• Title, Summary, Keyword: +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting

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Identification of Two Novel Amalgaviruses in the Common Eelgrass (Zostera marina) and in Silico Analysis of the Amalgavirus +1 Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting Sites

  • Park, Dongbin;Goh, Chul Jun;Kim, Hyein;Hahn, Yoonsoo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2018
  • The genome sequences of two novel monopartite RNA viruses were identified in a common eelgrass (Zostera marina) transcriptome dataset. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two novel viruses belong to the genus Amalgavirus in the family Amalgaviridae. They were named Zostera marina amalgavirus 1 (ZmAV1) and Zostera marina amalgavirus 2 (ZmAV2). Genomes of both ZmAV1 and ZmAV2 contain two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative replication factory matrix-like protein, while ORF2 encodes a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The fusion protein (ORF1+2) of ORF1 and ORF2, which mediates RNA replication, was produced using the +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) mechanism. The +1 PRF motif sequence, UUU_CGN, which is highly conserved among known amalgaviruses, was also found in ZmAV1 and ZmAV2. Multiple sequence alignment of the ORF1+2 fusion proteins from 24 amalgaviruses revealed that +1 PRF occurred only at three different positions within the 13-amino acid-long segment, which was surrounded by highly conserved regions on both sides. This suggested that the +1 PRF may be constrained by the structure of fusion proteins. Genome sequences of ZmAV1 and ZmAV2, which are the first viruses to be identified in common eelgrass, will serve as useful resources for studying evolution and diversity of amalgaviruses.

Construction of Recombinant DNA for Purification of the Gag-Pro Transframe Protein of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type I (HTLV-I) (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type I (HTLV-I) 의 Gag-Pro Transframe 단백질 정제를 위한 재조합 DNA 의 제작)

  • 남석현
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.466-471
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    • 1992
  • To determine the site at which -1 ribosomal frameshifting occurs within the gag-pro overlap of HTL V-I. DNA fragment corresponding to a portion of the gene overlap was cloned into a SP6 vector. The resultant plasmid harbors the hybrid gene consisting of a synthetic gene encoding 5 amino acids derived from chick prelysozyme including the initiator methionine plus 141 nucleotides of gag-pro overlapping region followed by Staphylococcus aurcus protein A gene fragment. In vitro transcription by SP6 RNA polymerase with this DNA template made an abundant amount of single species mRNA. Cell-free translation programmed with the RNA transcribed in vitro yielded a polypeptide of 21 kDal in size. which could be purified into homogeneity by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography. In vitro system described in this study must be useful for rapid purification and sequencing of the Gag-Pro transframe protein. allowing to determine the exact frameshift site on mRNA and to identify the tRNA involved in frameshifting event for the expression of pro gene.

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Identification of the+1 Ribosomal Frameshifting Site of LRV1-4 by Mutational Analysis

  • Kim Se Na;Choi Jung Ho;Park Min Woo;Jeong Sun Joo;Han Kyung Sook;Kim Hong Jin
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.956-962
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    • 2005
  • Leishmania virus (LRV)1-4 has been reported to produce a fusion of ORF2 and ORF3 via a programmed +1 frameshift in the region where ORF2 and ORF3 overlap (Lee et a/., 1996). However, the exact frameshift site has not been identified. In this study, we compared the frameshift efficiency of a 259bp (nt. 2565-2823), frameshift region of LRV1-4, and the 71 bp (nt. 2605-2678) sub-region where ORF2 and ORF3 overlap. We then predicted the frameshift site using a new computer program (Pseudoviewer), and finally identified the specific region associated with the mechanism of the LRV1-4's+1 frameshift by means of a mutational analysis based on the predicted structure of LRV1-4 RNA. The predicted structure was confirmed by biochemical analysis. In order to measure the frameshift efficiency, constructs that generate luciferase without a frameshift or with a+1 frameshift, were generated and in vitro transcription/translation analysis was performed. Measurements of the luciferase activity generated, showed that the frameshift efficiency was about $1\%$ for both the 259bp (LRV1-4 259FS) and 71 bp region (LRV1-4 71FS). Luciferase activity was strongly reduced in a mutant (LRV1-4 NH: nt. 2635-2670) with the entire hairpin deleted and in a mutant (LRV1-4 NUS: nt. 2644-2659) with the upper stem of the hairpin deleted. These results indicate that the frameshift site in LRV1-4's is in the 71 bp region where ORF2 and ORF3 overlap, and that nt. 2644-2659 (the upward hairpin stem) playa key role in generating the +1 frameshift.