• Title, Summary, Keyword: $Ll_2$ structure

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A Study on the Thermal Stability of $Ll_2$$Al_3$Ti Intermetallic Compounds Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying with Mn additions (기계적 합금화 방법에 의해 제조된 $Ll_2$$Al_3$Ti금속간 화합물의 열적 안정성에 미치는 Mn의 첨가 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Choe, Jae-Ung;Park, Jong-Beom;Gang, Seong-Gun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.393-397
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    • 2001
  • Fer the purpose of improving ductility of $Al_3$Ti intermetallic compound has potential to industrial application, we investigated formation behavior of cubic Ll$_2$ structure and effect of Mn addition. Nanocrystalline cubic Ll$_2$Al$_3$Ti intermetallic compound, has 10nm size of grain, was fabricated by mechanical alloying for 20hr at the composition of Al-8Mn-25Ti. Ternary cubic Ll$_2$Al$_3$Ti, added Mn, did not showed phase transformation from Ll$_2$ to D0$_{23}$ or D0$_{22}$ unlike binary cubic Ll$_2$Al$_3$Ti and maintained Ll$_2$ structure.

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Cold Isostatic Pressing and Sintering Behavior of (Al +12.5%Cu)3Zr Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Compound Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying (기계적합금화한 (Al +12.5%Cu)3Zr 초미립 금속간화합물의 CIP 성형 및 소결 거동)

  • Moon, H.G.;Hong, K.T.;Kim, S.J.
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.634-640
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    • 2002
  • To improve the ductility of mTEX>$(Al +12.5%Cu)<_3$Zr intermetallics, which are the potential high temperature structural materials, the mechanical alloying behavior, the effect of pressure and temperature on the $Ll_2$, phase formation and the behavior of the cold isostatic press and sintering were investigated. However mechanically alloyed A1$_3$Zr alloy have been known to have high mechanical strength even at high temperature, its workability was poor. A method of solution is refined grain size and phase transformation from $DO_{23}$ to $Ll_2$.$ Ll_2$ structure TEX>$(Al+12.5%Cu)<_3$Zr with nanocrystalline microstructure intermetallic powders where were prepared by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. Grain sizes of the as milled powders were less than 10nm (from transmission electron microscopy, TEM). Thermal analyses showed that $Ll_2$ structure was stable up to$ 800^{\circ}C$ for 1hour $(Al+ 12.5%Cu)<_3$Zr. $(Al+12.5%Cu)<_3$Zr has been consolidated by cold isostatic pressing (CIP 138, 207, 276, 414MPa) at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment at high temperatures where $Ll_2$ structure was stable under vacuum atmosphere. The results showed that 94.2% density of Ll$_2$ compacts was obtained for the (Al +12.5%Cu)$_3$Zr by sintering at 80$0^{\circ}C$ for 1hour (under CIPed 207MPa). This compact of the grain size was 40nm.

Recrystallization Behaviors of Ordered and Disordered Structures in Ll2 Type Ni3Fe Alloy (Ll2형 Ni3Fe 합금에서 규칙격자와 불규칙격자의 재결정거동)

  • Choi, C.S.;Kang, S.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 1991
  • Recrystallization behaviors of ordered and disordered structures in $Ll_2$ type $Ni_3Fe$ alloy were studied through hardness measurement and differential thermal analysis. When the disordered structure was isothermally aged at $480^{\circ}C$ below order-disorder transition temperature, the hardness of the structure was increased due to progressive ordering with increasing aging time. The hardness of the disordered structure was increased rapidly with increasing deformation degree up to 10%, and then gradually increased with further deformation degree. while the hardness of the ordered structure was increased rapidly with increasing deformation degree up to 10%, showing a constant hardness value up to 50% and gradually decreased with further deformation degree. The hardness of the ordered structure was higher than that of the disordered structure at all same deformation degrees. The recrystallization temperature of the ordered and disordered structures were decreased with increasing deformation degree. At the same deformation degrees, the recrystallization temperature of the ordered structure was lower than that of the desordered structure.

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A Study on the Derivation of Bracket Structure Terminology in Yingzaofashi in the Era of Song Dynasty (송대(宋代) ${\ll}$영조법식(營造法式)${\gg}$ 대목작(大木作) 포작(鋪作) 관련용어의 파생에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Ung
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.55-70
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    • 2011
  • This paper aimed at analyzing of structural carpentry terminology for bracket structure in Yingzaofashi ${\ll}$營造法式${\gg}$in the era of Song Dynasty and illuminating coinage characteristics and method of Structural Carpentry Terminology for bracket Structure through graphonomy research and system and structure of these terms. The results are as follow. The structural carpentry terminologies for structure were identified to be approximately 23 words, and terminology of bracket structure鋪作 is largely categorized into 3 categories of Type鋪作次序, Structure, Place. On the other hand, the structural carpentry terminologies for parts largely categorized into 2 categories of Bracket structure鋪作, Others. Bracket structure terminologies for parts were derived from the core of Dou枓, Gong栱, Ang昂, Fang方. The phenomena of derivation in structural carpentry terminology for bracket structure can be explained by the difference in the shape of subsidiary material and the location for usage of the subsidiary material and part of the subsidiary material and their functions.

The Fast Signal Acquisition Scheme for a GPS Ll/L2C Correlator (GPS Ll/L2C 상관기를 위한 빠른 신호 획득 기법)

  • Lim Deok-Won;Moon Sung-Wook;Park Chan-Sik;Lee Sang-Jeong
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.765-772
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    • 2006
  • The L2 Civil Signal (L2CS) will be transmitted by modernized IIR(IIR-M), IIF and all subsequent GPS satellites. It contains two codes of different length; CM code contains 10,230chips, repeats every 20milliseconds and is modulated with message data, and CL code contains 767,250chips, repeats every 1.5second Z-count and has no data modulation. And the message data is encoded for Forward Error Correction(FEC). The long code length is useful for weak signal, but it also requires very long acquisition time. Therefore, the structure of GPS Ll/L2C Correlator and the fast acquisition scheme are proposed in this paper.

Mechanical Aalloying Behavior of $Al_3$Hf 및 $Al_3$Ta Intermetallic Compounds by SPEX Mill and the Effect of Ternary Additions on the Formation of $Ll_2$ Phase (SPEX mill을 이용한 $Al_3$Hf 및 $Al_3$Ta 금속간화합물의 기계적합금화 거동과 $Ll_2$상형성에 미치는 제 3 원소 첨가의 영향)

  • Lee, Seong-Hun;Choe, Jong-Hyeon;Kim, Jun-Gi;Kim, Seon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.10 no.8
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    • pp.569-574
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    • 2000
  • To improve the ductility of $Al_3Hf$ and $Al_3Ta$ intermetallic compounds, which are the potential temperature structural materials, the mechanical alloying behaviour and the effect of ternary additions on the $Ll_2$ phase formation were investigated. During the mechanical alloying by the SPEX mill, the $Ll_2$ $Al_3Hf$ intermetallic compound was formed after 6 hours of milling in AL-25%Hf system. In AL-25%Ta system, however, only the $D0_{22}$ $Al_3Ta$ intermetallic compound was formed until 30 hours of milling and the $Ll_2$ phase was not observed. In AL-12.5%M-25%Ta(M=Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni) systems, the additions of Cu and Zn had no effect on the $D0_{22}$ structure of the binary $Al_3Hf$ and the additions of Mn, Fe and Ni produced the amorphous phase. Therefore it was considered that these ternary additions could not overcome the energy difference between $Ll_2$ and $D0_{22}$ structures in the $Al_3Hf$ intermetallic compound. In AL-12.5%M-25%Hf(M=Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni)systems, the additions of Cu and Zn did not affect the $Ll_2$ structure of the binary $Al_3Hf$ but the additions of oMn, Fe and Ni produced the amorphous phase as they did in AL-12.5%M-25%Ta systems. Therefore, it was considered that the Ni, Mn and Fe additions promote the formation of amorphous phase in $Al_3X$ intermetallic compounds.

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Mechanical Alloying and the Consolidation Behavior of Nanocrystalline $Ll_2$ A$1_3$Hf Intermetallic Compounds (Cu 첨가에 따른 nanocrystalline ${Ll_2}{Al_3}Hf$ 금속간 화합물의 기계적 합금화 거동 및 진공열간 압축성형거동)

  • Kim, Jae-Il;O, Yeong-Min;Kim, Seon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.629-635
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    • 2001
  • To improve the ductility of $A1_3Hf$ intermetallics, which are the potential high temperature structural materials, the mechanical alloying behavior. the effect of Cu addition on the $Ll_2$ phase formation and the behavior of vacuum hot-pressed consolidation were investigated. During the mechanical alloying by SPEX mill, the $Ll_2 A1_3Hf$ intermetallics with the grain size of 7~8nm was formed after 6 hours of milling in Al-25at.%Hf system. The $Ll_2$ Phase of Al_3Hf$ intermetallics with the addition of 12.5at.%Cu, similar to that of the binary Al-25at.% Hf, was formed, but the milling time necessary for the formationof the $Ll_2$ phase was delayed form 6 hours to 10 hours. The lattice parameter of ternary $Ll_2(Al+Cu)_3Hf$ intermetallics decreased with the increase of Cu content. The onset temperature of $Ll_2$ to $D0_{23}$ phase in $Al_3Hf$ intermetallics was around 38$0^{\circ}C$, the temperature upon completion varied from 48$0^{\circ}C$ to 5$50^{\circ}C$ as the annealing time. The onset temperature of $Ll_2$ to $D0_{23}$ phase transformation in $(Al+ Cu)_3Hf$ intermetallics increased with the amount of Cu and the highest onset temperature of $700^{\circ}C$ was achieved by the Cu addition of 10at.%. The relative density increased from 89% to 90% with the Cu addition of 10at.% in $Al_3Hf$ intermetallics hot-pressed in vacuum under 750MPa at 40$0^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours. The relative density of 92.5% was achieved without the phase transformation and the grain growth as the consolidation temperature increased from 40$0^{\circ}C$ to 50$0^{\circ}C$ in $(Al+Cu)_3Hf$ intermetallics hot-pressed in vacuum under 750MPa for 3 hours.

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The Analysis of Competition Structure in Business Data Service Market Using Henry Model and Suggestion for Competitive Strategies (Hendry Model을 활용한 기업용데이터서비스시장의 경쟁구조 분석 및 전략 제언)

  • 유광숙;최문기
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12C
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    • pp.280-291
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    • 2001
  • LL (Leased Line service) is a facility-based service as a traditional business data service, but new competition services, such as FR (Frame Relay), VPN (Virtual Private Network), and ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), are value-added services. Because of different service classifications, it is hard to gather necessary data for the service providers to plan their market strategies and regulations and policies are also applied asymmetrically to each service provider. Therefore an appropriate market classification is required for the business data services. After various methods of market classification are reviewed, the Hendry model is selected in this paper to analyze substitution-degree among brands or among services. Since the structure of virtual competitions is required for the Hendry model to be applied to data service market, the market is analyzed first by the well-known Porter's model. By the analysis of Porter's model, two virtual competition structures are set up - one is for the competitions among leased line service providers, and the other is for the competitions among business data services such as LL, FR, VPN and ATM. After the Hendry model is applied to each competition structure, it is confirmed that 7 LL service providers do not compete directly, but 2 sub-markets exist for the LL service provisions. However, it is shown that 4 business data services compete directly. Using the Switching Probability Matrix from Hendry model, future market shares of LL service providers and market shares of business data services are forecasted. These empirical results are helpful for service providers to set competitive strategies with the minimization of cannibalization effect and they can easily and efficiently predict their market demands.

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The study of Si(111)Au surface by variation of RHEED spot intensity (Rheed 반점강도의 변화를 이용한 Si(111)-Ad 표면조사)

  • Kwak, Ho-Weon;Lee, Eui-Wan;Lee, Sang-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.638-643
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    • 1994
  • The Si(ll1) surface structures induced by deposition of Au atoms were investigated by RHEED system. When Au atoms were deposited on the Si(ll1) $7\times7$ surfade, the dependence of structures and phases on the substrate temperatures and coverages was drastic. For O.1ML to 0.4ML of coverage the $7\times7$ structure changes to $7\times7$ + $5\times2$ structure as temperature increases to $350^{\circ}C$-$750^{\circ}C$. Between 0.4M1 to 1.OML the phase changed to $5 \times 2,\alpha- \sqrt{3} \times \sqrt{3},\beta- \sqrt{3} \times \sqrt{3}$ structure according to the substrate temperature and coverages. When the coverages exceeds O.SML, the 6 x 6 structure appears at the substrate temperature range between $270^{\circ}C$-$370^{\circ}C$ and compeletely transforms to 6 x6 at 1,OML. The isothermal desorption of Au on Si(ll1) surface investigated by using AES in the $\alpha- \sqrt{3} \times \sqrt{3},5 \times 2$ structures shows that the desorption energys of $\alpha- \sqrt{3} \times \sqrt{3}$ and 5 x 2 were 79Kcal/mol and 82 Kcal/mol respectively.

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Influence of Different Dietary Fats and Fat Unsaturation on Plasma Lipid Composition in Healthy Young Women (사람에서 식이지방의 불포화지방산과 불포화도가 혈장 지질조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김채종;박현서
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 1991
  • Twenty college women were led experimental diet which composed ot basal diet plus different kinds of dietary rats at 27% Cal. Equal amount of 13.5g of corn oil, perilla oil or fish oil was supplied for 2 weeks as a source of n6 linoleic acid(LA). n3 $\alpha$-linolenic acid (LL). or n3 EPA + DHA. respectively. Plasma total Chol level was reduced by perilla and fish oils, significantly only by fish oil. Plasma Chol level was rather increased by corn oil(P<0.05), but was decreased by double amount of corn oil supplement. Therefore, hypocholesterolemic effect of fatty acids was in the order of n3 EPA+DHA>n3 LL>n6 LA and influenced by the degree of fat unsaturation. Plasma TG level was also significantly decreased by n3 EPA+ DHA and increased by n6 LA. Hypotriglyceridemic effect of fatty acids was also in the order of n3 EPA + DHA> n3 LL>n6 LA and influenced by the unsaturation. However, the reduction of plasma TG was more influenced by the fatty acid structure rather than the fat unsaturation. There were no significant effects on lipoprotein pattern 3nd chemical compositions of lipoprotein by different dietary PUFAs. but fish oil diet significantly increased the relative proportion of HDL-Chol. In conclusion. cholesterol- lowering effect of dietary PUFAS seemed to be a function of total fat unsaturation but hypotriglyceridemic effect seemed to be more linked to the ratty acid structure rather than the degree of unsaturation. The hypolipidemic effect of n3 PUFAs was significant so that fish oil or perilla oil may have important nutritional applications in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic disease.

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