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Evaluation of Drainage Improvement Effect Using Geostatistical Analysis in Poorly Drained Sloping Paddy Soil (경사지 배수불량 논에서 배수개선 효과의 지구통계적 기법을 이용한 평가)

  • Jung, Ki-Yuol;Yun, Eul-Soo;Park, Ki-Do;Park, Chang-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.804-811
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    • 2010
  • The lower portion of sloping paddy fields normally contains excessive moisture and the higher water table caused by the inflow of ground water from the upper part of the field resulting in non-uniform water content distribution. Four drainage methods namely Open Ditch, Vinyl Barrier, Pipe Drainage and Tube Bundle for multiple land use were installed within 1-m position from the lower edge of the upper embankment of sloping alluvial paddy fields. Knowledge of the spatial variability of soil water properties is of primary importance for management of agricultural lands. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of drainage in the soil on spatial variability of soil water content using the geostatistical analysis. The soil water content was collected by a TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) sensor after the installation of subsurface drainage on regular square grid of 80 m at 20 m paddy field located at Oesan-ri, Buk-myeon, Changwon-si in alluvial slopping paddy fields ($35^{\circ}22^{\prime}$ N, $128^{\circ}35^{\prime}$). In order to obtain the most accurate field information, the sampling grid was divided 3 m by 3 m unit mesh by four drainage types. The results showed that spatial variance of soil water content by subsurface drainage was reduced, though yield of soybean showed the same trends. Value of "sill" of soil water content with semivariogram was 9.7 in Pipe Drainage, 86.2 in Open Ditch, and 66.8 in Vinyl Barrier and 15.7 in Tube Bundle.

Characterization of Grain Amino Acid Composition and Proteome Profile of a High-lysine Barley Mutant Line M98 (고-Lysine 보리 돌연변이 계통 M98 종실의 아미노산 조성 및 Proteome Profile 특성)

  • Kim, Dea-Wook;Kim, Hong-Sik;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Hwang, Jong-Jin;Kim, Sun-Lim;Lee, Jae-Eun;Jung, Gun-Ho;Hwang, Tae-Young;Kim, Jung-Tae;Kim, Si-Ju;Rakwal, Randeep;Kwon, Young-Up
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2012
  • Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in cereals for humans and monogastric animals, although its content is generally low. A chemically induced high-lysine barley mutant, M98, has an agronomically undesirable shrunken endosperm trait. In order to obtain detailed insight into the atypical traits of M98 grains, we characterized amino acid composition and protein profiles of M98 and its parent cultivar Chalssalbori. Among a total of 16 amino acids, the percentage of each of the 7 amino acids, including lysine, was 1.2~1.8 times higher in M98, comparing to Chalssalbori. The percentage of proline and its precursor, glutamic acid, in M98 was about the half of that of the amino acids in Chalssalbori, but arginine synthesized from glutamic acid was 1.8 times higher in M98, compared that in the parent cultivar. Theses results indicated that the mutation in M98 grains might alter the proportion of amino acids linked to each other in a biosynthetic pathway. A comparison of grain proteome profiles between Chalssalbori and M98 revealed 70 differentially expressed protein spots, where 45 protein spots were up-regulated and 25 protein spots down-regulated in M98 compared to those in Chalssalbori. Of these changed protein spots, 53 were identified using nano-electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Most of these identified proteins were involved in various biological processes. In particular, 28 protein spots such as ${\beta}$-amylase, serpins and B3-hordein were identified as proteins associated with the atypical traits of M98. It was thought that a genetic study on the unique protein profile of M98 would be needed to develop an agronomically feasible barley cultivar with high-lysine trait.

A Study on Dementia Alzheimer's type published to chinese magazine (중의잡지(中醫雜誌)에 보고(報告)된 Alzheimer형(型) 치매에 대(對)한 고찰(考察))

  • Chae, Jong-gul;Lee, Sang-ryong
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.453-469
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    • 2001
  • This study attempted to analyze the contents of the research papers concerning the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer-type dementia presented in the magazine of Chinese Medicine published in China over the period between 1998 and 2000. As a result, the following conclusion was drawn: 1. The Chinese medical category of Alzheimer-type dementia includes amnesia, dementia, stupidity, depression symptom complex, insanity and the like and uses the as the criterion for diagnosis and treatment effect evaluation. 2. The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer-type dementia include lowered intelligence, deterioration of memory, understanding and judgemental power, retardation of the reaction, emotional changes, character changes, behavioral changes and the like and are divided into mild, medium and serious according to the degree of symptom. 3. From the perspective of Bon-Heo-Pyo-Shil(state of deficient vital essence and excessive pestilential vapor), the pattern of Byun-Sung(identification) is divided into deficiency symptom complex, excessive symptom complex and indiscernible fullness and emptiness. The deficiency symptom complex includes deficiency of the liver and kidney, deficiency of essence of the kidney, deficiency of the reservoir of marrow and the like. The excessive symptom complex includes internally blocked stagnant blood, blocking of the passageway due to turbid phlegm, blood stasis due to stagnation of chi, and the like. The indiscernible fullness and emptiness symptom complex includes the deficiency of essence of kidney, blocking of the passageway due to stagnant phlegm, blood stasis due to the deficiency of kidney, blood stasis due to the deficiency of heart and the like. 4. The therapeutics and' prescription of Alzheimer-type dementia include the following: Bo-Shin-Ik-Su-Tang for tonifying the kidney, replenishing the marrow and plugging the essence; Ki-Guk-Ji-Hwang-Hwan-Ga-mi for reinforcing the vital essence of the liver and kidney; Kwi-Bi-Tang-Hap-Yang-Shim-Tang for invigorating the functioning of the spleen and nourishing the heart; Hyel-Bu-Chuk-Eo-Tang-Ga-Mi for activating the blood and resolving the stagnancy of the blood; Bo-Yang-Hwan-Oh-Tang for replenishing chi, activating the blood and resolving the stagnancy of the blood; Beoh-Kwang-Mong-Sung-Tang for invigorating the functioning of the spleen, replenishing the kidney, resolving the phlegm and enlivening the brain; n-Dam-Tang-Ga-Mi for invigorating the functioning of the spleen, replenishing chi, and removing the phlegm and unclogging the passageway); Se-Shim-Tang-Ga-Mi for removing the stagnancy of the liver and resolving the phlegm; and the like. 5. The research papers on, the medication cases of Alzheimer-type dementia understand the pathology of Alzheimer-type dementia from a consistent perspective. They view the pathology of Alzheimer-type dementia as the disease of Bon-Heo-Pyo-Shil(state of deficient vital essence and excessive pestilential vapor) with the combination of the deficiency of essence of the kidney, the deficiency of the brain marrow, blood stasis and blocked phlegm and the like and recommend the prescription of using Bo and Sa simultaneously for treating Alzheimer-type dementia. 6. The research papers on the medication cases of Alzheimer-type dementia reported that the use of creative prescriptions such as Si-Sam-Hang-Ji-Tang, Ji-Yung-Tang, Ka-Mi-Yunh-Ji-Hwan, Ja-Sin-Hwal-Hyel-Tang, Kal-Chang-Ik-Ji-Tang, Ho-Su-Bok-Ji-Tang, Kun-Noe-Ok-Ji-Hap-Je and the like led to the average high efficacy of 85.5%.

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Behaviors of Arsenic in Paddy Soils and Effects of Absorbed Arsenic on Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of Rice Plant lll. Effect of Water Management on As Uptake and the Growth of Rice Plant at As Added Soil (토양중(土壤中) 비소(砒素)의 행동(行動)과 수도(水稻)의 비소흡수(砒素吸收)에 의(依)한 피해생리(被害生理) 생태(生態)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究);Ⅲ.물관리(管理)가 수도의 비소흡수(砒素吸收) 및 생육(生育)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Min-Hyo;Lim, Soo-Kill-H
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1987
  • A pot experiment was conducted to find out the effect of water management on the growth and uptake of arsenic and inorganic nutrients of rice plant at As added soil. The arsenic were added to soil at the levels of As 0, 10, 50, 100 and 150 ppm, respectively. Water management was done with two ways: intermittent irrigation from ten days after transplanting, and continuous submersion until harvest. Higher soil As levels increased As content in plant but reduced growth rate. Aresenic content in plant was considerably reduced with intermittent irrigation compared to continuous submersion. Rice growth showed also same trend. With increasing As levels in soil, N content in plant was increased but P, K, Ca, Mg, $SiO_2$, Fe and Mn content in plant were tend to be decreased. These inorganic nutrients in plant were also much absorbed in continuous submersion compared to intermittent irrigation. Soil pH was slightly increased with increasing As levels in soil while soil Eh has no relationship with soil As levels. On the other hand, soil pH was higher in the treatment of continuous submersion than that of intermittent irrigation but soil Eh showed reverse trend. With increasing As levels in soil, water soluble-As and Ca-As fractions in soil tend to be increased with continuous submersion, but these fractions has no tendency with intermittant irrigation.

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