• Title, Summary, Keyword: [$^{14}C$]quinclorac

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Behaviour of the soil residues of the herbicide quinclorac in the micro-ecosystem (pot) (Micro-ecosystem(pot)중 제초제 quinclorac 토양잔류물의 행적)

  • Ahn, Ki-Chang;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.96-106
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    • 1998
  • Rice plants were grown for 42 days in the specially made micro-ecosystem(pot) containing two different soils treated with fresh and 60-day-aged residues of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac, respectively, to elucidate the behaviour of the herbicide quinclorac residues in the soils. Amounts of $^{14}CO_{2}$ evolved from two soils treated with different residues with and without vegetation were all less than 2.2% of the total $^{14}C$, indicating that there was little microbial degradation of quinclorac in soil. $^{14}C$-Radioactivity absorbed and translocated into rice plants from soil A and B containing fresh quinclorac residues was 8.4 and 24.2%, respectively, of the originally applied $^{14}C$, while 5.5 and 17.7%, in aged residue soils. These results indicate that larger amounts of $^{14}C$ were absorbed by rice plants from soil B with less organic matter and clay than soil A, and the uptake of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac and its degradation products decreased with aging in soil. After 42 days of rice growing, 84.5 and 61.8% of the $^{14}C$ applied freshly to soil A and B, respectively, remained in soil, whereas, in the case of aged soils, 86.3 and 67.7% of the $^{14}C$ applied did. Meanwhile, without vegetation, more than 98.3% of the $^{14}C$ applied, in both fresh and aged residues, remained in soil, suggesting that quinclorac was relatively persistent chemically and microbiologically. Most of the non-extractable soil-bound residues of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac were incorporated into the organic matter and largely distributed in the fulvic acid portion.

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Leaching of the herbicide quinclorac in soil columns (제초제 quinclorac의 토양컬럼 중 용탈)

  • Ahn, Ki-Chang;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2000
  • The leaching behaviour of quinclorac was elucidated using soil columns. On top of each glass column packed with a rice paddy soil up to the 30 cm height were applied three different treatments of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac: quincloiac only (T-1), quinclorac adsorbed onto active carbon (T-2), and quinclorac adsorbed onto a mixture of active carbon and $Ca(OH)_{2}$ (T-3). Half of the columns were planted with rice plants for 17 weeks and half of them unplanted for comparison. Average amounts of $^{14}C$-activity percolated from tile soil columns without rice plants in T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 81.1%, 27.8% and 48.0%, respectively, of tile originally applied $^{14}C$, whereas those with rice plants grown were 36.8%, 9.6% and 11.0%, respectively, indicating that the leaching of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac was significantly affected by vegetation and by treatment with the adsorbents. The bioavailability of the herbicide to rice plants in T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 13.6%, 11.0% and 13.9%, respectively. The residue levels of quinclorac in the edible part of rice grains would be far less than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.5 ppm). After the leaching, the amounts of $^{14}C$ remaining in soil in with rice planting T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 36.3%, 73.7%, and 61.8%, whereas those without rice planting were 19.7%, 71.1%, and 52.3%, respectively. The balance sheets indicate that [$^{14}C$]quinclorac translocated to rice shoots would be lost by volatilization and/or in other ways in T-1 and T-3. The $^{14}C$-activity partitioned into the aqueous phase of the leachates collected from all treatments was less than 7% of the total, but it increased gradually with time in the case of rice growing, suggesting tile formation of some polar degradation products.

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Physiological and Anatomical Studies of Quinclorac Action (Quinclorac의 작용성(作用性)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, S.Y.;Lee, I.J.;Kim, K.U.;Shin, D.H.;Lee, C.N.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 1993
  • There was intraspecific variation in Echinochloa crus-galli var, crus-galli in response to quinclorac, showing that plan height and dry weight of a locally collected barnyardgrass(Chinjupi) from Chinju were 90.5 and 37.8% of the untreated control, while those of a locally collected one(Iripi) from Iri showed 19.1 and 14.4%, respectively. The normal distribution curve was obtained from frequency distribution of 89 rice cultivars as affected by the application rates of quinclorac at 30, 300, and 3,000g ai/ha. Protein patterns(SDS-PAGE) of two barnyardgrasses belonging to E, crus-galli var. crus-galli such as Iripi and Chinjupi were not affected by the quinclorac application, indicating that inhibition of enzyme and/or protein biosynthesis seems to be not the primary action target of quinclorac. Electronmicroscopic observation on the injured leaf of Iripi which is considered as a susceptible one showed prominent membrane disruption. Chuchungbyeo(rice variety) resulted in a greater inhibition of tomato growth than those from Chinjupi or Iripi, indicating a great amount of quinclorac discharged from rice root, Chinjupi which is relatively tolerant to quinclorac than Iripi, discharged more quinclorac causing a greater inhibition of tomato growth.

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Effect of Mineral Nutrients and Mixed Herbicides on the Absorption and Translocation of Bensulfuron-methyl in Rice (벼에 있어서 bensulfuron-methyl의 흡수(吸收) 이행(移行)에 미치는 무기영양분(無機營養分)과 혼합제초제(混合除草劑)의 영향(影響))

  • Chun, Jae-Chul;Han, Kang-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 1994
  • Absorption and translocation of bensulfuron-methyl {methyl 2[[[[[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl) amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]methyl]benzoate} in rice (Oryza sativa L.) as affected by mineral nutrients and mixed herbicides were determined using the $^{14}C-labeled$ herbicide in culture solution. Absorption of $^{14}C-bensulfuron-methyl$ by the root decreased with increasing concentration of bensulfuron-methyl. However, increase in the application concentration did not affect movement of the $^{14}C$ to the shoot. There was no difference in total amount of $^{14}C-bensulfuron-methyl$ taken up between absorption periods of 12 and 48 hours, whereas $^{14}C-bensulfuron-methyl$ translocated to the shoot increased with increasing the absorption period. When bensulfuron-methyl mixtures were applied, butachlor [N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-N-(2',6'-diethylphenyl)acetamide] did not affect absorption and translocation of $^{14}C-bensulfuron-methyl$. However, quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinoline carboxylic acid) mixed at a high concentration resulted in decrease in absorption and translocation of $^{14}C-bensulfuron-methyl$. Nutritional disorder such as deficient or excess supply of mineral nutrients caused to inhibit absorption of $^{14}C-bensulfuron-methyl$. The greatest decrease and delay of $^{14}C-bensulfuron-methyl$ absorption and/or translocation occurred in N-deficient and S-excess supply conditions.

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