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A Study on Improvement for Fishing Gear and Method of Pound Net - I - Net Shapes of the Commerical Net in the Flow - (정치망 어구어법의 개발에 관한 연구-I - 현용어구의 흐름에 대한 형상 변화 -)

  • Yun, Il-Bu;Lee, Ju-Hee;Kwon, Byeong-Guk;Cho, Young-Bok;Yoo, Jae-Bum;Kim, Seong-Hun;Kim, Boo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.268-281
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    • 2004
  • A study was carried out in order to estimate the deformation of the pound net according to the current by the model test in the circulating water channel. The tension of the frame rope and the variation of net shape were measured to investigate the deforming of the model pound net in the flow. The results are obtained as follows; 1. The experimental equation between tensions (R) of the frame rope and velocity (ν)was found to be R=$19.58v^{1.98}$($r^2$=0.98) in case of the upperward flow with fish court net and R=$26.90v^{1.72}$($r^2$=0.95)at the upperward flow with bag net according to the velocity from 0.0m/s to 0.6m/s, respectively. 2. As the variation of flow speed inside of the model net was gradually decreased according as which is passed through netting panels, in case of the upperward flow with fish court net, the flow speed was about 70% of initial flow speed at 0.1m/s, 60% at 0.2m/s, 50% at 0.3m/s and 40% 0.4~0.6m/s at the measurement point(h) inside of the first bag net, respectively. In case of the upperward flow with bag net, as the flow speed was steeply decreased according as which if passed through the second bag net, it was 30~60% of the initial flow speed and was 20~30% inside of the first bag net and was about 10~20% inside of the inclined passage net. 3. In case of the upperward flow with fish court net, the variation of deformed angle of fish court net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 70$^{\circ}$and that of inclined passage net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 63$^{\circ}$and that of the second bag net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 47$^{\circ}$ . 4. In case of the upperward flow with fish court net, the variation of deformed angle of the second bag net was changed from 0$^{\circ}$ to 70$^{\circ}$and that of the inclined passage net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 55$^{\circ}$ and that of the fish court net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 50$^{\circ}$. The depth ratio of the first bag net was changed from 0% to 35% and that of the second bag net was from 0% to 20% and that of the inclined passage net was from 0% to 35%. In the flow speed 0.5m/s, the inclined passage net was raised up to the entry of the bag net and then prevented it more over 90%. 5. To be increased the opening volume of pound net, it needs to attach the added weight outside of the fish court net, inclined passage net and bag net. At the same time, it needs to adjust the tension of the twine for maintenance of the shape.

A Model Experiment on the Basic Efficiency of Midwater Rope Trawl Net (로프 트롤 그물의 기본성능에 관한 모형실험)

  • Yae, Young-Hee;Lee, Byong-Gee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.200-213
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    • 1993
  • A model experiment on a midwater rope trawl net which is used in the North Pacific to catch alaska pollack is carried out in the circulating tank to examine the basic efficiency of the net. The prototype is the net used by M/S Hanil(1, 179GT, 2, 700PS), a Korean trawler. The model net was made according to the Tauti's Similarity Law of Fishing Gear in 1/100 scale by considering the condition of the tank. To measure the basic efficiency of the standard model net, the vertical opening and width between some points marked on the net were measured, and the hydrodynamic resistance were determined. Then the constructive conditions of the net were varied as follows and the factors were measured again to compare the efficiency of those nets with that of the standard net(A-1 type) front weight multiplied 1.5 times: A-2 type. buoyancy and depressing force multiplied 1.7 times: A-3 type. front weight multiplied 1.5 times on A-3 type: A-4 type. depressors rigged at ground rope: B type. cod-end stuffed with cashmylon wad: C type. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. The vertical opening at the center of head rope was steeply decreased with the flow velocity increasing and the vertical opening H(m) can be expressed in H=1.2v super(-1.2)(v : flow velocity in m/sec). The width of the net varied a little when the flow velocity was over 0.4m/sec, and the width of net mouth showed about 37% of the distance between the fore tips of net pendant. The shape of net mouth was almost a circle at 0.2m/sec and then steeply flatted elliptically with the flow velocity increasing and the area of mouth S(m super(2)) can be expressed in S=(1.65-2.3v)$\times$10 super(-2). The hydrodynamic resistance of the net increased almost linearly with the flow velocity increasing and the resistance R(kg) can be expressed in R=3.2$\times$d/l$\times$abv. where d/l denotes the mean of d(diameter of netting twine) and l(length of a leg in a mesh) from wing tip to the end of bag-net except cod-end on the side pannel, and a denotes the strectched circumference of the net at the fore end of a meshed part and b the stretched length of the whole net from wing tip to the end of cod-end. 2. In the condition-varied nets, the vertical opening of head rope showed some increase in every type net except the C type, and the increase showed the greatest in the B type by 30~54%, whereas it showed decrease in the C type by 5~10%. Variation of the area of net mouth showed almost the same tendency as the vertical opening and the increase showed the greatest in the B type by 20%, whereas it showed decrease in the C type by 12%. Hydrodynamic resistance showed some increase in every type compared with the standard net, and the rate of increase indicated 5~10% in the A-2, A-3 and A-4 type, 22% in the B type and 3% in the C type.

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Net Shapes of the Model Set Net in the Flow (흐름에 대한 모형 정치망의 형상 변화)

  • Kim, Boo-Young;Yun, Il-Bu;Kwon, Byeong-Guk;Lee, Ju-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.104-114
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    • 2004
  • A study was carried out to estimate the deformation of the set net according to the current by the model test in the circulation water channel. The tension of the frame line and the variation of net shapes were measured to investigate the deforming of the model set net in the flow. The results are obtained as follows; 1. The tensions (y) of the frame line according to the flow speed(x) from 0.0m/s to 0.6m/s were expressed by the experimental equation as follow : y= 1814.1x+115.12 2. In case of the upperward flow with fish court net, deformed angle in the upperward net was changed from 0$^{\circ}$ to 79$^{\circ}$, the inclined passage net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 56$^{\circ}$. Besides, the depth ratio of the first bag net changed from 1.0 to 0.42 and the second bag net was from 1.0 to 0.41, and deformed angle in the downward of the bag net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 87$^{\circ}$. 3. In case of the upperward flow with bag net, deformed angle in the upperward net was changed from 0$^{\circ}$ to 60$^{\circ}$, the inclined passage net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 13$^{\circ}$. Besides, the depth ratio of the first bag net changed from 1.0 to 0.27 and the second bag net was from 1.0 to 0.15. In the flow speed 0.3m/s, the inclined passage net rised up to the entry of the bag net and then prevented it more over 90% in 0.5m/s. A deformed angle in the downward of the fish court net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 58$^{\circ}$. 4. To minimize the deformation of each part in model set net, it needs to attach the moving weight out of the fish court net, inclined passage net and bag net. Besides, it needs to adjust the tension of the net twine for the maintenance of the shape.

A Study on the Design of the Stern Stow Net (선미식 안강망 어구의 설계에 관한 연구)

  • 김진건
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.343-352
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    • 1999
  • Because stow net being used in now is doing throwing net and hauling net through a ship's side, the work is very complicated and the fishing boat needs many seamen and it could cause a loss of lives and ship in stormy weather. We are now using small mesh size 36~500mm and it even catches young fish, so we call it the fishing gear of resource reduction type.Therefore we must make manpower reduction in automatic operation, safe operation of throwing net and hauling net in the stern and the stern-typed stow net of resource management using large mesh. And we performed three-typed model tests to examine the fishing gear. The obtained results are as follows;1. The fishing gear being used in the ship's side type stow net has inappropriate standard and arrangement of the net, resistance increase of the fishing gear and frequent breakdown of the net.2. To supplement the fault of A-typed stow net, we schemed fishing gear developed as both B-type(12-seamed net) and C-types(8-seamed net) of the stern-typed stow net. 3. In model tests, C-typed model net(mesh size 40~1,600mm) was proved good fishing gear because the resistance in accordance with the flowing speed was comparatively small and it's mouth area was broad. 4. A-typed stow net had the spreading device attached to side panel of the net, but the stern-typed stow net had the spreading device consisted of 4 lines far behind about 6m from side panel of the net mouth. In the flowing speed 2knot, the spreading condition of fishing gear was proved batter than the former.

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S2-Net: Korean Machine Reading Comprehension with SRU-based Self-matching Network (S2-Net: SRU 기반 Self-matching Network를 이용한 한국어 기계 독해)

  • Park, Cheoneum;Lee, Changki;Hong, Sulyn;Hwang, Yigyu;Yoo, Taejoon;Kim, Hyunki
    • 한국어정보학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2017
  • 기계 독해(Machine reading comprehension)는 주어진 문맥을 이해하고, 질문에 적합한 답을 문맥 내에서 찾는 문제이다. Simple Recurrent Unit (SRU)은 Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)등과 같이 neural gate를 이용하여 Recurrent Neural Network (RNN)에서 발생하는 vanishing gradient problem을 해결하고, gate 입력에서 이전 hidden state를 제거하여 GRU보다 속도를 향상시킨 모델이며, Self-matching Network는 R-Net 모델에서 사용된 것으로, 자기 자신의 RNN sequence에 대하여 어텐션 가중치 (attention weight)를 계산하여 비슷한 의미 문맥 정보를 볼 수 있기 때문에 상호참조해결과 유사한 효과를 볼 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 한국어 기계 독해 데이터 셋을 구축하고, 여러 층의 SRU를 이용한 Encoder에 Self-matching layer를 추가한 $S^2$-Net 모델을 제안한다. 실험 결과, 본 논문에서 제안한 $S^2$-Net 모델이 한국어 기계 독해 데이터 셋에서 EM 65.84%, F1 78.98%의 성능을 보였다.

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쌍끌이 중층트롤어법의 연구 ( 1 ) - 모형어구의 망구형상에 관하여 - ( A Study on the Pair Midwater Trawling ( 1 ) - Mouth Performance of the Model Net - )

  • 이병기
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.29-44
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    • 1995
  • A model experiment on the pair midwater trawl net applicable to 800 PS class Korean pair bottom trawlers was carried out in the special-prepared experimental thank. the tank was prepared as a reverse trapezoid shape in its vertical section by digging out flat soil. The dimension of the tank showed the 9.6 W$\times$43.0 L(m) of the upper fringe and the 4.8 W$\times$38.0 L(m) of the bottom with 3.0m in depth. The depth of water was maintained 2.7m during experiment. The model net was prepared based on the Tauti's similarity law of fishing gear in 1/30 scale considering the dimension of the experimental tank. Mouth performance of the model net during towing were determined by the photographs taken in front of the net mouth with the combinations of towing velocity, warp length and distance between paired boats. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. Vertical opening of the model nets A and B was varied in the range of 0.18~0.88 m and 0.21~0.78 m (which can be converted into 5.4~26.4m and 6.3~23.4 m in the full-scale net) respectively, and was varied predominantly by towing speed. Vertical opening (H which is appendixed m for the model net. f for the full-scale net. A and B for the types of the model net) can be expressed as the function of towing velocity$V_t$as in the model net $V_t$ : m/ sec)$H_{mA}$=1.67$e^{-1.65V_t}$ $H_{mB}$=1.15$e^{-1.13V_t}$, in the full-scale net ($V_t$ : k't) $H_{fA}$=50.27$e^-0.37V_t$ $H_{fB}$=34.46$e^{-0.26Vt}$. 2. Horizontal opening of the model nets An and b was varied in the range of 1.03~1.54m and 1.04~1.55 m (which can be converted into 30.9~46.2 m and 31.2~46.5m in the full-scale net) respectively, and was varied predominantly by distance between paired boats. Horizontal opening (W, appendixes are as same as the former) an be expressed as the function of distance between paired boats $D_b$as in the model net $W_{mA}$=0.69+0.09$D_b$ $W{mB}$=0.73+0.09$D_b$, in the full-scale net $W_{fA}$=20.81+0.09$D_b$ $W_{fB}$=22.11+0.09$D_b$ 3. Net opening area of the model net A and B was varied in the range of 0.28~1.04 $m^2$ and 0.33~0.94$m^2$(which can be converted into 252~936$m^2$ and 297~846$m^2$ in the full-scale net) respectively, and was varied predominantly by towing velocity. Net opening area ($S$, appendixes are as same as the former) van be expressed as the function of towing velocity$V_t$ as in the model net $v_t$ : m/sec) $S_{Ma}$=2.01$e^{-1.54V_T}$ $S_{mA}$=1.40$e^{-1.65V_t}$, in the full-scale net ($V_t$ : k't) $S_{fA}$=1.807$e^-0.35V_t$ $S_{fA}$=1.265$e^{-0.24V_t}$. 4. Filtering volume of the model nets A and B was varied in the range of 0.32~0.55 $m^3$ and 0.37~0.55$m^3$(which can be converted into 8.640~14.850 $m^3$ and 9.990~14.850$m3$in the full~scale net) respectively, and was predominantly varied by towing speed. filtering volume of the model net-A showed the maximum at the towing speed 0.69 m/sec(3 k't in the full-scale net), compared with that of the model net B showed at 0.92 m/sec(4 k't in the full-scale net).

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A model experiment on the underwater shape of deepsea bottom trawl net (심해 저층트롤망의 수중형상에 관한 모형실험)

  • Park, Gwang-Je;Lee, Ju-Hee;Kim, Hyung-Seok;Jeong, Sun-Beom;Oh, Taeg-Yun;Bae, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.134-147
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    • 2006
  • A model experiment using circulation water channel was carried out to investigate the dynamic characteristics of bottom trawl net which can be used in sea mount of North Pacific. Hydrodynamic resistance and shape variation according to the flow velocity and angle of hand rope transformation for net were measured, and experimental value was analyzed as the value of full-scale bottom trawl net. The results summarized are as follows; At the $30^{\circ}$ of angle of hand rope to net, hydrodynamic resistance varied from 0.5kgf to 2.68kgf as the flow velocity increased between 0.31m/s and 0.92m/s, and formula of hydrodynamic resistance for the model net was $F_m=3.04\;{\cdot}\;{\upsilon}^{1.53}$. At the fixed angle of hand rope, Net height was low and Net width was high according to the increase of flow velocity, and in addition, vertical opening was low and Net width was high by the increase of angle of hand rope at the fixed flow velocity. At the $30^{\circ}$ of angle of hand rope to net, net opening area was $0.214m^2$ as flow velocity was 0.61m/s, and formula of net opening area for the model net was $S_m=-0.22{\upsilon}+0.35$. At the $30^{\circ}$ of angle of hand rope to net, catch efficiency seemed to be highest as $0.319m^3/s$ of filtering volume at the 0.76m/s(51kt's) of flow velocity. Shape variation of net showed the gradual laminar transform for the variation of flow velocity but there needed some improvements due to the occurrence of shortening at the ahead of wing net.

Studies of photosynthesis rate on the leaf temperature and light intensity in Soybean Cultivars (엽온 및 광강도에 따른 대두품종간의 광합성능력에 관한 연구)

  • 윤병성
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.195-199
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to investigate the Net photosynthesis and respiration rates among the varieties of Soybean(Eunha, Pangsa and Paldal that have high yields) at various leaf temperature and light intensity at the stage of $V_5$. The relations between the Net photosynthesis rate and SLW(specific leaf weight) and chlorophyll content were also investigated. 1. Net photosynthesis rates at $25^{\circ}C$ were $21.5mgdm^{-2}h^{-1}$ in cv. Eunha, $20.2mgdm^{-2}h^{-1}$ in cv. Pangsa and $18.5mgdm^{-2}h^{-1}$ in cv. Paldal. 2. Most cultivars of Soybean showed the maximum rates of Net photosynthesis at $25^{\circ}C$, especially in cv. Eunha. Also Net photosynthesis rates differed depending on the leaf shape. Long leaf shape(cv. Eunha) was better than round leaf shape(cv. Paldal) in Net photosynthesis rate. 3. Respiration rates of leaves in Eunha, Pangse and Paldal were $0.56mgdm^{-2}h^{-1}$ at $15^{\circ}C$, $0.79mgdm^{-2}h^{-1}$ at $20^{\circ}C$ $1.15mgdm^{-2}h^{-1}$ at $25^{\circ}C$ and $1.37mgdm^{-2}h^{-1}$ at $30^{\circ}C$. 4. Specific leaf weight were $3.1mg/cm^2$ in Pangsa, $3.5mg/cm^2$ in Eunha and Paldal. No signlficant difference were showed in net photosynthesis rates and specific lear weight. 5. Leaf chlorophyll content were $2.48{\mu}g/gF.W.$ in Eunha, $2.19{\mu}g/gF.W.$ in Pangsa and $1.67{\mu}/g F.W.$ in Paldal. Significant difference were showed in Net photosynthesis rates and Leaf chlorophyll content. 6. The estimated compensation points at which net photosynthesis approached zero were $10{\mu}Em^{-2}s^{-1}$ in Eunha, Pangsa, and Palda at 1$5^{\circ}C$. The compensation point in cv. Eunha at $20^{\circ}C$ was $12P{\mu}Em^{-2}s{-1}$ while $13{\mu}Em^{-2}s{-1}$ in Pangsa and Palda. The compensation point in cv. Paldal at $25^{\circ}C$ was $18{\mu}Em^{-2}s{-1}$ while $16{\mu}Em^{-2}s{-1}$ in Eunha and Pangsa. The compensation point in cv. Palda at $30^{\circ}C$ was $23{\mu}Em^{-2}s{-1}$ Palda while $13{\mu}Em^{-2}s{-1}$ in Eunha and Pangsa.

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A Study on the Sediment Flux in Gwangyang Bay during Spring Tide, March 2003 (2003년 3월 대조기 광양만 부유퇴적물의 유 · 출입에 관한 연구)

  • KIM Seok Yun;LEE Byoung Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.511-516
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    • 2004
  • As a preliminary study on the sediment flux, concentrations of suspended particulate matter and current speeds were measured at three inlets of Gwangyang Bay during one tidal cycle of a spring tide of March 2003. The suspended sediment flux rate $(g/m^{2}/s)$ at the mouth of Seomjin River (St. K1) was observed to be higher throughout surface layer during ebb tide $(14.3\;g/m^{2}/s)$ and throughout near-bottom layer during the flood tide $(23.2\;g/m^{2}/s),$ resulting in a net upstream-ward transport of$0.9{\times}10^{3}kg/m$ during 13 period. At the inlet toward Yeosu Bay (St. K2), a relatively low rate ($(5.0-6.7\;g/m^{2}/s)$ of sediment flux occurred throughout the water column compared to St. K1, with a depth-integrated net transport of $5.6{\times}10^{3}kg/m$ toward the outer reaches of Gwangyang Bay inlet. At St. K3 located at Gwangyang Bay-side of Noryang Strait, the outward flux toward the Jinju Bay was observed to be dominant during the flood tide $(16.2-23.2\;g/m^{2}/s)$, especially through the mid and near bottom layer, compared to the inward flux throughout the whole water column during the ebb tide $(13.1-19.7\;g/m^{2}/s).$ The net transport at St. K3 was calculated to be $4.0{\times}10^{3}kg/m$ toward the outside of Gwangyang Bay. The outward net transport of suspended sediment at all three inlets seems to be consistent with a trend of bottom sediment texture, which suggests a net movement of sediment from a relatively coarse and poorly sorted inner-bay toward a relatively fine and better sorted outer-bay environment.

The Analysis of Device Models and the Method of Increasing Compatibility Between Device Models for M&S V&V of NetSPIN (NetSPIN M&S 모델 V&V를 위한 장비 모델 및 모델간 호환성 증진방안 분석)

  • Park, In-Hye;Kang, Seok-Joong;Lee, Hyung-Keun;Shim, Sang-Heun
    • Journal of Information Technology Services
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    • v.11 no.sup
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, we provide the analysis of device model and method between device models for compatible M&S V&V of the NetSPIN. First of all, we analysis features, structure, and classification of the NetSPIN. The second, as a part of reliable V&V process, we analysis network system modeling process, correlation between device modeling process for M&S of the NetSPIN. The third, we suggest making a kind of pool of reference model and module of devices for the increase factor of reuse between device model. We also, at the point view of M&S V&V, conclude that there is the validity of the fidelity in device modeling process. Through the analysis of the NetSPIN device model and suggestion of the method for higher compatibility between device modes, the development process of device model be clearly understood. Also we present the effective method of the development for reliable device mode as the point of V&V.