• Title, Summary, Keyword: $PGE_{2}$

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Evaluation of Korean Phytomedicinal Plants on inhibition of Prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$ Production and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated U937 Cells (LPS로 활성화된 U937세포에서 Prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$ 생성 및 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) 활성 억제에 대한 한약제의 평가)

  • Jang, Seon-Il;Jun, Chang-Soo;Kwak, Kyung-Chell;Bae, Moon-Sung;Lee, Jung-Ho;Kim, Ki-Young;Yun, Yong-Gab;Chai, Gyu-Yun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 2006
  • The inhibitors of prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$ production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity have been considered as potential anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we evaluated 9 compounds isolated from 5 Korean phytomedicinal plants (Spirea prunifolia, Paeonia suffruticosa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Artemisia capillaris) for the inhibition of $PGE_2$production and COX-2 expession in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human macrophages U937 cells. As a result, several compound such as prunioside A, penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, tanshinone IIA, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, scopolatin, scoparone and decursinol showed potent inhibition of $PGE_2$production (50-70% inhibition at the test concentration of $10\;{\mu}M$). In addition, these compounds were also considered as potential inhibitors of COX-2 activity (45-73% inhibition at the test concentration of $10\;{\mu}M$). These active compound mediating COX-2 inhibitory activities are warranted for further elucidation of active principles for development of anti-inflammatory agents and these properties may contribute to the anti-atopic dermatitis activity.

Extracellular Prostaglandin $E_2$ Upregulation Effect of the Methanol Extract of Artemisia argyi

  • Lee, Kyoung In;Moon, Young Sook;Pyo, Byoung Sik;Choi, Chul Hee
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.211-214
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    • 2012
  • Since 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is the key metabolic enzyme of prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$), inhibition of 15-PGDH is supposed to facilitate various physiological functions by increasing $PGE_2$. Methanol extract of Artemisia argyi (AAME) inhibited 15-PGDH ($IC_{50}$: $13.13{\mu}g/mL$) with relatively low cytotoxicity ($IC_{50}$: $415.00{\mu}g/mL$) and elevated extracellular $PGE_2$ levels in HaCaT cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that AAME decreased significantly mRNA expression of PG transporter (PGT) in HaCaT cells. These results indicate that AAME could be applicable to functional materials as a 15-PGDH inhibitor and PGT expression inhibitor for the upregulation of extracellular $PGE_2$ level.

Histopathologic investigation of the effects of prostaglandin E2 administered by different methods on tooth movement and bone metabolism

  • Caglaroglu, Murat;Erdem, Abdulvahit
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.118-128
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    • 2012
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the in vivo effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) administered by different methods on orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism macroscopically, histopatologically, and biochemically. Methods: Forty-five young adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 10/group), 1 positive control group (n = 10), and 1 negative control group (n = 5). The experimental rabbits were fitted with springs exerting 20-g reciprocal force on the maxillary incisors and PGE2 (10 ${\mu}g/mL$) was administered by the intravenous, submucosal, or intra ligamentous route aft er appliance insertion and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 thereafter. All rabbits were sacrificed on day 21 and their premaxillae were resected for histologic evaluation. Results: Tooth movement was observed in the experimental and positive control groups, but the intraligamentous PGE2 group had the highest values of all analyzed parameters, including serum calcium and phosphorus levels and osteoclastic and osteoblastic populations (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sub mucosal and intraligamentous PGE2 administration significantly increases orthodontic tooth movement and bone metabolism, but the intraligamentous route seems to be more effective.

Effects of Prostaglandin $E_2$ on the Spontaneous Contractions and Electrical Activities of the Antral Circular Muscle in Guinea-pig Stomach

  • Kim, Jong-Yoon;Kim, Sung-Joon;Kang, Tong-Mook;Lee, Sang-Jin;Jun, Jae-Yeoul;So, In-Suk;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 1998
  • The spontaneous contractions of gastric smooth muscles are regulated by slow waves, which are modulated by both nervous system and humoral agents. This study was designed to examine the effects of prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) on the contractile and electrical activities of antral smooth muscles in guinea-pig stomach, using an intracellular recording technique. To elucidate the underlying mechanism for its effect on contractility, ionic currents were also measured using a whole-cell patch clamp method. The basal tone by $PGE_2$ was variable, whereas the magnitude of phasic contractions was reduced ($19.0{\pm}2.1%$, n=19). The resting membrane potentials were hyperpolarized ($-4.4{\pm}0.5%$ mV, n=10), and plateau potentials were lowered ($-2.9{\pm}0.5%$ mV, n=10). In most cases, however, the initial peak potentials of slow waves were depolarized more by $PGE_2$ than those of control. The frequency of the slows wave was increased from $5.7{\pm}0.2$ cycles/min to $6.5{\pm}0.2$ (n=22). Voltage-operated $Ca^{2+}$ currents were decreased by $PGE_2$ (n=5). Voltage-operated $K^+$ currents, both Ca-dependent and Ca-independent, were increased (n=5). These results suggest that $PGE_2$ plays an important role in the modulation of gastric smooth muscle activities, and its inhibitory effects on the contractility and activities of slow waves are resulted from both decrease of $Ca^{2+}$ currents and increase of $K^+$ currents.

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Inhibitory effect of Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma on nitric oxide production in the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (토복령(土茯笭)이 RAW264.7 대식세포주에서 산화질소 억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kang-Hee;Jung, Jun-Hee;Kim, Ee-Hwa;Lee, Jae-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : 본 연구의 목적은 제습, 해독, 통리관절등의 효능이 있는 토복령이 RAW264.7 대식세포주에서 lipopolysaccharide(LPS)로 처치하여 생성되는 nitric oxide(NO)와 prostaglandin $E_2$($PGE_2$)에 억제작용이 있는지 관찰하고자 하는 것이다. Methods : 토복령이 RAW264.7 대식세포주에 세포독성이 유무를 관찰하기 위하여 농도별 MTT assay를 수행하여 세포생존율을 측정하였다. 또한 LPS로 염증유발된 RAW264.7 대식세포주에서 토복령의 농도별 처치가 NO 및 $PGE_2$ 생성억제에 미치는 영향을 관찰하고자 NO 및 $PGE_2$ assay를 수행하였다. Results : 토복령의 농도별 처치가 RAW264.7 대식세포주에서 세포독성을 유발하는지 MTT assay로 측정한 결과 세포독성은 관찰되지 않았으며, 토복령은 LPS처치로 인하여 증가된 NO 및 $PGE_2$ 생성을 통계학적으로 유의하게 감소시킴을 관찰하였다. Conclusions : 본 연구를 통하여 토복령은 RAW264.7 대식세포주에서 LPS로 유도된NO 및 $PGE_2$ 생성을 효과적으로 억제시킴으로써 추후 염증질환의 치료제로서 가능성을 확인하였다.

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15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase as a marker in colon carcinogenesis: analysis of the prostaglandin pathway in human colonic tissue

  • Yang, Dong-Hoon;Ryu, Yeon-Mi;Lee, Sun-Mi;Jeong, Jin-Yong;Yoon, Soon Man;Ye, Byong Duk;Byeon, Jeong-Sik;Yang, Suk-Kyun;Myung, Seung-Jae
    • Intestinal research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2017
  • Background/Aims: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGEs-1) regulate prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) expression and are involved in colon carcinogenesis. We investigated the expression of $PGE_2$ and its regulating genes in sporadic human colon tumors and matched normal tissues. Methods: Twenty colonic adenomas and 27 colonic adenocarcinomas were evaluated. COX-2 and 15-PGDH expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of $PGE_2$ and mPGEs-1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting, respectively. Results: The expression of COX-2, mPGEs-1, and $PGE_2$ did not differ between the adenomas and matched distant normal tissues. 15-PGDH expression was lower in adenomas than in the matched normal colonic tissues (P<0.001). In adenocarcinomas, mPGEs-1 and $PGE_2$ expression was significantly higher (P<0.001 and P=0.020, respectively), and COX-2 expression did not differ from that in normal tissues (P=0.207). 15-PGDH expression was significantly lower in the normal colonic mucosa from adenocarcinoma patients than in the normal mucosa from adenoma patients (P=0.018). Conclusions: Early inactivation of 15-PGDH, followed by activation of COX-2 and mPGEs-1, contributes to $PGE_2$ production, leading to colon carcinogenesis. 15-PGDH might be a novel candidate marker for early detection of field defects in colon carcinogenesis.

Effects of Corydalis Tuber on Synthesis of NO and $PGE_2$ in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells Stimulated by LPS

  • Lee, Ki-Young;Park, Se-Keun;Kim, Jeong-Seon;Jang, Mi-Hyeon;Kim, Chang-Ju;Choi, Sun-Mi;Lee, Hye-Jung;Kim, Ee-Hwa
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.785-791
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    • 2005
  • Corydalis Tuber has traditionally been used for the treatment of water retention in the body. Administration of the aqueous extract of Corydalis Tuber has been known to be effective for the control of pain and treatment of arthritis. It was reported that Corydalis Tuber possesses anti-inflammatory activity and modulates the intestinal immune system. The effect of Corydalis Tuber against LPS-stimulated expressions of COX-2, iNOS, and $IL-1{\beta}$ in cells of the murine RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), $PGE_2$ immunoassay, and NO detection. The aqueous extract of Corydalis Tuber was shown to suppress $PGE_2$ production by inhibition on the LPS-stimulated enhancement of COX-2 enzyme activity, $IL-1{\beta}$, and iNOS expression in the RAW 264.7 macrophages. Present results suggest that Corydalis Tuber exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects probably by suppressing of COX-2, iNOS, and $IL-1{\beta}$ expressions, resulting in inhibition of $PGE_2$ synthesis. Corydalis Tuber has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects probably by suppressing of COX-2, iNOS, and $IL-1{\beta}$ mRNA expressions, resulting in inhibition of $PGE_2$ and NO synthesis.

The Effect of Aspirin and Prostaglandin E1 on the Patency of Microvascular Anastomosis in Rat (백서에서 Aspirin과 Prostaglandin E1이 미세혈관 문합의 개존에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Kwang Suk;Suh, Jeong Dae;Han, Seung Beom;Lee, Seung Joon;Choi, In Chul;Kim, In Sun;Cho, Seong Jin
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2000
  • In the field of microsurgery, the vascular obstruction of the microvascular anastomosis by thrombus is one of the most important complication. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect between aspirin and prostaglandin $E_1$($PGE_1$) which act as the peripheral vasodilatation and platelet disaggregation. We have used total 48 white male rats and divided them into three gruoups(A, B and C group). Each group consists of 16 rats respectively. A group is as control, B group is medicated with aspirin(3.0mg/kg/day) and C group with $PGE_1(1.2{\mu}g/kg/day)$. The gross and histopathologic findings at anastomosed site were observed on 3, 5, 10 and 15 days after vascular anastomosis and the results were obtained as the followings. 1. The microvascular patency rate is 81.2% in control group, 93.8% in aspirin group and 100% in $PGE_1$ group. 2. On the histologic examination, the formation of mural thrombus is decreased both in the aspirin and $PGE_1$ group as comparing with the control group and also the hypertrophy of the intima forming from media is less formed in $PGE_1$ group than aspirin group and the degree of thickeness is also less. 3. The fibrosis of media is less observed in $PGE_1$ group than aspirin group. According to the above results, the application of $PGE_1$ to the microsurgery is considered to be effective on the prevention of the thrombus formation and on providing high patency rate.

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Effect of Prostaglandin $E_1$ and Acetazolamide upon Carbonic Anhydrase Activity of Whole Blood in Rat (Prostaglandin $E_1$과 Acetazolamide가 흰쥐 전혈(全血)의 Carbonic Anhydrase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyoung-Jin;Jo, Yang-Hyeok
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1980
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of prostaglandin $E_1(PGE_1)$ upon the activity of carbonic anhydrase and upon the inhibitory action of acetazolamide on carbonic anhydrase. The heparinized blood was sampled by cardiac puncture from Sprague-Dawley strain rats under ether anesthesia and was hemolysed by adding distilled water 1,000 times the amount of the blood. The activity of carbonic anhydrase of 0.1 ml of the hemolysate was measured by Maren's simplified micro-method. In the first experiment, the 7 rats were used, and the activity was measured by adding 0.1 ml of various concentrations of $PGE_1$(0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and $20\;{\mu}g/ml$). In the second experiment, the 6 rats were used and the activity was measured by adding 0.1 ml of $PGE_1(5\;{\mu}g/ml)$ and 0.1 ml of acetazolamide$(6{\times}10^{-7}M/l)$ respectively or simultaneously. Obtained results were as follows: 1) The activity of carbonic anhydrase was significantly inhibited by $PGE_1$ at doses of $0.5{\sim}10\;{\mu}g/ml$, maximally at a dose of $2.5\;{\mu}g/ml$, but inhibition was no more observed at a dose of $20\;{\mu}g/ml$. 2) The activity of the acetazolamide group was significantly less than that of the control group. 3) The activity of the $PGE_1+acetazolamide$ group was significantly less than those of the $PGE_1$ group and the acetazolamide group. It is inferred from the above results that the $PGE_1$ inhibits the activity of carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and strengthens the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide on carbonic anhydrase.

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Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Activity and Prostaglandin E2 Production through Down-regulation of NF-κB Activity by the Extracts of Fermented Beans (발효 콩의 NF-κB 활성 억제를 통한 cyclooxgenase-2 활성과 prostaglandin E2 생성 억제)

  • Lee, Hye-Hyeon;Park, Cheol;Kim, Min-Jeong;Seo, Min-Jeong;Choi, Sung-Hyun;Jeong, Yong-Kee;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.388-395
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    • 2010
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is generally known as an inducible enzyme, and it produces arachidonic acid to prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$), which has been demonstrated to play a critical role in inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the extracts of fermented beans including soybean (FS), black agabean (FBA) and yellow agabean (FYA), on the expression of COXs and production of $PGE_2$ in U937 human promonocytic cells. Treatment of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) significantly induced pro-inflammatory mediators such as COX-2 expression and $PGE_2$ production, whereas the levels of COX-1 remained unchanged. However, pre-treatment with FS, FBA and FYA significantly decreased PMA-induced COX-2 protein as well as mRNA, which is associated with inhibition of $PGE_2$ production. Moreover, FS, FBA and FYA markedly prevented the increase of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) p65 by PMA. Our data indicate that the extracts of fermented beans exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes through the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway.