that $K^+$ channel activated by pinacidil may be $K_{ATP}$ channel and internal $H^+$ may reduce the inhibitory effect of ATP on $K_{ATP}$ channel.

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Effect of Prostaglandins $D_2,\;E_2\;and\;I_2\;on\;the\;Regulation\;of\;K_{ATP}$ Channel Activity in Rat Cardiac Myocytes

  • Ju, Jeong-Min;Nah, Seung-Yeol;Kim, Jae-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.5
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    • pp.507-512
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    • 1999
  • Contribution of prostaglandins $D_2,\;E_2\;and\;I_2\;(PGD_2,\;PGE_2\;and\;PGI_2)$ on the regulation of ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channel $(K_{ATP}\;channel)$ was investigated in isolated single rat ventricular cardiac myocytes using the patch clamp technique. $PGD_2,\;PGE_2\;and\; PGI_2$ did not affect $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in the inside-out patch, but increased channel activity in a dose-dependent manner when the channel activities were attenuated by the administration of 100 ${\mu}M$ ATP to the internal solution in the inside-out patch. Channel activations by the prostaglandins were abolished by 50 ${\mu}M$ glibenclamide, a $K_{ATP}$ channel blocker. Dose-response curves of relative channel activity against the ATP concentrations of internal solution in the inside-out patch were shifted to the right in the presence of those three prostaglandins. The rank order of the channel stimulatory potencies $(as\;IC_{50}\;for\;ATP)$ calculated from the dose-response curves were $PGI_2\;>\;PGD_2\;>\;PGE_2.$ Conductance of the channel was not changed by those three prostaglandins. In conclusion, we suggest that prostaglandins $D_2,\;E_2\;and\;I_2$ are involved in the regulation of $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in certain circumstances, and that those three prostaglandins may cause myocardial relaxation by opening $K_{ATP}$ channels, thus protecting the heart from ischema.

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Activation of ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels by the Predominant Metabolite of Isoflurane in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Han, Jin;Kim, Na-Ri;Kim, Eui-Yong;Kim, Sung-Ju;Cho, Kang-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2001
  • Background: Recent in vivo experimental evidence suggests that isoflurane-induced cardioprotection may involve $K_{ATP}$ channel activation. However, it was demonstrated that isoflurane inhibited $K_{ATP}$ channel activities in the inside-out patch mode. To explain this discrepancy, the present investigation tested the hypothesis that a metabolite of isoflurane, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), contributes to isoflurnae-induced cardioprotection via $K_{ATP}$ channel activation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from rabbit hearts by an enzymatic dissociation procedure. Patch-clamp techniques were used to record single-channel currents. $K_{ATP}$ channel activities were assessed before and after the application of TFA with the inside-out patch mode. Results: TFA enhanced channel activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. The concentration of TFA for half-maximal activation and the Hill coefficient were 0.03 mM and 1.2, respectively. TFA did not affect the single channel conductance of $K_{ATP}$ channels. Analysis of open and closed time distributions showed that TFA increased burst duration and decreased the interburst interval without changes in open and closed time distributions shorter than 5 ms. TFA diminished ATP sensitivity of $K_{ATP}$ channels in a concentration-response relationship for ATP. Conclusions: TFA, a metabolite of isoflurane, enhanced $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results imply that TFA could mediate isoflurane-induced cardioprotection via $K_{ATP}$ channel activation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

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Thiol-dependent Redox Mechanisms in the Modification of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Han, Jin;Kim, Na-Ri;Cuong, Dang-Van;Kim, Chung-Hui;Kim, Eui-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2003
  • Cellular redox state is known to be perturbed during ischemia and that $Ca^{2+}$ and $K^2$ channels have been shown to have functional thiol groups. In this study, the properties of thiol redox modulation of the ATP-sensitive $K^2$ ($K_{ATP}$) channel were examined in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Rabbit ventricular myocytes were isolated using a Langendorff column for coronary perfusion and collagenase. Single-channel currents were measured in excised membrane patch configuration of patch-clamp technique. The thiol oxidizing agent 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitro-benzoic acid) (DTNB) inhibited the channel activity, and the inhibitory effect of DTNB was reversed by dithiothreitol (disulfide reducing agent; DTT). DTT itself did not have any effect on the channel activity. However, in the patches excised from the metabolically compromised cells, DTT increased the channel activity. DTT had no effect on the inhibitory action by ATP, showing that thiol oxidation was not involved in the blocking mechanism of ATP. There were no statistical difference in the single channel conductance for the oxidized and reduced states of the channel. Analysis of the open and closed time distributions showed that DTNB had no effect on open and closed time distributions shorter than 4 ms. On the other hand, DTNB decreased the life time of bursts and increased the interburst interval. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), a substance that reacts with thiol groups of cystein residues in proteins, induced irreversible closure of the channel. The thiol oxidizing agents (DTNB, NEM) inhibited of the $K_{ATP}$ channel only, when added to the cytoplasmic side. The results suggested that metabolism-induced changes in the thiol redox can also modulate $K_{ATP}$ channel activity and that a modulatory site of thiol redox may be located on the cytoplasmic side of the $K_{ATP}$ channel in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

Block of ATP-Sensitive $K^+$ Channels Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes by Dimethyl Sulfoxide

  • Park, Jin-Bong;Chae, Soo-Wan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2001
  • The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were studied in two groups of Xenopus oocytes, one expressing ATP sensitive $K^+\;(K_{ATP})$ channel comprised of sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 and inwardly rectifying $K^+$ channel subunit Kir6.2, and the other expressing renal $K_{ATP}$ channel ROMK2. At concentrations of $0.3{\sim}10%$ (vol/vol) DMSO inhibited whole cell Kir6.2/SUR1 currents elicited by bath application of sodium azide (3 mM) in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition constant and Hill coefficient were 2.93% and 1.62, respectively. ROMK2 currents, however, was not affected significantly by DMSO. The results support the idea that DMSO inhibits $K_{ATP}$ channel expressed in Xenopus oocyte through a protein-specific mechanism(s) that remains to be further elucidated.

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Permeability properties of skeletal muscle ATP-sensitive K+ channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer (평지방막에 융합된 골격근의 single ATP-sensitive K+ channel의 이온투과성에 대한 연구)

  • Ryu, Pan-dong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.543-553
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    • 1992
  • Properties of unitary ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channels were studied using planar lipid bilayer technique. Vesicles were prepared from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) skeletal muscle. ATP-sensitive $K^+$ (K (ATP)) channels were identified by their unitary conductance and sensitivity to ATP. In the symmetrical solution containing 200mM KCI, 10mM Hepes, 1mM EGTA and pH 7.2, single K (ATP) channels showed a linear current-voltage relations with slight inward rectification. Slope conductance at reversal potential was $60.1{\pm}0.43$ pS(n=3)). Micromolar ATP reversibly inhibited the channel activity when applied to the cytoplasmic side. In the range of -50~+50 mV, the channel activity was not voltage-dependent, but the channel gating within a burst was more frequent at negative voltage range. Varying the concentrations of external/internal KCl(mM) to 40/200, 200/200, 200/100 and 200/40 shifted reversal potentials to $-30.8{\pm}2.9$(n=3), $-1.1{\pm}2.7$(n=3), 10.5 and 30.6(mV), respecrivety. These reversal potentials were close to the expected values by the Nernst equation, indicating nearly ideal selectivity for $K^+$ over $Cl^-$. Under bi-ionic conditions of 200mM external test ions and 200mM internal $K^+$, the reversal potentials for each test ion/K pair were measured. The measured reversal potentials were used for the calculation of the releative permeability of alkali cations to $K^+$ ions using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. The permeability sequence of 5 cations relative to $K^+$ was $K^+$(1), $Rb^+$(0.49), $Cs^+$(0.27), $Na^+$(0.027) and $Li^+$(0.021). This sequence was recognized as Eisenman's selectivity sequence IV. In addition, modelling the permeation of $K^+$ ion through ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channel revealed that a 3-barrier 2-site multiple occupancy model can reasonably predict the observed current-voltage relations.

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Opening of ATP-sensitive $K^+$ Channel by Pinacidil Requires Serine/Threonine Phosphorylation in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

  • Kwak, Yong-Geun;Chae, Soo-Wan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 1999
  • The influences of specific protein phosphatase and protein kinase inhibitors on the ATP-sensitive $K^+\;(K_{ATP})$ channel-opening effect of pinacidil were investigated in single rat ventricular myocytes using patch clamp technique. In cell-attached patches, pinacidil $(100\;{\mu}M)$ induced the opening of the $K_{ATP}$ channel, which was blocked by the pretreatment with H-7 $(100\;{\mu}M)$ whereas enhanced by the pretreatment with genistein $(30\;{\mu}M)$ or tyrphostin A23 $(10\;{\mu}M)$. In inside-out patches, pinacidil $(10\;{\mu}M)$ activated the $K_{ATP}$ channels in the presence of ATP (0.3 mM) or AMP-PNP (0.3 mM) and in a partial rundown state. The effect of pinacidil $(10\;{\mu}M)$ was not affected by the pretreatment with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B $(PTP1B,\;10\;{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}),$ but blocked by the pretreatment of protein phosphatase 2A $(PP2A,\;1\;U\;ml^{-1})$. In addition, pinacidil $(10\;{\mu}M)$ could not induce the opening of the reactivated $K_{ATP}$ channels in the presence of H-7 $(100\;{\mu}M)$ but enhanced it in the presence of ATP (1 mM) and genistein $(30\;{\mu}M).$ These results indicate that the $K_{ATP}$ channel-opening effect of pinacidil is not mediated via phosphorylation of $K_{ATP}$ channel protein or associated protein, although it still requires the phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues as a prerequisite condition.

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Protein Kinase C Activates ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Kim, Na-Ri;Youm, Jae-Boum;Joo, Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Kyu;Kim, Eui-Yong;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 2005
  • Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in ischemic preconditioning induced by the activation of ATP-sensitive $K^+$ $(K_{ATP})$ channels. We examined whether protein kinase C (PKC) modulated the activity of $K_{ATP}$ channels by recording $K_{ATP}$ channel currents in rabbit ventricular myocytes using patch-clamp technique and found that phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (PDD) enhanced pinacidil-induced $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in the cell-attached configuration; and this effect was prevented by bisindolylmaleimide (BIM). $K_{ATP}$ channel activity was not increased by $4{\alpha}-PDD$. In excised insideout patches, PKC stimulated $K_{ATP}$ channels in the presence of 1 mM ATP, and this effect was abolished in the presence of BIM. Heat-inactivated PKC had no effect on channel activity. PKC-induced activation of $K_{ATP}$ channels was reversed by PP2A, and this effect was not detected in the presence of okadaic acid. These results suggest that PKC activates $K_{ATP}$ channels in rabbit ventricular myocytes.