• Title, Summary, Keyword: $LD_{50}$ value

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Toxicological Evaluation of Median Lethal Dose $(LD_{50})$ ($LD_{50}$의 독성학적 고찰)

  • 박현선;홍채영;오진아;윤승천;이병무
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.143-154
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    • 1996
  • This paper reviews the toxicological role of median lethal dose ($LD_50$) based on animal and human data. Animal oral $LD_50$ values of eighty seven chemicals were collected and comparatively evaluated with human minimum toxic dose ($TD_50$). In general, animal $LD_50$ values were much higher than human $TD_50$. The ratios between $LD_50$ and TDlo were ranged from 0.01 and over 1000, suggesting safety factor of up to 1000 between humans and animals in the case of acute toxicity data. However, about 40% of chemicals investigated were within the ratio of 10. Although the cases (N=20) were small, $LD_50$ values of guinea pig were closer to human TDlo than those of other animal species. In interanimal species (rat, mouse, rabbit, dog), the ratios of $LD_50$ values were between 0.1 and 5 (up to 50-fold difference). When the data are analyzed by chemical strut-ares, human $TD_50$ values were very close to rat oral $LD_50$ values. These data suggest that rat oral $LD_50$ value might be a useful parameter predicting human TDlo and one animal species could be sufficient for acute toxicity test.

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Report on the changes of LD50 of Bee venom Herbal Acupuncture (봉약침의 LD50 변화 보고)

  • Jang, Seong-Bong;Choi, Young-Kwon;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.41-44
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : This experiment was conducted to reevaluate $LD_{50}$ of Korean bee venom acupuncture as many changes have occurred over the years. Methods : ICR mice were used as the experiment animals and bee venom acupuncture was manufactured under the protocols of Korean Institute of herbal Acupuncture. Based on the previous reports, experiment was divided into pre and main sections. Results : 1. Presumed $LD_{50}$ value is at 5.25mg/kg 2. Deaths of experiment animals occurred within 48 hours. 3. Reduced toxicity of the bee venom acupuncture is likely to be the results of more refined manufacturing process and production. Conclusion : Comparing with the values of the previous results, toxicity of the bee venom acupuncture showed significant changes and more accurate findings on $LD_{50}$ value must be accomplished to lead further studies on the bee venom acupuncture.

Toxicity and Hemolytic Activitiy of Saponin Isolated from Sapindus mukorossi (연명피 사포닌의 독성 및 용혈작용)

  • 박은희
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.137-140
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    • 1995
  • Saponin isolated from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn has been shown to contain a strong anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, several pharmacological properties such as acute toxicity, local irritation and hemolytic activity of Sapindus saponin and its genin component, hederagenirl, were examined. The acute toxicity of Sapindus saponin was very low. Estimated from the LD$_{50}$ values, it showed much weaker toxicity in oral administration than in intraperitoneal injection. Hederagenin gave a very high LD$_{50}$ value even in intraperitoneal injection. Sapindus saponin showed a potent local irritation after topical application, whereas hederagenin did a very weak local irritation. Sapindus saponin also gave a high hemolytic activity.

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Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Herbicide Methiozolin (제초제 Methiozolin의 급성독성평가)

  • Koo, Suk-Jin;Kwon, Min;Park, Cheol-Beom
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2011
  • We investigated methiozolin acute toxicity using with Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of acute oral toxicity using rats showed $LD_{50}$ value of over 2,000 mg/kg bw for methiozolin. The calculate acute dermal $LD_{50}$ value of methiozolin was over 4,000 mg/kg. The skin irritation test showed moderately irritation and weak response of eye irritation test was observed in this experimental condition. According to these results, We concluded that methiozolin was Category IV in GHS chemical classification for acute toxicity. Future, we need more chronic toxicity test for safety.

Inheritance of Insecticide Resistance to Plant- and Leaf-hoppers Inherited Properties of MEP Resistance to Small Brown Plant-hopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallen) (멸구 매미충류에 대한 약제저항성의 유전성에 관한 연구 I. 애멸구의 MEP제에 대한 약제저항성의 유전적 특성)

  • Shim Jai Wook
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1978
  • The study was conducted to determine the inherited properties of the MEB resistance to natural population of the small brown plant-hopper(Laodelphax striatelluss). The plant-hoppers were collected from the natural population of Naju area where the highest insecticide resistance of MEF to the green rice leaf hopper (Nephotettix cincticeps) have been examined in 1976. And Naju collections were crossed to the susceptible Lab stock to examine the MEP resistance in the $F_1,\;BC_1F_1\;and\;F_2$ and $F_2$ populations. Ail the data were analyzed by the probit method. There was a difference in MEP resistance between Naju collection and susceptible Lab stock, showing $LD_{50}$ value of the former was 0.0029ug/insect compared to 0.0008ug/insect for the later. The $LD_{50}$ values and dosage-mortality lines of the $F_1$ and $BC_1F_1$ tended to close their resistant parent. and it was considered that the character of the MEP resistance in the Naju collection of the small brown plant hopper was controlled by the genetic traits. However, $LD_{50}$ value and dosasage-mortality lines of the $F_2$ populations were intermediate to their parents, it would be conclusive that the trait will be governed by a interaction of the genes or factors rather than the single genic control.

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Synthesis and Evaluation of Ecofriendly Nontoxic Cleaning Agents (무독성 친환경 세정제의 합성 및 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong Cheon;Ryu, Young;Hong, Yeon Heui;Kim, Seok Chan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.548-551
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    • 2014
  • In order to reduce toxicity on the human body, four new cleaning agents (1-4) containing ester and ether functionalities have been invented. The synthesized cleaning agents's physical properties, biodegradabilities, and $LD_{50}$ values, which were conducted by Korea Testing Certification Institute by using standard method, showed excellent values. A specimen for cleaning ability was prepared by cutting in $60{\times}40mm$ size of stainless steel plate. The surface of the above specimens was treated with four different kinds of contaminants, such as cutting oil, anti-rust oil, drawing oil, and lubricating oil. Contaminated specimens were then immersed in compounds (1-4) for 1 to 5 minutes to dissolve oil in the cleaning agent. The data indicate that all compounds (1-4) exhibit good cleaning ability toward four contaminant oils. It is also confirmed that these compounds can be applicable to various industrial cleaning fields as nontoxic and biodegradable cleaning agents because of their excellent biodegradabilities and $LD_{50}$ values.

The Effect of Dilution with 10% Dextrose Solution on the Potency of Botulinum Toxin A

  • Ham, Jong Wook;Kwon, Jeong-Seung;Cho, Eunae Sandra;Choi, Jong Hoon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the potency-stabilizing effects of two different diluents of botulinum toxin A (10% dextrose solution and 0.9% saline). Methods: A mouse lethality bioassay was undertaken. Ninety mice were divided into experimental and control groups which received varying dosages in subgroups of 10. The experimental group was injected with botulinum toxin A diluted with 10% dextrose solution and the control group was injected with botulinum toxin A diluted with 0.9% saline. A 72 hours after intraperitoneal injection, the number of dead mice was counted to confirm median lethal dose ($LD_{50}$) of each group. Results: The value of $LD_{50}$ in the experimental group was approximately 0.131 mL (1.31 U) and the value of $LD_{50}$ in the control group was approximately 0.107 mL (1.07 U). The potency preservation rate of the experimental group was estimated to be 93.5% and that of the control group was estimated to be 76.3%. Conclusions: Dilution with 10% dextrose solution displayed less potency loss than 0.9% saline.

Brine Shrimp Lethality of the Compounds from Phryma leptostachya L.

  • Lee, Sang-Myung;Min, Byung-Sun;Kho, Yung-Hee
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.652-654
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    • 2002
  • Brine shrimp assay-guided fractionation and isolation of the EtOAc soluble fraction of Phryma leptostachya L. (Phrymacaceae) gave two active compounds, phrymarolin II (1) and ursolic acid (2), which were identified by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 exhibited potent lethality with $LD_{50}$ value of 0.0013 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, whereas 2 showed moderate lethality with $LD_{50}$ value of 27.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml against brine shrimp. The cytotoxic activities of 1 and 2 were also evaluated against one murine and five human cancer cell lines employing the sulforhodamin B (SRB) method. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against L1210 and SK-MEL-2 cells with $ED_{50}$ values of 3.70 and 9.27 mg/ml, respectively, whereas 1 was devoid of any cytotoxic activity against all cancer cells tested.

Toxicity Test of Public Health Insecticides Against the Smoky-Brown Cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa, Serville in Korea (韓國産 먹바퀴에 대한 防疫用殺蟲劑의 毒性調査)

  • Koo, Sung Hoi;Shim, Jae Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 1984
  • The toxicity value of 13 kinds of public health insecticides against the adult female cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa, Setville in Korea were evaluated by the topical application method of insecticides. The results obtained were summarized as follows 1. S-biolline showed the most strong susceptibility with LD$_{50}$ of 1.9${\mu}g$ per cockroach (1,100 mg) out of 13 kinds of insecticides and other synthetic pyrethroides insecticides (bio-resmethrin 2.8${\mu}g$/cockroach, permethrin 4.3 ${\mu}g$/cockroach) showed some degree of susceptibility to the smoky brown cockroach. 2. Fenitrothion showed 2.5 $\mu$g per cockroach which was the most strong susceptibility out of 8 kinds of organophosphorus and most of them were good susceptibile but there was clear evidence for developed resistance against malathion with LD$_{50}$ of 80.5 {$\mu}g$ per cockroach (1,100 mg). 3. Lindane showed some degree of susceptibility with LD$_{50}$ of 13.9 {$\mu}g$ per cockroach (1,100 mg) but DDT showed the most strong resistance to the smoky brown cockroach out of 13 kinds of insecticides tested.

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