• Title, Summary, Keyword: $PGE_{2}$

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EFFECTS OF GINSENG COMPONENTS ON RODENTICIDE VACOR-INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS IN RATS (인삼성분이 살서제(Vacor)로 유발시킨 쥐의 당뇨에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Min-wha;Lee Tai-hee;Ahn Bong-whan;Park Byung-ju;Yang Sung-yeul
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 1984
  • It is now well established that the rodenticide Vacor (N-3-pyridyl-mehtyl-N'-p-nitropheny-lurea) causes a hyperglycemia in human and rats. It is also reported that there are some components (DPG-3) in ginseng radix which cause hypoglycemic effect on alloxan diabetic mice. In the present study, attempts were made to demonstrate in Vacor-poisoned rats the hypo-glycemic activity of red ginseng component(RGC), which was extracted by Kimura's DPG-3 extraction procedure and found to be effective for lowering a hyperglycemia in alloxan-diabetic rats. Vacor in a dose of $LD_{50}$ (10mg/kg) produced a glucose intolerance with a paradoxical moderate increase in blood immunoreactive insulin and derangement in glucose metabolism of epididymal adipocytes in rats. Although RGC (20mg/kg, i.p.) did not exert any significant influence on a hyperglycemia induced by large lethal doses (25mg/kg) of Vacor ingestion, it improved the LDso Vacor-induced glucose intolerance and caused a further increase in blood insulin levels in Vacor-poisoned rats. The administration of RGC (20mg/kg, i.p.) normalized Vacor-induced depression of glucose metabolism and lipogenesis in the epididymal adipocytes with an improvement of reduced responses to insulin of adipocytes from Vacor-poisoned rats. These results suggest that some red ginsneng components contained in RGC fraction normalize the depressed peripheral glucose unitlization and insulin response and eventually lead to an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance developed in rats poisoned with small doses of Vacor.

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Histopathological Changes in Cold-Stored Dog Lungs to the Preservation Solutions (냉한에서 보관된 황견의 폐에서 장기 보존액에 따른 조직 세포의 변화)

  • 김해균;이두연
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.816-821
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    • 1996
  • Lung transplantation is the established treatment for the end stage lung disedse find preservation of the organ is a major obstacle In performing lung transplantation. For solving this problem, we evaluated the histopathologic changes for various preservation solutions. Male mongrel dogs of similar size and weight (15∼20 kg) were used. The dog lungs were flushed with 4fl normal saline(group 1 'n:5): Modified Euro-Collins solution(group 2 n:5) and University of Wisconsin solution (group 3 : n=6), 60m11kg through a catheter placed in the main pulmonary artery aft r flushing of PGE 1 (20ng1kg). The lungs were preserved for 60 hours and measured dry and wet weights. Histologic specimens were taken every 6 hours and %toed for light microscopic evaluation. The edema ratio of the lungs peaked in 12 hours although there was no difference between the groups. Histologically, alveolar septal changes developed in one case (20%) after 1 hour preservation with normal saline. In case of the University of Wisconsin solution, the alveolar septal distortions and swellings were seen in 1 cases (20%) after 6 hours preservation compared with 3 cases (60%) after 6 hours preservation with Modified Euro-Collins solution. Changes of the pneumocytes were observed after 24 hours preser- vation in group 1, after 48 hours preservation in group 2 and after 60 hours preservation in group 3. We conclude that University of Wisconsin solution might have a superior preservation effect compare to normal saline and Modified Euro-Collins solutions.

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Anti-inflammatory and Whitening Effects of Protaetia brevitarsis Seulensis Extracts by Oriental Conversion Methods (포제방법에 따른 흰점박이꽃무지(Protaetia brevitarsis Seulensis) 추출물의 항염 및 미백활성에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Gyeong Ah;Kim, Mi Hye;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.421-432
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    • 2016
  • In order to find new functional materials for the cosmetics application, we investigated anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of the Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (P. brevitarsis) extracts, which were prepared by the various oriental conversion methods, as follows; fresh, roasted one time, roasted two times, roasted three times, and steamed. 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the various solvent extracts (80% ethanol, 50% ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane) of P. brevitarsis extracts were 85.5, 22.4, 37.0 and 19.4% respectively. The 80% ethanol extract with the highest antioxidant activity was used for all experiments. In case of antioxidant activity test of the extracts, all the extracts showed the activities in concentration dependent manner regardless of the sample preparation methods. Superoxide dismutase-like (SOD-like) activities of the extracts roasted three times and steamed were 62.9 and 55.9%, respectively in $500{\mu}g/mL$. Effects of extracts on the inflammation of RAW 264.7 cell induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) showed decreasing tendency of $NO{\cdot}$ and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production; PBS fresh (38.0%), PBS roasted one time (41.0%), PBS roasted two times (69.8%), PBS roasted three times (70.1%), PBS steamed (78.5%). Intracellular tyrosinase and melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activities of the extracts were decreased in a concentration dependent manner. However, the fresh P. brevitarsis extracts without the oriental conversion method showed 90.7% decrease compared to the control group treated with ${\alpha}$-MSH alone at $500{\mu}g/mL$. Taken together, these results suggest the oriental conversion method can be applied in development of cosmetic materials in order to improve anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of the cosmetics products.

Suppressive Effect of Green Tea Seed Coat Ethyl Acetate Fraction on Inflammation and Its Mechanism in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cell (RAW264.7 Macrophage Cell에서 녹차씨껍질 에틸아세테이트 분획의 염증억제 효과 및 기전 연구)

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Min, Kwan-Hee;Chinzorig, Radnaabazar;Lee, Mi-Ock;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.625-634
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    • 2011
  • Green tea seed coat (GTSC) was extracted with 100% ethanol for 4 hr and then fractionated with petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EtOAC) and butanol (BuOH). The EtOAC fraction showed the highest level in total phenol contents and the lowest level in nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cell. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and its mechanisms of GTSC EtOAC fraction in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cell. GTSC EtOAC fraction contained EGC ($1146.48{\pm}11.01\;{\mu}g/g$), tannic acid ($966.99{\pm}32.24\;{\mu}g/g$), EC ($70.88{\pm}4.39\;{\mu}g/g$), gallic acid ($947.61{\pm}1.03\;{\mu}g/g$), caffeic acid ($37.69{\pm}1.46\;{\mu}g/g$), ECG ($35.46{\pm}3.19\;{\mu}g/g$), and EGCG ($15.53{\pm}0.09\;{\mu}g/g$) when analyzed by HPLC. NO production was significantly (p<0.05) suppressed in a dose-dependent manner with an $IC_{50}$ of $80.11\;{\mu}g$/mL. Also prostaglandin $E_2$ level was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, iNOS protein expression was suppressed in dose-dependent manner but COX-2 gene expression was not affected. Total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (GSH) levels were enhanced more than the LPS-control. Expressions of antioxidative enzymes including catalase, GSH-reductase and Mn-SOD were elevated compared to LPS-control. Nuclear p65 level was decreased in the GTSC EtOAC fraction in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that GTSC EtOAC fraction inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through elevated GSH levels, antioxidative enzymes expressions and suppression of iNOS expression via NF-${\kappa}B$ down-regulation.

Effect of Boswellia serrata Extracts on Degenerative Osteoarthritis in vitro and in vivo Models (보스웰리아 추출물의 골관절염 억제 효과 연구)

  • Nam, Da-Eun;Kim, Ok Kyung;Shim, Tae Jin;Kim, Ji Hoon;Lee, Jeongmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.631-640
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    • 2014
  • The inhibitory effects of Boswellia serrata (BW) extracts on degenerative osteoarthritis were investigated in primary-cultured rat cartilage cells and a monosodium-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rat model. To identify the protective effects of BW extract against $H_2O_2$ ($800{\mu}M$, 2 hr) in vitro, cell survival was measured by MTT assay. Cell survival after $H_2O_2$ treatment was elevated by BW extract at a concentration of $20{\mu}g/mL$. In addition, BW extract treatment significantly reduced and normalized the productions of pro-inflammatory factors, nuclear transcription factor ${\kappa}B$, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, and interleukin-6 at a concentration of $20{\mu}g/mL$. Treatment of chondrocytes with BW extract significantly reduced 5-lipoxygenase activity and production of prostaglandin E2, especially at a concentration of $10{\sim}20{\mu}g/mL$. For the in vivo animal study, osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of MIA into knee joints of rats. Consumption of a diet containing BW extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 35 days significantly inhibited the development and severity of osteoarthritis in rats. To determine the genetic expression of arthritic factors in articular cartilage, real-time PCR was applied to measure matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13), collagen type I, collagen type II, and aggrecan, and BW extract had protective effects at a concentration of 200 mg/kg. In conclusion, BW extract was able to inhibit articular cartilage degeneration by preventing extracellular matrix degradation and chondrocyte injury. One can consider that BW extract may be a potential therapeutic treatment for degenerative osteoarthritis.

Inhibitory Effects of Amitriptyline, Sertraline and Chlorpromazine on the Thrombin-induced Aggregation of Platelets (Thrombin성 혈소판응집에 대한 Amitriptyline, Sertraline 및 Chlorpromazine의 억제작용)

  • Choi, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Young-Jae;Shin, Kyung-Ho;Chun, Yeon-Sook;Chun, Boe-Gwun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.299-311
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    • 1995
  • Platelets resemble monoaminergic neurons in several respects, i.e. the uptake of 5-HT and its inhibition, the subcellular storage and release of 5-HT, and the metabolism of aromatic amines brought about by monoamine oxidase. And the 5-HT content of rabbit platelets is well known to be about 40 times higher than that of human platelets. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the influences of amitriptyline (AMT) and sertraline (SRT) on the aggregation, contents of signaling second messengers, and protein phosphorylations of rabbit platelets in response to thrombin, 0.25 unit/ml, comparing with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Thrombin-induced aggregation was inhibited by SRT $(IC50:4.37{\times}10^{-5}\;M)$, CPZ $(IC50:5.76{\times}10^{-5}\;M)$, and AMT $(IC50:1.15{\times}10^{-4}\;M)$, respectively, and the aggregation by A23187 $(1.0\;{\mu}M)$ or PMA (320 nM) was also inhibited by SRT, CPZ, and AMT. AMT, SRT, and CPZ had little affects on basal contents of platelet $TXB_2$ and $PGE_2$, but all of them inhibited the thrombin-induced increase of $TXB_2$. Thrombin did not change the platelet contents of cAMP and cGMP. CPZ, AMT, and SRT produced the slight decrease of basal cAMP content, and their effects were not affected by thrombin-treatment. But SRT and AMT moderately increased the basal cGMP content, and the cGMP content of thrombin-stimulated platelets was gradually increased by the pretreatment with SRT, AMT, and CPZ. Particularly, the SRT-dependent increase of the cGMP content was notable. Platelet $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$ content was rapidly increased up to a plateau within 10 sec after thrombin-stimulation, AMT, SRT, and CPZ increased the basal $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$ content, and the thrombin-dependent increase was enhanced by pretreatment with CPZ and AMT, but was blunted by SRT. Platelet $[Ca^{2+}]_i$, was rapidly increased up to a peak level within 20 sec after thrombin-stimulation. The increase of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was sisnificantly inhibited by AMT, SRT, and CPZ. Thrombin- or PMA-induced phosphorylations of platelet $41{\sim}43\;kDa$ and 20 kDa proteins were significantly inhibited by AMT, SRT, and CPZ. These results suggest that the antiplatelet activities of AMT and CPZ may be considerably attributed to the inhibition of protein kinase C activity, and the activity of SRT may be associated with the inhibitory effect on the thrombin-induced increase of $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$ and the increasing effect on the cGMP content of ptatelets. Therefore, it seems to be evident that AMT and SRT may produce their antidepressant activity, at least, partly through the inhibition of protein kinase C activity or the increase of resting $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$, content and in case of SRT, to a lesser extent, via the increase of cGMP in the brain.

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The Study of anti-inflammatory Mechanism with Cobra Venom on Astrocytes of Rats (뇌(腦) 성상세포(星狀細胞)를 대상으로 한 Cobrotoxin의 염증(炎症) 치료(治療) 기전(機轉) 연구(硏究))

  • Yoo, Jae-ryong;Song, Ho-sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.155-167
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Cobrotoxin on binding affinity of cobrotoxin with P50, $IKK{\alpa}$ and $IKK{\beta}$, activities of NF-${\kappa}B$, Cell viability of astrocyte, expressions of protein molecules of NF-${\kappa}B$ such as P50, P-$1{kappa}B$, $1{\kappa}B$ and iflammation related genes such as Cox-2, iNOS, cPLA2 in the SNP or LPS induced Inflammatory pathway of Rats' astrocytes. Methods : In this study, The expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2, Nitric oxcide, Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitrogen oxide synthase was determined by western blotting with corresponding antibodies, and the generation of NF-${\kappa}B$ was assayed by EMSA method in astrocytes of rats. The Cell viability of astrocytes was determined by MTT assay, and Binding affinity of Cobrotoxin with P50, $IKK{\alpha}$ and $IKK{\beta}$ was assayed by Surface plasmon resonance analysis, and NF-${\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity was determined by luciferase analysis, and Uptake of cobrotoxin in astrocytes was identified by Confocal laser scanning microscope Results : 1. Compared with control, LPS-induced NF-${\kappa}B$ DNA binding activity was decreased significantly by 0.1, $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin in Astrocyte. 2. Compared with control, LPS-induced NF-kB dependent luciferase expression was decreased significantly by 0.1, 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin in Astrocyte. 3. Compared with control, SNP induced P50, $I{\kappa}B$ expressions in astrocyte were decreased significantly by 0.1, 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin and P-$1{\kappa}B$ expression was decreased significantly by 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin. 4. Compared with control, LPS induced P50, $1{\kappa}B$ expressions in astrocyte were decreased significantly by 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin. 5. Compared with control, SNP induced Cox-2, iNOS, CPLA2 expressions in astrocyte were decreased significantly by $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin. 6. Compared with control, LPS induced Cox-2, cPLA2 expressions in astrocyte were decreased significantly by 0.1, 0.5, $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin and iNOS expression was decreased significantly by 0.5, $1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin. 7. Compared with $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin, SNP-induced NF-${\kappa}B$ DNA bindins activity in astrocyte was increased significantly by Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with DTT 1mM and Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with DTT 5mM. 8. Compared with $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Cobrotoxin, LPS-induced NF-${\kappa}B$ DNA binding activity in astrocyte was increased significantly by Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with DTT 1mM, Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with DTT 5mM, Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$with GSH 1mM and Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with GSH 5mM 9. Compared with $0.1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of cobrotoxin, SNP induced P50 expressions in astrocyte were increased significantly by Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with DTT 1mM, Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with DTT 5mM Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with GSH 1mM and Cobrotoxin $0.5{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ with GSH 5mM. 10. The uptake of the labeled cobrotoxin into the cells was shown under a confocal laser scanning microscope. cobrotoxin was uptaken into the membrane and nucleus of astrocytes. Conclusions : In summary, the present results demonstrate that cobrotoxin directly binds to sulfhydryl group of p50 and IKKS resulting In the reduction of translocation of p50 and IkB release, thereby inhibits activation of NF-${\kappa}B$, and suggest that pico to nanomolar range of cobrotoxin could inhibit the expression of genes in the NF-${\kappa}B$ signal pathway.

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