• Title, Summary, Keyword: $PGE_{2}$

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A Comparison of the Responses of Lower Vertebrate Intestines to Prostaglandin $E_1\;and\;E_2$

  • Hong Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1975
  • 1. The isolated strips of guinea-pig, fowl and reptiles (snake and tortoise) showed consistenly excitatory responses to $PGE_1\;and\;E_2$, which were dose-dependent. 2. Frog intestine revealed inhibitory responses to both $PGE_1\;and\;PGE_2$ except a small of $PGE_2$ (1-10 ng/ml) caused slight contraction. 3. The intestines of pieces showed inconsistent responses to $PGE_1\;and\;E_2$. In fresh-water fish(carp), $PGE_1$ produced relaxation under the dose of 50 ng/ml, and contraction by the large doses, but $PGE_2$ consistently caused contraction in dose-dependent manner. However, the strips of sea-water fish revealed the different responses to PGE compound: $PGE_1$ caused relaxation and $PGE_2$ conversly contraction even though in small degree. 4. These results that there are genera differences in the responses of the longitudinal strips of intestine to $PGE_1\;and\;PGE_2$ was assumed to be possibly correlated with evolutionally primitive function of gut.

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Role of Prostaglandin E in Modulating Immune Response in Lymph Nodes Draining the Uterus during the Implantation Period in Rats (흰쥐의 착상기간 중 DLN(lymph nodes draining the uterus) Lymphocyte의 활성도에 미치는 Prostaglandin E의 영향)

  • Cho, Hye-Seong;Ryu, Kyung-Za;Kim, Chang-Mee
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1989
  • In our previous studies, it was found that activities of maternal peripheral lymphocytes and thymocytes were depressed during the implantation period in rats and rabbits. This study was therefore attempted to clarify further this immunosuppression locally by determining lymphocyte response in lymph nodes draining the uterus (DLN) and to elucidate the mechanism by which prostaglandin E (PGE) modulates immune response during the implantation process in rats. As compared with non-pregnant rats, the response of DLN lymphocytes to concanavalin A (Con A) was depressed during the implantation period in 100% of rats studied. The activity of DLN lymphocytes depressed on day 8 of pregnancy was, however, restored partially by the treatment of indomethacin (ID), indicating that prostaglandin (PG) might be one of factors responsible for immunomodulation during the process of implantation. DLN lymphocyte activity in non-pregnant rats was suppressed if PGE was pre-treated prior to Con A and this suppression was partially restored by the treatment of ID. Furthermore, DLN lymphocytes pre-treated with PGE produced PGE in vitro and this PGE production was blocked by the treatment of ID, suggesting that PGE induced PGE-producing cells. However, the pretreatment of estradiol, progesterone, and hCG at doses enough to suppress lymphocyte activity was ineffective in inducing PGE-producing cells. From these results, it is suggested that PGE induces PGE-producing suppressor cells, thereby increasing PGE concentration and PGE in turn depresses maternal local immune response as well as systemic immune response during the implantation period in rats.

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Prostaglandin E2 Reverses Curcumin-Induced Inhibition of Survival Signal Pathways in Human Colorectal Carcinoma (HCT-15) Cell Lines

  • Shehzad, Adeeb;Islam, Salman Ul;Lee, Jaetae;Lee, Young Sup
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.899-906
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    • 2014
  • Prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) promotes tumor-persistent inflammation, frequently resulting in cancer. Curcumin is a diphenolic turmeric that inhibits carcinogenesis and induces apoptosis. $PGE_2$ inhibits curcumin-induced apoptosis; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms in colon cancer cells remain unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the survival role of $PGE_2$ and whether addition of exogenous $PGE_2$ affects curcumininduced cell death. HCT-15 cells were treated with curcumin and $PGE_2$, and protein expression levels were investigated via Western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels were confirmed using specific dyes. The nuclear factor-kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) DNA-binding was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). $PGE_2$ inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and degradation of PARP and lamin B. However, exposure of cells to the EP2 receptor antagonist, AH6809, and the PKA inhibitor, H89, before treatment with $PGE_2$ or curcumin abolished the protective effect of $PGE_2$ and enhanced curcumin-induced cell death. $PGE_2$ activates PKA, which is required for cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation of CREB. $PGE_2$ also activated the Ras/Raf/Erk pathway, and pretreatment with PD98059 abolished the protective effect of $PGE_2$. Furthermore, curcumin treatment greatly reduced phosphorylation of CREB, followed by a concomitant reduction of $NF-{\kappa}B$ (p50 and p65) subunit activation. $PGE_2$ markedly activated nuclear translocation of $NF-{\kappa}B$. EMSA confirmed the DNA-binding activities of $NF-{\kappa}B$ subunits. These results suggest that inhibition of curcumin-induced apoptosis by $PGE_2$ through activation of PKA, Ras, and $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling pathways may provide a molecular basis for the reversal of curcumin-induced colon carcinoma cell death.

Effects of Prostaglandins on In Vitro Development of Bovine Embryos (소 체외 수정란의 체외 발육에 미치는 Prostaglandins의 영향)

  • Shin, S.O.;Park, S.B.;Park, C.K.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}(PGF_2{\alpha})$ and prostaglandin $E_2 (PGE_2)$ on the expansion and hatching of bovine embryos. During the in vitro culture, embryos were cultured with the following groups: (1) 0, 1, 10 and 100ng/ml $PGF_2{\alpha}$ (2) 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml $PGF_2{\alpha}$, (3) low concentration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ ; low concentration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$, (1ng/ml : 1ng/ml), (4) low concentration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ : high concentration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ (1ng/ml : 10ng/ml) (5) high concentration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ : low concentration of $PGE_2$ (10ng/ml 1ng/ml) (6) high concentration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ : high concentration of $PGE_2$(10 ng/ml : 10ng/ml). In the results of this study, treatment of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ or $PGE_2$ did not affect in vitro development to blastocysts. However, the hatching rates of embryos cultured with 10ng/ml $PGE_2$(10.3%) and 1ng/ml $PGF_2{\alpha}$ 10ng/ml $PGE_2$(22.2%) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than in control (4.3% and 12.7%) and other treatment groups. All groups treated with high concentrations of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ showed decreased hatching rates. Thus, this results suggested that $PGF_2{\alpha}\;and\;PGE_2$ were concerned with the hatching in bovine embryos, and their effects on hatching were different by the concentrations.

Feedback Control of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Prostaglandin E2 in Rheumatoid Synoviocytes

  • Min, So-Youn;Jung, Young Ok;Do, Ju-Ho;Kim, So-Yang;Kim, Jeong-Pyo;Cho, Chul-Soo;Kim, Wan-Uk
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2003
  • Objective: The role of prostaglandin $E_2$ (PGE2) in the etiopathogenesis of immune and inflammatory diseases has become the subject of recent debate. To determine the role of PGE2 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we tested the effect of exogenous PGE2 on the production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by rheumatoid synoviocytes. Methods: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were prepared from the synovial tissues of RA patients, and cultured in the presence of PGE2. The COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The PGE2 receptor subtypes in the FLS were analyzed by RT-PCR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to measure the NF-${\kappa}B$ binding activity for COX-2 transcription. The in vivoeffect of PGE2 on the development of arthritis was also tested in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) animals. Results: PGE2 ($10^{-11}$ to $10^{-5}M$) dose-dependently inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA and the COX-2 protein stimulated with IL-$1{\beta}$, but not COX-1 mRNA. NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, displayed an additive effect on PGE2-induced COX-2 downregulation. The FLS predominantly expressed the PGE2 receptor (EP) 2 and EP4, which mediated the COX-2 suppression by PGE2. Treatment with anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibodies partially reversed the PGE2-induced suppression of COX-2 mRNA, suggesting that IL-10 may be involved in modulating COX-2 by PGE2. Experiments using an inducer and an inhibitor of cyclic AMP (cAMP) suggest that cAMP is the major intracellular signal that mediates the regulatory effect of PGE2 on COX-2 expression. EMSA revealed that PGE2 inhibited the binding of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the COX-2 promoter via a cAMP dependent pathway. In addition, a subcutaneous injection of PGE2 twice daily for 2 weeks significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CIA as well as the production of IgG antibodies to type II collagen. Conclusion: Our data suggest that overproduced PGE2 in the RA joints may function as an autocrine regulator of its own synthesis by inhibiting COX-2 production and may, in part, play an anti-inflammatory role in the arthritic joints.

Preparation and Evaluation of $PGE_1$ Transurethral Suppositories (프로스타글란딘 $E_1$ 요도좌제의 제조 및 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Oh;Quan, Qi-Zhe;Rhee, Jong-Dal;Choi, Han-Gon;Yong, Chul-Soon
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this work is to develop a transurethral suppository containing prostaglandin $E_1\;(PGE_1)$, which stabilizes the drug, gives no irritation to physiological body and enhances the erectile response of $PGE_1.\;PGE_1$ transurethral suppositories were prepared with various amounts of compositions such as saturated polyglycolysed glyceride $(Suppocire^{\circledR}\;AP,\;SAP)$, polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-50) and ethanol. The melting points, viscosities and $PGE_1$ release of the suppositories were investigated. Ocular irritation test was carried out after application of $PGE_1$ suppository to rabbit's eye. The intracavernous pressure (ICP), penile length and duration of erectile response were determined after transurethral administration of $PGE_1$ suppository and compared with those after intracavernosal injection of $PGE_1$ solution to cats. HCO-50 hardly affected the melting points and viscosities of $PGE_1$ suppositories. Additionally, $PGE_1$ transurethral suppositories, whose melting point ranges was $34-35^{\circ}C$, was speedily melted in physiological body. HCO-50 significantly decreased the dissolution rates of $PGE_1$ from the suppositories. Dissolution mechanism analysis showed the release of $PGE_1$ was proportional to the square root of time, indicating that $PGE_1$ might be released from the suppositories by Fickian diffusion. The release rate of $PGE_1$ from $PGE_1$ suppository [PGE1/SAP/HCO-50/ethanol (1/94.5/2.5/2%)] was about 80% within 2 h. This $PGE_1$ suppository gave no significant irritation to the ocular tissue, expecting that it gave no irritation to the urethral tissue less sensive than ocular tissue. Furthermore, $PGE_1$ in this suppository was stable at $4^{\circ}C$ for 2 years. This suppository increased the ICP and penile erection similar to those of injectable $PGE_1$ solution. However, it gave 2.5-fold increased duration of erectile response than injectable $PGE_1$ solution. Our results suggested that it gave more effective erectile response than injectable $PGE_1$ solution in cats. It is concluded that this $PGE_1$ suppository with good safety, excellent stability and enhanced erectile response, could be a more effective and convenient transurethal delivery system of $PGE_1$.

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Autocrine prostaglandin E2 signaling promotes promonocytic leukemia cell survival via COX-2 expression and MAPK pathway

  • Shehzad, Adeeb;Lee, Jaetae;Lee, Young Sup
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2015
  • The COX-2/$PGE_2$ pathway has been implicated in the occurrence and progression of cancer. The underlying mechanisms facilitating the production of COX-2 and its mediator, $PGE_2$, in cancer survival remain unknown. Herein, we investigated $PGE_2$-induced COX-2 expression and signaling in HL-60 cells following menadione treatment. Treatment with $PGE_2$ activated anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while reducing pro-apoptotic proteins, thereby enhancing cell survival. $PGE_2$ not only induced COX-2 expression, but also prevented casapse-3, PARP, and lamin B cleavage. Silencing and inhibition of COX-2 with siRNA transfection or treatment with indomethacin led to a pronounced reduction of the extracellular levels of $PGE_2$, and restored the menadione- induced cell death. In addition, pretreatment of cells with the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PKA inhibitor H89 abrogated the $PGE_2$-induced expression of COX-2, suggesting involvement of the MAPK and PKA pathways. These results demonstrate that $PGE_2$ signaling acts in an autocrine manner, and specific inhibition of $PGE_2$ will provide a novel approach for the treatment of leukemia.

Thymoquinone (TQ) regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through PI3kinase (PI3K)/p38 kinase pathway in human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231

  • Yu, Seon-Mi;Kim, Song-Ja
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2012
  • Thymoquinone (TQ), a drug extracted from the black seeds of Nigella sativa, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-neoplastic effects in numerous cancer cells. The effects of TQ on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production in MDA-MB-231, however, remain poorly understood. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed to study the expression levels of inflammation regulatory proteins in MDA-MB-231. $PGE_2$ assay was conducted to explore the TQ-induced production of $PGE_2$. In this study, we investigated the effects of TQ on COX-2 expression and $PGE_2$ production in MDA-MB-231. TQ significantly induced COX-2 expression and increased $PGE_2$ production in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by a Western blot analysis and $PGE_2$ assay. Furthermore, the activation of Akt and p38 kinase, respectively, was up-regulated in TQ treated cells. Inhibition of p38 kinase with SB203580 and PI3kinase (PI3K) with LY294002 abolished TQ-caused COX-2 expression and decreased $PGE_2$ production. These results collectively demonstrate that TQ effectively modulates COX-2 expression and $PGE_2$ production via PI3K and p38 kinase pathways in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

Autocatalytic Cure Kinetics of DGEBA/MDA/PGE-AcAm System (DGEBA/MDA/PGE-AcAm계의 자촉매 반응 속도론)

  • Lee, Jae-Yeong;Sim, Mi-Ja;Kim, Sang-Uk
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.8 no.9
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    • pp.797-801
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    • 1998
  • The cure kinetics for diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A(DGEBA)/4, 4'-methylene dianiline(MDA) system with or without lOphr of phenyl glycidyl ether(PGE)-acetamide(AcAm) was studied by autocatalytic cure expression. On the dynamic DSC curves, the exothermic peak temperature and the onset temperature of reaction decreased with the addition of PGE-AcAm. Regardless of the addition of PGE-AcAm, the shape of the conversion curve showed sigmoid, and this meant that DGEBA/MDA and DGEBA/MDA/PGE-AcAm systems followed autocatalytic cure reaction. When PGE-AcAm was added to DGEBA/MDA system, the cure rate increased about 1.2~1.4 times due to the catalytic role of hydroxyl groups in PGE-AcAm.

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The Stimulatory Effect of PDE Inhibitors on $PGE_2$-Induced Osteoclastogenesis (PDE 저해제에 의한 $PGE_2$의 파골세포 분화 유도 증강효과)

  • No, A-Long-Sae-Mi;Yim, Mi-Jung
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.235-238
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    • 2007
  • To determine the regulatory roles of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on $PGE_2$-induced osteoclastogenesis, we investigated the effect of PDE inhibitors on osteoclast formation in the presence of $PGE_2$. Among PDE isozyme specific inhibitors, milrinone, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, and rolipram, a specific PDE4 inhibitor, increased $PGE_2$-induced osteoclast formation in cocultures of mouse bone marrow cells and osteoblasts. To verify that whether the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors act indirectly on osteoblasts, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP in osteoblasts. Treatment of milrinone or rolipram increased $PGE_2$-stimulated cAMP levels in osteoblasts. Furthermore, northern blot analysis revealed that the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors works synergistically with $PGE_2$ to increase the expression of TRANCE mRNA in osteoblasts. On the contrary, the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors did not augment the number of osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow cells by $PGE_2$. In conclusion, the stimulation of $PGE_2$-induced osteoclast formation by the PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors are attributable to their indirect effect on osteoblasts, not to their direct effect on bone marrow-derived osteoclast precursors.