• 제목, 요약, 키워드: $PGE_{2}$

검색결과 957건 처리시간 0.046초

A Comparison of the Responses of Lower Vertebrate Intestines to Prostaglandin $E_1\;and\;E_2$

  • Hong Ki-Whan
    • 대한약리학회지
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1975
  • 1. The isolated strips of guinea-pig, fowl and reptiles (snake and tortoise) showed consistenly excitatory responses to $PGE_1\;and\;E_2$, which were dose-dependent. 2. Frog intestine revealed inhibitory responses to both $PGE_1\;and\;PGE_2$ except a small of $PGE_2$ (1-10 ng/ml) caused slight contraction. 3. The intestines of pieces showed inconsistent responses to $PGE_1\;and\;E_2$. In fresh-water fish(carp), $PGE_1$ produced relaxation under the dose of 50 ng/ml, and contraction by the large doses, but $PGE_2$ consistently caused contraction in dose-dependent manner. However, the strips of sea-water fish revealed the different responses to PGE compound: $PGE_1$ caused relaxation and $PGE_2$ conversly contraction even though in small degree. 4. These results that there are genera differences in the responses of the longitudinal strips of intestine to $PGE_1\;and\;PGE_2$ was assumed to be possibly correlated with evolutionally primitive function of gut.

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흰쥐의 착상기간 중 DLN(lymph nodes draining the uterus) Lymphocyte의 활성도에 미치는 Prostaglandin E의 영향 (Role of Prostaglandin E in Modulating Immune Response in Lymph Nodes Draining the Uterus during the Implantation Period in Rats)

  • 조혜성;유경자;김창미
    • 대한약리학회지
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1989
  • 본 교실의 연구결과에 의하면 토끼와 흰쥐에서 수정란 착상시기에 peripheral lymphocyte와 thymocyte의 활성도가 저하될 뿐만 아니라 착상기간중 생성되는 prostaglandin E(PGE)의 생리적인 농도로도 peripheral lymphocyte와 thymocyte의 활성도가 억제되었다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 흰쥐의 착상시기에 전신적인 면역기능 뿐만 아니라 국소적으로 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 억제되는지를 관찰하고 PGE가 어떠한 기전으로 모체의 면역기능을 억제하는가를 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 흰쥐의 착상시기에 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 임신하기 않은 흰쥐의 DLN lymphocyte에 비하여 통계적으로 유의하지는 않으나 저하되었으며 이러한 저하현상은 100% 흰쥐에서 관찰되었다. 2. 착상시기의 DLN lymphocyte에 prostaglandin 합성억제제인 indomethacin(ID)를 처리하면 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 통계적으로 유의하게 증가하였다. 그러나 임신하지 않은 흰쥐의 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도는 증가되어 있으나 $PGE_2$를 전처리하면 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 유의하게 억제되며 $PGE_2$를 전처치한 후 ID를 처리하면 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 $PGE_2$로 전처치하지 않고 ID를 처리한 경우에 비하여 유의하게 증가하였다. 그러나 $PGE_2$ 대신estradiol, progesterone 및 hCG를 전처치하였을 경우에는 ID 처리로 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 증가하지 않았다. 3. 임신하지 많은 흰쥐의 DLN lymphocyte에 $PGE_2$를 전처리하면 PGE-producing cell이 유도되어 PGE 생성이 증가하는지를 확인하기 위하여 $PGE_2$를 전처리하고 Con A를 처리한 후 배양액의 PGE를 정량한 결과 PGE를 전처리하지 않은 DLN lymphocyte에 비하여 유의하게 PGE 생성이 증가하였다. 이상의 결과로 보아 흰쥐의 착상시기에는 모체의 DLN lymphocyte의 활성도가 저하되며, 특히 PCE는 PGE-producing cell을 유도함으로써 착상시기의 모체의 면역기능에 영향을 주는 것으로 생각된다.

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Prostaglandin E2 Reverses Curcumin-Induced Inhibition of Survival Signal Pathways in Human Colorectal Carcinoma (HCT-15) Cell Lines

  • Shehzad, Adeeb;Islam, Salman Ul;Lee, Jaetae;Lee, Young Sup
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.899-906
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    • 2014
  • Prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) promotes tumor-persistent inflammation, frequently resulting in cancer. Curcumin is a diphenolic turmeric that inhibits carcinogenesis and induces apoptosis. $PGE_2$ inhibits curcumin-induced apoptosis; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms in colon cancer cells remain unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the survival role of $PGE_2$ and whether addition of exogenous $PGE_2$ affects curcumininduced cell death. HCT-15 cells were treated with curcumin and $PGE_2$, and protein expression levels were investigated via Western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels were confirmed using specific dyes. The nuclear factor-kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) DNA-binding was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). $PGE_2$ inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and degradation of PARP and lamin B. However, exposure of cells to the EP2 receptor antagonist, AH6809, and the PKA inhibitor, H89, before treatment with $PGE_2$ or curcumin abolished the protective effect of $PGE_2$ and enhanced curcumin-induced cell death. $PGE_2$ activates PKA, which is required for cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation of CREB. $PGE_2$ also activated the Ras/Raf/Erk pathway, and pretreatment with PD98059 abolished the protective effect of $PGE_2$. Furthermore, curcumin treatment greatly reduced phosphorylation of CREB, followed by a concomitant reduction of $NF-{\kappa}B$ (p50 and p65) subunit activation. $PGE_2$ markedly activated nuclear translocation of $NF-{\kappa}B$. EMSA confirmed the DNA-binding activities of $NF-{\kappa}B$ subunits. These results suggest that inhibition of curcumin-induced apoptosis by $PGE_2$ through activation of PKA, Ras, and $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling pathways may provide a molecular basis for the reversal of curcumin-induced colon carcinoma cell death.

소 체외 수정란의 체외 발육에 미치는 Prostaglandins의 영향 (Effects of Prostaglandins on In Vitro Development of Bovine Embryos)

  • 신승오;박수봉;박춘근
    • 한국수정란이식학회지
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2007
  • 본 연구는 소 체외 수정란의 팽창 및 hatching시 prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}(PGF_2{\alpha})$와 prostaglandin $E_2(PGF_2)$의 영향에 대하여 검토하였다. 체외 수정란의 체외 배양시 다음과 같이 (1) 0, 1, 10 및 100ng/ml $PGF_2{\alpha}$, (2) 0, 1, 10 및 100ng/ml $PGE_2$, (3) low $PGF_2{\alpha}$(1ng/ml : 1ng/ml), (4) low $PGF_2{\alpha}\;:\;high\;PGE_2(1ng/ml\;:\;10ng/ml)$, (5) high $PGF_2{\alpha}\;:\;low\;PGE_2$ (10ng/ml : 1ng/ml), (6) high $PGF_2{\alpha}$ : high $PGE_2$(10ng/ml : 10ng/ml)로 나누어 처리하였다. 그 결과, $PGF_2{\alpha}$$PGE_2$의 단독 처리가 소 체외 수정란의 배반포로의 발달에는 영향을 미치지는 않았다. 그러나 10ng/ml $PGE_2$(10.3%) 그리고 1ng/ml $PGF_2{\alpha}$ : 10ng/ml $PGE_2$(22.2%)를 처리한 수정란의 hatching율에 있어서는 대조군(4.3% and 12.7%)이나 다른 처리구에 비하여 유의적으로 높은 결과를 나타냈다(P<0.05). 한편 높은 농도의 $PGF_2{\alpha}$를 처리한 수정란의 경우 hatching율이 감소하였다. 따라서 본 연구의 결과는 $PGF_2{\alpha}$$PGE_2$의 첨가가 소 수정란의 hatching율과 관련이 있으며, 이것은 농도에 따라 서로 다른 영향을 미칠 수 있을 것으로 추측되었다.

Feedback Control of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Prostaglandin E2 in Rheumatoid Synoviocytes

  • Min, So-Youn;Jung, Young Ok;Do, Ju-Ho;Kim, So-Yang;Kim, Jeong-Pyo;Cho, Chul-Soo;Kim, Wan-Uk
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2003
  • Objective: The role of prostaglandin $E_2$ (PGE2) in the etiopathogenesis of immune and inflammatory diseases has become the subject of recent debate. To determine the role of PGE2 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we tested the effect of exogenous PGE2 on the production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by rheumatoid synoviocytes. Methods: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were prepared from the synovial tissues of RA patients, and cultured in the presence of PGE2. The COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The PGE2 receptor subtypes in the FLS were analyzed by RT-PCR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to measure the NF-${\kappa}B$ binding activity for COX-2 transcription. The in vivoeffect of PGE2 on the development of arthritis was also tested in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) animals. Results: PGE2 ($10^{-11}$ to $10^{-5}M$) dose-dependently inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA and the COX-2 protein stimulated with IL-$1{\beta}$, but not COX-1 mRNA. NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, displayed an additive effect on PGE2-induced COX-2 downregulation. The FLS predominantly expressed the PGE2 receptor (EP) 2 and EP4, which mediated the COX-2 suppression by PGE2. Treatment with anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies partially reversed the PGE2-induced suppression of COX-2 mRNA, suggesting that IL-10 may be involved in modulating COX-2 by PGE2. Experiments using an inducer and an inhibitor of cyclic AMP (cAMP) suggest that cAMP is the major intracellular signal that mediates the regulatory effect of PGE2 on COX-2 expression. EMSA revealed that PGE2 inhibited the binding of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the COX-2 promoter via a cAMP dependent pathway. In addition, a subcutaneous injection of PGE2 twice daily for 2 weeks significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CIA as well as the production of IgG antibodies to type II collagen. Conclusion: Our data suggest that overproduced PGE2 in the RA joints may function as an autocrine regulator of its own synthesis by inhibiting COX-2 production and may, in part, play an anti-inflammatory role in the arthritic joints.

프로스타글란딘 $E_1$ 요도좌제의 제조 및 평가 (Preparation and Evaluation of $PGE_1$ Transurethral Suppositories)

  • 김종오;권기철;이종달;최한곤;용철순
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this work is to develop a transurethral suppository containing prostaglandin $E_1\;(PGE_1)$, which stabilizes the drug, gives no irritation to physiological body and enhances the erectile response of $PGE_1.\;PGE_1$ transurethral suppositories were prepared with various amounts of compositions such as saturated polyglycolysed glyceride $(Suppocire^{\circledR}\;AP,\;SAP)$, polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-50) and ethanol. The melting points, viscosities and $PGE_1$ release of the suppositories were investigated. Ocular irritation test was carried out after application of $PGE_1$ suppository to rabbit's eye. The intracavernous pressure (ICP), penile length and duration of erectile response were determined after transurethral administration of $PGE_1$ suppository and compared with those after intracavernosal injection of $PGE_1$ solution to cats. HCO-50 hardly affected the melting points and viscosities of $PGE_1$ suppositories. Additionally, $PGE_1$ transurethral suppositories, whose melting point ranges was $34-35^{\circ}C$, was speedily melted in physiological body. HCO-50 significantly decreased the dissolution rates of $PGE_1$ from the suppositories. Dissolution mechanism analysis showed the release of $PGE_1$ was proportional to the square root of time, indicating that $PGE_1$ might be released from the suppositories by Fickian diffusion. The release rate of $PGE_1$ from $PGE_1$ suppository [PGE1/SAP/HCO-50/ethanol (1/94.5/2.5/2%)] was about 80% within 2 h. This $PGE_1$ suppository gave no significant irritation to the ocular tissue, expecting that it gave no irritation to the urethral tissue less sensive than ocular tissue. Furthermore, $PGE_1$ in this suppository was stable at $4^{\circ}C$ for 2 years. This suppository increased the ICP and penile erection similar to those of injectable $PGE_1$ solution. However, it gave 2.5-fold increased duration of erectile response than injectable $PGE_1$ solution. Our results suggested that it gave more effective erectile response than injectable $PGE_1$ solution in cats. It is concluded that this $PGE_1$ suppository with good safety, excellent stability and enhanced erectile response, could be a more effective and convenient transurethal delivery system of $PGE_1$.

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Autocrine prostaglandin E2 signaling promotes promonocytic leukemia cell survival via COX-2 expression and MAPK pathway

  • Shehzad, Adeeb;Lee, Jaetae;Lee, Young Sup
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2015
  • The COX-2/$PGE_2$ pathway has been implicated in the occurrence and progression of cancer. The underlying mechanisms facilitating the production of COX-2 and its mediator, $PGE_2$, in cancer survival remain unknown. Herein, we investigated $PGE_2$-induced COX-2 expression and signaling in HL-60 cells following menadione treatment. Treatment with $PGE_2$ activated anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while reducing pro-apoptotic proteins, thereby enhancing cell survival. $PGE_2$ not only induced COX-2 expression, but also prevented casapse-3, PARP, and lamin B cleavage. Silencing and inhibition of COX-2 with siRNA transfection or treatment with indomethacin led to a pronounced reduction of the extracellular levels of $PGE_2$, and restored the menadione- induced cell death. In addition, pretreatment of cells with the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PKA inhibitor H89 abrogated the $PGE_2$-induced expression of COX-2, suggesting involvement of the MAPK and PKA pathways. These results demonstrate that $PGE_2$ signaling acts in an autocrine manner, and specific inhibition of $PGE_2$ will provide a novel approach for the treatment of leukemia.

Thymoquinone (TQ) regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through PI3kinase (PI3K)/p38 kinase pathway in human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231

  • Yu, Seon-Mi;Kim, Song-Ja
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2012
  • Thymoquinone (TQ), a drug extracted from the black seeds of Nigella sativa, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-neoplastic effects in numerous cancer cells. The effects of TQ on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production in MDA-MB-231, however, remain poorly understood. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed to study the expression levels of inflammation regulatory proteins in MDA-MB-231. $PGE_2$ assay was conducted to explore the TQ-induced production of $PGE_2$. In this study, we investigated the effects of TQ on COX-2 expression and $PGE_2$ production in MDA-MB-231. TQ significantly induced COX-2 expression and increased $PGE_2$ production in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by a Western blot analysis and $PGE_2$ assay. Furthermore, the activation of Akt and p38 kinase, respectively, was up-regulated in TQ treated cells. Inhibition of p38 kinase with SB203580 and PI3kinase (PI3K) with LY294002 abolished TQ-caused COX-2 expression and decreased $PGE_2$ production. These results collectively demonstrate that TQ effectively modulates COX-2 expression and $PGE_2$ production via PI3K and p38 kinase pathways in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

DGEBA/MDA/PGE-AcAm계의 자촉매 반응 속도론 (Autocatalytic Cure Kinetics of DGEBA/MDA/PGE-AcAm System)

  • 이재영;심미자;김상욱
    • 한국재료학회지
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    • v.8 no.9
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    • pp.797-801
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    • 1998
  • Diglycidy1 ether of bisphenol A (DEGBA)/4, 4'-methylene dianiline(MDA) 계의 반응속도에 미치는 10 phr의 pheny1 glycidy1 ether(PGE)-acetamide(AcAm)의 영향을 살펴보았다. PGE-AcAm이 첨가됨으로 인해서 승온적 DSC 곡선에서 최대 발열피크의 온도와 피크 시작 온도가 감소하였다. PGE-AcAm의 첨가 여부에 관계없이 전화율 곡선은 s-자 형상이었고, 이는 DGEBA/MDA 계와 DGEBA/MDA/PGE-AcAm 계가 자촉대 반응을 한다는 것을 의미한다. 또한 PGE-AcAm이 10 phr 첨가됨으로 인해서 1.2-1.4배 증가하였는데, 이는 PGE-AcAm의 수산기가 촉매로 작용하기 때문이다.

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PDE 저해제에 의한 $PGE_2$의 파골세포 분화 유도 증강효과 (The Stimulatory Effect of PDE Inhibitors on $PGE_2$-Induced Osteoclastogenesis)

  • 노아롱새미;임미정
    • 약학회지
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.235-238
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    • 2007
  • To determine the regulatory roles of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on $PGE_2$-induced osteoclastogenesis, we investigated the effect of PDE inhibitors on osteoclast formation in the presence of $PGE_2$. Among PDE isozyme specific inhibitors, milrinone, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, and rolipram, a specific PDE4 inhibitor, increased $PGE_2$-induced osteoclast formation in cocultures of mouse bone marrow cells and osteoblasts. To verify that whether the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors act indirectly on osteoblasts, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP in osteoblasts. Treatment of milrinone or rolipram increased $PGE_2$-stimulated cAMP levels in osteoblasts. Furthermore, northern blot analysis revealed that the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors works synergistically with $PGE_2$ to increase the expression of TRANCE mRNA in osteoblasts. On the contrary, the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors did not augment the number of osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow cells by $PGE_2$. In conclusion, the stimulation of $PGE_2$-induced osteoclast formation by the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors are attributable to their indirect effect on osteoblasts, not to their direct effect on bone marrow-derived osteoclast precursors.