• Title, Summary, Keyword: $UV_{254}$

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Formation of Hydrogen Peroxide by the Ozonation of Aqueous Humic Acid (수중 부식산의 오존처리시 생성되는 과산화수소의 농도 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Kei Woul;Rhee, Dong Seok
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.659-665
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    • 2000
  • The changes in $UV_{254}$ and concentrations of $H_2O_2$ formed by ozonation of aqueous humic acid in ozone/high pH, peroxone process and in the presence of radical scavenger, $HCO_3{^-}$ were investigated. This study confirmed that the formation of $H_2O_2$ by ozonation may undergo different reaction pathways compared to those of $UV_{254}$ reduction in the degradation of the humic acid. The concentration of $H_2O_2$ produced by ozonation was found to be increased with decreasing pH of the sample solution due to the higher stability of ozone molecules at acidic conditions. On the while, $UV_{254}$ reduction was found to be higher at alkaline conditions or larger amount of $H_2O_2$ additions as a radical promoter in which the producing of ${\cdot}OH$, ${\cdot}HO_2$ radicals can be more favorable. From the results, it has been suggested that the formation of $H_2O_2$ by ozonation depends mainly on the direct reactions of ozone with humic acid molecules, while $UV_{254}$ reduction is affected by both the indirect reactions of the radicals and direct reactions of ozone with humic acid.

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Degradation of THM precursor using $TiO_2$ photocatalytic oxidation in the water treatment processes (정수처리공정에서 $TiO_2$광촉매를 이용한 THM전구물질 제거에 관한 연구)

  • Cho Deok-Hee;Seo Su-Man
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2004
  • In Bok-Jeong water treatment plant, chlorination is the only technique used for disinfection of drinking water. This disinfecting treatment leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs). This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of improving removal efficiency of THM precursor in the conventional water treatment processes by $TiO_2$ photocatalytic oxidation. Removal efficiencies of DOC, $UV_{254}$, THMFP were low in the conventional water treatment processes. With application of $TiO_2$ photocatalyst, DOC, $UV_{254}$, THMFP were reduced more effectively. As the $TiO_2$ photocatalytic reaction time increased, the removal efficiencies of DOC, $UV_{254}$, THMFP were increased. The $TiO_2$ photocatalytic removal efficiencies of DOC, $UV_{254}$, THMFP were increased with increasing $TiO_2$ dosage. However, over 0.6g/l of $TiO_2$ dosage, the efficiency reached a plateau.

Comparison of Phenol Removal between Electrochemical Reaction and Plasma Reaction

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.905-916
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    • 2016
  • The characteristics of phenol removal and $UV_{254}$ matters variance were investigated and compared by the variation of operating factors (NaCl concentration, air flow rate, initial phenol concentration) in electrochemical reaction (ER) and dielectric barrier discharge plasma reaction (DBDPR), respectively. The phenol removal rate was shown as $1^{st}$ order both in ER and DBDPR. Also, the absorbance of $UV_{254}$ matters which means aromatic intermediates was analyzed to investigate the complete phenol degradation process. In ER, the phenol degradation and aromatic intermediates production rates increased by the increase of NaCl concentration. However, in DBDPR, the variation of NaCl concentration had no effect on the degradation of phenol and $UV_{254}$ matters. Air flow rate had a little effect on the removal of phenol and the variation of $UV_{254}$ matters in ER. The phenol removal rate in ER was a little higher than that in DBDPR. The produced $H_2O_2$ and $O_3$ amounts in ER were 2 times and 10 times higher than those in DBDPR. The chlorine intermediates ($ClO_2$ and free chlorine) were produced in ER, however, they were not produced in DBDPR.

Impact of Water Quality on the Formation of Bromate and Formaldehyde during Water Ozonation

  • Lee, Chung-Youl;Lee, Yoon-Jin
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.441-450
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    • 2007
  • 본 연구는 humic acid 및 bromide를 함유한 상수 원수에 오존 처리를 수행함에 있어 수질 특성 및 공정조건에 따른 bromate 및 formaldehyde 의 생성을 고찰하였다 . 회분식 실험장치를 이용하여 오존의 주입농도, DOC 농도, bromide 농도, pH, 알칼리도 및 반응 시간을 변화시키면서 오존처리 시 생성되는 대표적인 부산물인 bromate 및 formaldehyde의 거동을 파악하였다. 본 연구에서 검토된 영향 인자 중 수중의 pH조건은 bromate 및 formaldehyde의 생성에 가장 중요한 인자로 나타났다. DOC(dissolved organic carbon) 농도가 증가할수록 bromate 생성은 감소하였고 formaldehyde 의 생성은 증가하였다. 오존처리를 통해 UV254 는 효율적으로 감소되었고, UV254의 감소율 및 오존 농도는 선형 관계를 나타냈다.

Removal of NOM Using Biological Rope Media Sedimentation Tank (로프형 미생물 담체 침전조를 이용한 상수원수중의 NOM 제거)

  • 심상준;강연석;김우식;박대원
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.332-336
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    • 2001
  • This paper is intended as an application of the biological rope media sedimentation tank using biodegradability of BAC(Biological activated carbon) to the drinking water treatment system for the removal of NOM. The removal of DOC(Dissolved organic carbon), UV absorbance(UV$\_$254/), and turbidity were evaluated under various operation condition of a biological rope media sedimentation tank such as raw water-media process (Media 1), ozonation-media process (Media 2), and ozonation-coagulation/sedimentation-media process (Media 3). The raw water had DOC concentration of 1.3∼3.4 mg/L, UV$\_$254/ of 0.027∼0.039 cm$\^$-1/, and turbidity of 0.3∼4.5 NTU, respectively. The average DOC concentration were 2.2 mg/L in media 1, 1.8 mg/L in media 2, and 1.3 mg/l in media 3 from raw water, respectively. On the other hand, the DOC concentration in conventional sedimentation tank was 1.5 mg/l. Higher removal of the DOC was noted in media 3 than media 1 and media 2. The UV$\_$254/ of the treated water were 0.037 cm$\^$-1/ in media 1, 0.027 cm$\^$-1/ in media 2, and 0.014 cm$\^$-1/ in media 3 from raw water, respectively The UV$\_$254/ in conventional sedimentation tank was 0.014 cm$\^$-1/ which is similar to that of media 3. Average turbidity of the treated water was 1.1 NTU in media 1, 0.9 NTU in media 2, and 0.5 NTU in media 3, respectively. It is expected that the biological rope media sedimentation tank is a good alternative over the conventional sedimentation process from these results.

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Degradation of Rhodamine B in Water using Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) in the Electrolysis Process (고체 고분자 전해질(SPE)을 이용한 전기분해 공정에서 Rhodamine B 분해)

  • Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Feasibility of electrochemical oxidation of the aqueous non-biodegradable wastewater such as cationic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) has been investigated in an electrochemical reactor with solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). Methods: Nafion 117 cationic exchange membrane as SPE has been used. Anode/Nafion/cathode sandwiches were constructed by sandwiching Nafion between two dimensionally stable anodes (JP202 electrode). Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of applied current (0.5~2.0 A), supporting electrolyte type (0.2 N NaCl, $Na_2SO_4$, and 1.0 g/L NaCl), initial RhB concentration (2.5~30.0 mg/L) on RhB and COD degradation and $UV_{254}$ absorbance. Results: Experimental results showed that an increase of applied current in electrolysis reaction with solid polymer electrolyte has resulted in the increase of RhB and $UV_{254}$ degradation. Performance for RhB degradation by electrolyte type was best with NaCl 0.2 N followed by SPE, and $Na_2SO_4$. However, the decrease of $UV_{254}$ absorbance of RhB was different from RhB degradation: SPE > NaCl 0.2 N > $Na_2SO_4$. RhB and $UV_{254}$ absorbance decreased linearly with time regardless of the initial concentration. The initial RhB and COD degradation in electrolysis reaction using SPE showed a pseudo-first order kinetics and rate constants were 0.0617 ($R^2=0.9843$) and 0.0216 ($R^2=0.9776$), respectively. Conclusions: Degradation of RhB in the electrochemical reactor with SPE can be achieved applying electrochemical oxidation. Supporting electrolyte has no positive effect on the final $UV_{254}$ absorbance and COD degradation. Mineralization of COD may take a relatively longer time than that of the RhB degradation.

Pretreatment by the Process of BAC Fluidized Bed to produce the Biologically Stable Drinking Water (생물활성탄 유동상법에 의한 상수원수의 생물학적 전처리공정)

  • 우달식;남상호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.38-46
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    • 1998
  • This study was to investigate the effects of carbon loadings, temperature and expansion ratio on the waterborne organic removal by the biologically active GAC fluidized bed on a laboratory scale. The raw water to be treated comes from midstream of Han river. BACFB(Biological Activated Carbon Fluidized Bed) process was very effective to remove the biodegradable fraction of dissolved organic matter. The more carbon weighed, the more DOC removed in a range from 16.7 to 133.3 g/l. DOC and UV$_{254}$ were removed more than 40% and 20% above 20$\circ$C respectively. Between 5$\circ$C and 10$\circ$C, DOC and UV$_{254}$ were eliminated about 30% and 15% respectively. In general, even if the temperature was higher, DOC removal was a little sensitive, probably influenced by GAC's residual adsorption capacity. UV$_{254}$ reduction was little fluctuated in accordance with water temperature. The gradual increase in expansion ratio from 10% to 75% didn't greatly affect on the removal of DOC and UV$_{254}$. The expansion ratio, therefore, is not a key factor over the critical expansion ratio.

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Monitoring of Water Quality Parameters using Spectroscopic Characteristics of River Water - Ulsan Area (하천 분광특성을 이용한 수질항목 모니터링 연구 - 울산 지역)

  • Hur, Jin;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Shin, Jae-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.863-871
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    • 2007
  • Spectroscopic characteristics of river water from four major watersheds in the Ulsan area were measured to examine their potential for estimating water quality parameters. The total 176 river samples were collected from 44 sites of small streams within the watersheds during the year 2006. Spectroscopic characteristics investigated included protein-like fluorescence (FLF) intensity, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF) intensity, terrestrial humic-like fluorescence (TLF) intensity, UV absorbance at 254 nm, and UV absorbance difference at 220 nm and 254 nm. Protein-like fluorescence intensity showed linear relationships with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorous (TP) concentrations of the samples with the correlation of 0.784, 0.779, and 0.733, respectively. Due to the UV absorption characteristics of nitrate at 220 nm, UV absorbance difference at 220 nm and 254 nm was selected to represent total nitrogen (TN) concentration. Exclusion of some samples with PLF intensity higher than 5.0 improved the correlation between the UV absorbance difference and TN as demonstrated by the increase of the correlation coefficient from 0.392 to 0.784. Instead, for the samples with PLF intensity lower than 5.0, the highest correlation of TN was achieved with UV absorbance at 254 nm. The results suggest that PLF intensity could be used as the estimation index for BOD, COD, and TP concentration of river water, and as the primary screening index for the prediction of TN using UV absorbance difference. Some BOD-based water quality levels among the river water were statistically discriminated by the PLF intensity. Low p-values were obtained from the t-tests on the samples with the first level and the second level (p=0.0003) and the samples with the second and the third levels (p=0.0413). Our combined results demonstrated that the selected spectroscopic characteristics of river water could be utilized as a tool for on-site real-time monitoring and/or the primary estimation of water quality.

Degradation of Humic Acids by Ozone/high pH, Ozone/Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone/Hydrogen Carbonate System ($O_3$/high pH, $O_3/H_2O_2$$O_3/{HCO_3}^-$ 시스템에서의 부식산의 분해 반응 특성)

  • Shin, Hyun Sang;Kim, Kei Woul;Rhee, Dong Seok
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.652-658
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    • 2000
  • Chemical degradation of aqueous humic acid by ozonation was studied with respect to the direct reactions of ozone and the indirect reactions due to its preliminary decomposition to secondary oxidant, OH radical. This was characterized by analyzing TOC, $UV_{254}$ and ozone consumption measured in different experimental conditions in which ozone reacted in the presence of various concentrations of $H_2O_2$ and $HCO_3{^-}$ concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 mg/L. and different pH (5-9). The results suggest that the TOC removal is mainly dependent on indirect reactions of OH radical whereas $UV_{254}$ reduction is mainly dependent on direct reactions of ozone with humic acid molecules. It has been also found that ozone consumption was most likely to be affected by pH and alkalinity in the solution.

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Development of biological processes for the removal of assimilable organic carbon from potable water (음용수로부터 동화성 유기물질의 제거를 위한 생물학적 공정개발)

  • 이민규;감상규
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.14-21
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    • 2000
  • The experiments were performed using both batch and continuous column reactors. Batch biodegradation studies were performed under aerobic conditions to determine the biodegradable fraction of the natural organic matter (NOM) source. NOM source was evaluated for its biodegradability at three different UV irradiation conditions and compared to its biodegradability without UV irradiation. In continuous experiments, system operating parameters of empty bed contact time (EBCT), recycle ratio, and influent concentration affected the extent of biofiltration in the biofilters. The effluent UV254/DOC ratios fro the biologically active columns were consistently lower than the influent values, which indicated that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removed by biodegradation was not a significant part of the UV-absorbable material. The increase in UV254/DOC ratio was caused by the DOC decrease across the biofilter because there was essentially no difference between the feed and effluent UV254 absorbance values over time. The results of this research showed that biofiltration was an effective method for removing the biodegradable fraction of NOM from water supplies.

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