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Effect of Dietary Concentrate:forage Ratios and Undegraded Dietary Protein on Nitrogen Balance and Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives in Dorper×thin-tailed Han Crossbred Lambs

  • Ma, Tao;Deng, Kai-Dong;Tu, Yan;Jiang, Cheng-Gang;Zhang, Nai-Feng;Li, Yan-Ling;Si, Bing-Wen;Lou, Can;Diao, Qi-Yu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to investigate dietary concentrate:forage ratios (C:F) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in lambs. Four Dorper${\times}$thin-tailed Han crossbred castrated lambs with $62.3{\pm}1.9$ kg body weight at 10 months of age were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of two levels of C:F (40:60 and 60:40) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of CP), according to a complete $4{\times}4$ Latin-square design. Each experimental period lasted for 19 d. After a 7-d adaptation period, lambs were moved into individual metabolism crates for 12 d including 7 d of adaption and 5 d of metabolism trial. During the metabolism trial, total urine was collected for 24 h and spot urine samples were also collected at different times. Urinary PD was measured using a colorimetric method and creatinine was measured using an automated analyzer. Intake of dry matter (DM) (p<0.01) and organic matter (OM) (p<0.01) increased as the level of UDP decreased. Fecal N was not affected by dietary treatment (p>0.05) while urinary N increased as the level of UDP decreased (p<0.05), but decreased as dietary C:F increased (p<0.05). Nitrogen retention increased as dietary C:F increased (p<0.05). As dietary C:F increased, urinary excretion of PD increased (p<0.05), but was not affected by dietary UDP (p>0.05) or interaction between dietary treatments (p>0.05). Daily excretion of creatinine was not affected by dietary treatments (p<0.05), with an average value of $0.334{\times}0.005$ mmol/kg $BW^{0.75}$. A linear correlation was found between total PD excretion and PDC index ($R^2$ = 0.93). Concentrations of creatinine and PDC index in spot urine were unaffected by sampling time (p>0.05) and a good correlation was found between the PDC index (average value of three times) of spot urine and daily excretion of PD ($R^2$ = 0.88). These results suggest that for animals fed ad libitum, the PDC index in spot urine is effective to predict daily excretion of PD. In order to improve the accuracy of the spot sampling technique, an appropriate lag phase between the time of feeding and sampling should be determined so that the sampling time can coincide with the peak concentration of PD in the urine.

Changes in Rice Yield, Nutrients' Use Efficiency and Soil Chemical Properties as Affected by Annul Application of Slag Silicate Fertilizer (규산질비료의 매년연용이 벼수량, 양분흡수 특성 및 토양화학성 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chang-Bae;Choi, Jyung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.280-289
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of annual application of slowle cooled slag silicate fertilizer on rice yield and soil chemical properties. Field experiment was done on the condition of fertilization of silicate fertilizer 1,500 and $2,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ to the clay loam paddy field during 26 years from 1975 to 2000. The results obtained were as follows; Rice yield of NPK+silicate fertilizer $1,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ and $2,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ were increased by 15%, 8% respectively incomparion with NPK control plot in 2000($26^{th}$ year). Changes in average rice yield for 5 years interval were continually showed increase in the treat of silicate fertilizer $1,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ compared to NPK and NPK+silicate fertilizer $2,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ treated plot. The amounts of N, $K_2O$, CaO and MgO in the treat of silicate fertilizer $1,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ were much more than those of silicate fertilizer 2,500kg treated plot, and the treat of silicate fertilizer $1,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ showed higher in nutrients availability and fertilizers use efficiency than other treated plots at harvesting stage. Amount of N, $P_2O_5$, $K_2O$ and MgO in unhulled rice grain, those of CaO, MgO and $K_2O$ in rice straw and those of $K_2O$ and $SiO_2$ in rice root were positively recognized significant relationships with grain yield. According to soil analysis after experiment in 2000, the silicate fertilizer $2,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ annually applied plot were increased especially in soil organic matter, CEC and available phosphate content in comparison with NPK+silicate fertilizer $2,500kg\;ha^{-1}$ applied plot.

Effect of Salt Concentration in Soil on the Growth, Yield, Photosynthetic Rate, and Mineral Uptake of Tomato in Protected Cultivation (토양 염류농도가 시설토마토의 생육, 수량, 광합성속도 및 무기양분 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • Rhee, Han-Cheol;Cho, Myeung-Whan;Lee, Si-Young;Choi, Gyeong-Lee;Lee, Jae-Han
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.328-332
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of high concentrations of salts in soil on the growth, yield, quality, photosynthetic rate, and mineral uptake of tomato ('House Momotaro') in pot cultivation. The growth of tomato such as plant height, top plant weight and root weight decreased as the concentrations of salts in soils increased. Yield decreased by 31% and 41% in EC 5.0 and $7.5dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, respectively compared with the salt concentration of EC $1.5dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$. Yield reduction was caused by low mean weight and number of fruit if at high salt concentration in soil, and affected by low photosynthetic rate and water potential in leaf, The rate of blossom-end rot was highest (16.7%) in EC $7.5dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ and increased as the concentrations of salts in soils increased. The contents of soluble solids and titratable acids showed a tendency to increase with increasing the concentrations of salts in soils. Photosynthetic rate, water potential and stomatal conductance in leaf decreased as the salt concentration in soil increased. The higher the salt concentration in soil, the lower the mineral uptake such as T-N, P, K, Ca and Mg but, the higher the content of Na.

Processing and Quality Properties of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Cutlet (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus) 커틀렛 제품의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • YOON, Moon-Joo;LEE, Jae-Dong;KWON, Soon-Jae;PARK, Si-Young;KONG, Cheong-Sik;JOO, Jong-Chan;KIM, Jeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2015
  • Olive flounder (Parlichthys olivaceus) is a large carnivorous fish that live at coastal area and shallow seas in Korea. It was good texture and clean taste because of a high collagen content and low lipid content. More than 70% of olive flounder annual production was traded alive, consequently processing food product from olive flounder is rare to be towed. This study was conducted to investigate the best method of olive flounder cutlet processing. Clean fillet (headless, skinless and contain no viscera part) of olive flounder were divided into 5 portion. Every 100 g of olive flounder meat was wrapped with vinyl then flatten with meat hammer. Flatten fillet then was coated with wheat flour, and seasoned with salt and pepper. These were then coated with egg wash and bread crumbs. Two different method of processing was to make this olive flounder cutlet. Cutlet-1 was fried for 1 min in olive oil, then kept in polyethylene film vacuum packaging ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$) and stored at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. After 7 days the cutlet was thawed and heat up in microwave for 2 min (Sample-1). The other proup is cutlet-2, which is directly stored in polyethylene film vacuum packaging at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days then thawed and fried for 1 min in olive oil (Sample-2). The factors such as pH, TBA value, amino-N, free amino acid, chemical composition, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the olive flounder cutlet (Sample-1, Sample-2) were measured. From the result of sensory evaluation, Sample-2 showed a little high scores than Sample-1. But there was no significant differences in color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptance between Sample-1 and Sample-2 products.

Results of Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Unresectable Esophageal Cancer (절제 불가능한 식도암의 근치적 항암화학방사선치료의 성적)

  • Noh, O-Kyu;Je, Hyoung-Uk;Kim, Sung-Bae;Lee, Gin-Hyug;Park, Seung-Il;Lee, Sang-Wook;Song, Si-Yeol;Ahn, Seung-Do;Choi, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Hoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.195-203
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To investigate the treatment outcome and failure patterns after definitive chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced, unresectable esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: From February 1994 to December 2002, 168 patients with locally advanced unresectable or medically inoperable esophageal cancer were treated by definitive chemoradiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) ($42{\sim}46\;Gy$) was delivered to the region encompassing the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes, while the supraclavicular fossa and celiac area were included in the treatment area as a function of disease location. The administered cone-down radiation dose to the gross tumor went up to $54{\sim}66\;Gy$, while the fraction size of the EBRT was 1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction qd or 1.2 Gy/fraction bid. An optional high dose rate (HDR) intraluminal brachytherapy (BT) boost was also administered (Ir-192, $9{\sim}12\;Gy/3{\sim}4\;fx$). Two cycles of concurrent FP chemotherapy (5-FU $1,000\;mg/m^2$/day, days $2{\sim}6$, $30{\sim}34$, cisplatin $60\;mg/m^2$/day, days 1, 29) were delivered during radiotherapy with the addition of two more cycles. Results: One hundred sixty patients were analyzable for this review [median follow-up time: 10 months (range $1{\sim}149$ months)). The number of patients within AJCC stages I, II, III, and IV was 5 (3.1%), 38 (23.8%), 68 (42.5%), and 49 (30.6%), respectively. A HDR intraluminal BT was performed in 26 patients. The 160 patients had a median EBRT radiation dose of 59.4 Gy (range $44.4{\sim}66$) and a total radiation dose, including BT, of 60 Gy (range $44.4{\sim}72$), while 144 patients received a dose higher than 40 Gy. Despite the treatment, the disease recurrence rate was 101/160 (63.1%). Of these, the patterns of recurrence were local in 20 patients (12.5%), persistent disease and local progression in 61 (38.1%), distant metastasis in 15 (9.4%), and concomitant local and distant failure in 5 (3.1%). The overall survival rate was 31.8% at 2 years and 14.2% at 5 years (median 11.1 months). Disease-free survival was 29.0% at 2 years and 22.7% at 5 years (median 10.4 months). The response to treatment and N-stage were significant factors affecting overall survival. In addition, total radiation dose (${\geq}50\;Gy$ vs. < 50 Gy), BT and fractionation scheme (qd. vs. bid.) were not significant factors for overall survival and disease-free survival. Conclusion: Survival outcome after definitive chemoradiation therapy in unresectable esophageal cancer was comparable to those of other series. The main failure pattern was local recurrence. Survival rate did not improve with increased radiation dose over 50 Gy or the use of brachytherapy or hyperfractionation.

A Study on the Conservation State and Plans for Stone Cultural Properties in the Unjusa Temple, Korea (운주사 석조문화재의 보존상태와 보존방안에 대한 연구)

  • Sa-Duk, Kim;Chan-Hee, Lee;Seok-Won, Choi;Eun-Jeong, Shin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.285-307
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    • 2004
  • Synthesize and examine petrological characteristic and geochemical characteristic by weathering formation of rock and progress of weathering laying stress on stone cultural properties of Unjusa temple of Chonnam Hwasun county site in this research. Examine closely weathering element that influence mechanical, chemical, mineralogical and physical weathering of rocks that accomplish stone cultural properties and these do quantification, wish to utilize by a basic knowledge for conservation scientific research of stone cultural properties by these result. Enforced component analysis of rock and mineralogical survey about 18 samples (pyroclastic tuff; 7, ash tuff; 4, granite ; 4, granitic gneiss; 3) all to search petrological characteristic and geochemical characteristic by weathering of Unjusa temple precinct stone cultural properties and recorded deterioration degree about each stone cultural properties observing naked eye. Major rock that constitution Unjusa temple one great geological features has strike of N30-40W and dip of 10-20NE being pyroclastic tuff. This pyroclastic tuff is ranging very extensively laying center on Unjusa temple and stone cultural properties of precinct is modeled by this pyroclastic tuff. Stone cultural propertieses of present Unjusa temple precinct are accomplishing structural imbalance with serious crack, and because weathering of rock with serious biological pollution is gone fairly, rubble break away and weathering and deterioration phenomenon such as fall off of a particle of mineral are appearing extremely. Also, a piece of iron and cement mortar of stone cultural properties everywhere are forming precipitate of reddish brown and light gray being oxidized. About these stone cultural properties, most stone cultural propertieses show SD(severe damage) to MD(moderate damage) as result that record Deterioration degree. X-ray diffraction analysis result samples of each rock are consisted of mineral of quartz, orthoclase,plagioclase, calcite, magnetite etc. Quartz and feldspar alterated extremely in a microscopic analysis, and biotite that show crystalline form of anhedral shows state that become chloritization that is secondary weathering mineral being weathered. Also, see that show iron precipitate of reddish brown to crack zone of tuff everywhere preview rock that weathering is gone deep. Tuffs that accomplish stone cultural properties of study area is illustrated to field of Subalkaline and Peraluminous, $SiO_2$(wt.%) extent of samples pyroclastic tuff 70.08-73.69, ash tuff extent of 70.26-78.42 show. In calculate Chemical Index of Alteration(CIA) and Weathering Potential Index(WPI) about major elements extent of CIA pyroclastic tuff 55.05-60.75, ash tuff 52.10-58.70, granite 49.49-51.06 granitic gneiss shows value of 53.25-67.14 and these have high value gneiss and tuffs. WPI previews that is see as thing which is illustrated being approximated in 0 lines and 0 lines low samples of tuffs and gneiss is receiving esaily weathering process as appear in CIA. As clay mineral of smectite, zeolite that is secondary weathering produce of rock as result that pick powdering of rock and clothing material of stone cultural properties observed by scanning electron micrographs (SEM). And roots of lichen and spore of hyphae that is weathering element are observed together. This rock deep organism being coating to add mechanical weathering process of stone cultural properties do, and is assumed that change the clay mineral is gone fairly in stone cultural properties with these. As the weathering of rocks is under a serious condition, the damage by the natural environment such as rain, wind, trees and the ground is accelerated. As a counter-measure, the first necessary thing is to build the ground environment about protecting water invasion by making the drainage and checking the surrounding environment. The second thing are building hardening and extirpation process that strengthens the rock, dealing biologically by reducing lichens, and sticking crevice part restoration using synthetic resin. Moreover, it is assumed to be desirable to build the protection facility that can block wind, sunlight, and rain which are the cause of the weathering, and that goes well with the surrounding environment.

A Study on the Improvement of Pasture Productivity in a horse grazing low productive pasture (말방목 부실초지의 목초생산성 향상 연구)

  • Kim, Young Jin;Song, Sang Taek;Hwang, Kyung Jun;Kim, Si Hyun;Park, Nam Gun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.266-272
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we created grassland establishment(paddock No.39), grassland improvement(Paddock No.44), and tall fescue seeding(paddock No.64), and the rate botanical composition, DM yield, nutritive value were examined through 2016 to 2017. The rate of botanical composition was 81% in 2016, 75% in 2017, up to 21% higher than No.39 67%, 60%, No.44 58% and 54%. The annual average DM yield was the highest at 13,234kg/ha in the district, followed by No.39, No.44, followed by 10,636kg/ha and 10,235kg/ha, respectively. The crude protein content was the highest at No.39 12.16%, with No.44 and No.64 showing 10.7%, respectively. NDF content (average for two years) was 55.90% in No.44 and No.39, slightly lower than 58.42% and 57.00%, respectively. The two-year ADF average content was 31.07% for the same trend as the NDF capacity in the No.44, below 31.71% and 32.65%, respectively. To sum up the results, Although there was a high level of incentive sowing plot(No.39) in nutritive value, considering the botanical composition and productivity of the pasture, it is also deemed desirable to have a tall fescue plot(No.64).

Effect of Green Manure Crops Incorporation with Rice Cultivation on Soil Fertility Improvement in Paddy Field (벼 재배시 녹비작물 혼입에 따른 지력개선 효과)

  • Yang, Chang-Hyu;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Lee, Sang-Bog;Kim, Jae-Duk;Baek, Nam-Hyun;Kim, Sun;Choi, Weon-Young;Kim, Si-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.371-378
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the improvement effect of soil fertility by incorporation of GMC(green manure crops) at rice cropping after cultivation GMC such as the barley for alternative rye in paddy field over the past two years(2006~2007). Plots, which consisted of incorporation time of GMC as rye; heading stage, barley; heading stage, heading stage of rye and 10days after heading stage were divided by amount of applied rates; standard fertilizer fertilization, diagnosis fertilization and non-fertilization. we investigated change of soil physico-chemical properties, degree of decomposition on GMC in soil, growth and yield potential. The obtained results were summarized as follows. The fresh weight of GMC at incorporation time on heading stage of rye, heading stage and 10days after heading stage of barley were $2,715,\;2,352,\;2,867kg\;10a^{-1}$ respectively. Content of total nitrogen at three incorporation times was 1.31, 1.46, 1.38% and the C/N ratio were 33.4, 28.7, and 34.6, respectively. Some soil physical properties, such as soil hardness and bulk density tended to decrease with incorporation of GMC, while surface soil depth and porosity were increased. Some soil chemical properties, such as content of exchangeable cations and cation exchangeable capasity(CEC) were increased with incorporation of GMC compared with before experiment. Rice yields was increased 3~9% in diagnosis application plots on application of barley compared with control($559kg\;10a^{-1}$) and incorporation of barley caused to improve perfect kernel ratio 73.6~78.7% in appearance characteristics of brown rice compared with cotrol(73.0%). It was found that incorporation with 10days after heading stage of barley was more effective to reduce chemical nitrogen fertilizer and to improve soil fertility.

Studies on the Physico-chemical Properties and Characterization of Soil Organic Matter in Jeju Volcanic Ash Soil (제주도(濟州道) 화산회토양(火山灰土壌)의 이화학적(理化学的) 특성(特性) 및 유기물(有機物) 성상(性状)에 관(関)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Sang-Kyu;Cha, Kyu-Seuk;Kim, In-Tak
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 1983
  • A series of laboratory experiment was conducted to find out the chemical composition, characterization of humic substances by physical and chemical methods and reaction of Na-pyrophosphate, $Ca(OH)_2$ and rice straw with albumin on the degradation of soil organic matter in the volcanic ask soils of the Jeju Island. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The contents of organic matter, available silicon, active iron and aluminum concentration in volcanic ash the soils were remarkably higher but available phosphorous was comparatively lower than the mineral soils. In volcanic ash soil, the contents of potassium, calcium and magnessium were higher in upland soil than that of forest soil. The ratios of active $Al^{{+}{+}{+}}/Fe^{{+}{+}}$, C/P and $K/Ca^+$ Mg were apparently high in volcanic ash soils while that of $SiO_2$/O.M. was high in mineral soil. 2. The carbon/nitrogen ratio in humin, humic acid content in organic matter, and carbon contents of humin in total carbon of soil organic matter were apparently higher in the volcanic ash soils than in the mineral soils, The total nitrogen and fractions of acid or alkali soluble nitrogen were remarkably high in volcanic ash soils while mineralizable nitrogen ($NH_4$-N and $NO_3$) contents were high in mineral soils. 3. The values of K600, RF and log K were also higher in volcanic ash soils than those in mineral soils, and the absorbance in the visible range were high and color was dark in the soil of which humification was progressed Extracted humic acid from volcanic ash soil was less reactive to the oxidizing chemical reagent and was persistance to the acid or alkali hydrolysises. 4. The major oxygen-containing functional groups in humic substances of volcanic ash soils were phenolic-OH alcoholic-OH and carboxyl groups while those in mineral soil were methoxyl and carbonyl groups. 5. Absorption spectra of alkaline solution of humic acid ranged from 200 nm to maxima 500 nm. Visible spectra peaks of from humic substances in the visible region were recognized at 350, 420, 450 and 480 nm. Only one single absorbance peak was observed in the visible region at 362 nm for Heugag series and two absorbance Peak were also at 360 nm and 390 nm for Yeungrag series. 6. Evolution of carbon as $Co_2$ was increased with addition of Na-pyrophosphate in Namweon and Heugag series, and "priming effects" took place on the soil organic matter decomposition by addition of rice straw with albumin in Ido series.

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Processing and Property of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Steak (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus)스테이크제품의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • Yoon, Moon-Joo;Kwon, Soon-Jae;Lee, Jae-Dong;Park, Si-Young;Kong, Cheong-Sik;Joo, Jong-Chan;Kim, Jeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.98-107
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    • 2015
  • Olive flounder contains rich amount of lysine which is required for children's growth. Moreover, it is good foodstuffs for elderly, convalescent and diabetics because of low lipid content and high digestibility. This study was investigated for the purpose of obtaining basic data which can be applied to the processing of olive flounder steak. Olive flounder 100 g were chopped, mixed with vegetable (onion 20%, celery 10%, carrot 15%, garlic 1% of chopped olive flounder meat) and ingredient (bread crumbs 20 g, onion 15 g, celery 10 g, egg 1 ea, tarragon 1/2 t, blanc sauce 20 g, fresh cream 20 mL, salt and pepper pinch). Mixed dough was molded into steak shape ($12{\times}7cm$) and was processed by two types of products, Steak-1 {Roasting for 2 minutes in a frying pan wrapped with olive oil and then vacuum packaging in polyethylene film ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$), and then storage at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days, next thawed and warmed by microwave for 2 minutes} and Steak-2 {vacuum-packaging in polyethylene film ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$), and then storage at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days, after thawed, roasted during 2 minutes in a frying pan wrapped with olive oil}. The factors such as pH, TBA value, amino-N, free amino acid, chemical composition, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the olive flounder steak (Steak-1, Steak-2) were measured. From the result of sensory evaluation, Steak-2 showed a bit more high scores than Steak-1 but it was difficult to distinguish significant difference (color, odor, taste, texture and acceptance) between Steak-1 and Steak-2 products.