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Pashinyan's Gambit or Armenia's Failed Revolution

  • ABADJIAN, VAHRAM
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.121-152
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    • 2020
  • The article is a critical examination of the political developments in Armenia since the 'Velvet Revolution' of April-May 2018, when, on the wave of massive protests against the ruling regime, new young forces came to power raising amongst broad segments of population enormous enthusiasm and hopes about radical reforms that would lead to profound transformations in the political and socio-economic spheres. It contains a thorough analysis of underlying political processes in the country in an attempt to answer a number of topical questions, so important to get a deeper understanding of the situation in Armenia and in the South Caucasus region. Based on the analysis of the new authorities' performance against the acknowledged benchmarks and standards of democracy consolidation, such as: separation of powers, independence of the judiciary, good governance, transitional justice the author comes to the conclusion that they failed to achieve any breakthrough in the above-mentioned fields. On the contrary, as demonstrated by concrete examples, what occurred in Armenia was not a revolution but a mere regime change under the leadership of Prime Minister Pashinyan, who gradually has concentrated in his hands executive, legislative, and quasi-totality of the judicial branch of power.

A Study on Soviet Constructive Fashion in 1920s (1920년대 소비에트 구성주의 패션에 관한 연구)

  • 조윤경;금기숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.36
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    • pp.183-203
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    • 1998
  • The wave of Avant-garde swept away all in the unique social background so called 'October Revolution' and the early 1900 Russian society which was able to absorb and accept anything. The Russian avant-garde has been affected by the Cubism and the Futurism those had peculiarly appeared in the early twentieth century, spreaded out to three spheres: the Suprematism, the Rayonism and the Constructivism. The Russian Constructivism has appeared in this background, concretely and ideally ex-pressed the ideology of the revolution into the artistic form and made an huge influence to the whole Russian society. The Constructivist like Tatlin, naum Gabo, Pevaner, Rodchenko, Stepanova, Popova and Exter gave great effect on the Soviet Constructive fashion design in 1920's after the Revolution. The Soviet costume in 1920s hold in common the characteristicss of the Constructive graphic as it is, geometrical and abstractive form, energetic and motility. In fashion design, these graphic qualities have been showed as the application of geometrical form and architectural image, physical distortion and transformation. And in textile design, the simple, dynamical presentation has been appeared. We can classify the Soviet costume at this time into three occasions. The first term is from late 1910 th mid 1920, and it is altered from folk costume design to modern one. With Lamanova as the first on the list, using the folk mitif, the Constructive expression of simple form has been gradually revealed in design. Designers like Makarova, Pribylskaia and Mukhina produced the plane, simple chemise style with the decoration of the Russian traditional motif. From early to late 1920 is the second term, and it is at the pick of the most active processing of the Constructive design. Not only at the costume in daily life but also at the theatrical costume and textile, the con-structive design has been represented all avail-able fields. Many Constructivists including Stepanova, Popova, Exter and Rodchenko took part in the textile design and costume design so as to evlvo their aesthetic concept. The third term is from late 1920 to early 1930. The socialistic realism has dominated over the whole culture and art, the revolutionary dynamic motif has been presented also in textile design. The formative features of Soviet Constructive fashion design are; silhouette, from, motif, color and fabric. The first, the silhouette : a straight rectangular silhouetted has been expressed through the whole period and a volumed one with distorted human body shape has introduced in the theatrical costume design. The second, the form: many lengthened rectangular forms have been made at beginnings, but to the middle period, geometrical, architectural forms have been more showed and there are energy and movement in design. At the last period, only a partial feature-division has been seen. The third, the motif; no pattern or ethnic motif has been partly used at beginnings, a figure like circle, tri-angle has gradually appeared in textile design. At latter period, a real-existent motif like an airplane has been represented with graphing and simplicity. The fourth, the color ; because of insufficient dyeing, neutral color like black or grey color has been mainly covered, but after middle term, a primary color or pastel tone has been seen, contrast of the fabric; without much development of textile industry after the Revolution, thick and durable fabrics have been the main stream, but as time had going to the last period, fabrics such as linen, cotton, velvet and silk have been varously choesn. At the theatrical costume, new materials like plastics and metals that were able to accentuate the form. The pursuit of popularity, simplicity and functionalism that the basic concept of Constructive fashion is one of the "beauty" which has been searching in modern fashion. And now we can appreciate how innovative and epochal this Soviet Constructive fashion movement was.ement was.

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The Vogue about Outwearization of Underwear in a Tendency to the Century-end (세기말 현상으로 본 속옷의 겉옷화 현상)

  • 이상례
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.35
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    • pp.325-341
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    • 1997
  • One of the noticeable trends of female wear in 1990s is the Outwearization of Underwear as it is called 'Lingerie look' This trend meaned 'Exposure Fashion' raised splendidly its head to the whole stage of fashion destrying the tradional concept having divided the fashion between outwear and underwear by Madonna an Americal populer singer showed up in front of the audience wearing the corset-dress as a stage custome. This corset-dress which can not be recognised whether it is underwear or outwear has been diffused into the mass as a fashionable trend re-gardless of any reason; therefore discrimi-nation of wear by space by far that is underwear should have the sstandard telling between private and public sector has been gradually tumbled. By the way what has propelled desigers to introduce the style continuously having the underwear motive such as outwear almost as same as underwear or underwear worn on out-wear etc. and has made it a fashion trends? How do we accept this "Ligerie look'fashion" The rearch on vogue of outwearization of underwear started by the questions above can be summarized as the followings The division between the sprit and the ma-terial-economic shrinkage by the collapse of the bubble economy in the late of 20 century and expectation for the next century doubt by changes of international politics dynamics for the next century and increasement of psycho-logical tention by the environmental destruc-tion etc, has been extended to break the sense of value down These frustration of the tra-ditional values and dissatisfaction on the pres-ent have reflected on the fashion pursuing some more sensational style to increase the ex-posure of the body. The revolution of wearing bouncing the con-servatismhas outwardly expressed underwear of the private sector. Therefore the spatial concept of wear which for the public sec-tor has been fallen into pieces and has broken the wall of the concept fixed by outwear on underwear. in addition the stage costome for the popular people like Madonna has not been limited by the specularity any more and has been assimilated with the normal wear on the street to take the distinction for away. The circumstances of the late of 20 century pursuing sensation and making sex commer-cialized have accordance with the outweari-zation of underwear. there it is on the basis of Minimalist's dogmatism has been expressed the maximization of expoure in the pubric space to popularize bra pants(knickers) as outwear. The reaction on the attribute of hiding and shanding has brought 'See-Through fashion' with the transparent materials, The contemporary doubt recalling the mem-ory of the past has sublimated corset which was an instument of toture for women into Romanticism to introduce it to fashion with the development of a new material not to be a tool of any oppression and maltretment any longer. The popularization of outwear like underwear what's more has brought high quality of underwear. There it has called for the variety of materials such as knit demin and velvet etc, and has urged the famous designers to enlarge their working boundaries to underwear designs, Besides outwearization of underwear has been popular even in the Orient which has the con-servative opinions on exposure ; so changes of the thoughts can be seen among the establish-ment generation on exposure of the body. As the more high tech information publi-cized and the more technology and media digitalized the more expression being analog the pursue for the new in fashion with vision never been seen and even though it is imprac-tical the experimental designers have drived the freedom beyond the traditional roles of the previous century. Consequently outwearization of underwear may be viewd as a trial as an expression responded the contemporary background. This trend in my opinion will have been lasted for a while by being proliperlated among lasted for a while by being proliperlated among the pub-lic who has the century-end anxiety and doubt and expectation for the next century.

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